Clinical features and short-term outcomes of 221 patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:In late December 2019, an outbreak of acute respiratory illness, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), emerged in Wuhan, China. We aimed to study the epidemiology, clinical features and short-term outcomes of patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. METHODS:We performed a single center, retrospective case series study in 221 patients with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia at a university hospital, including 55 severe patients and 166 non-severe patients, from January 2, 2020 to February 10, 2020. RESULTS:Of the 221 patients with COVID-19, the median age was 55.0 years and 48.9% were male and only 8 (3.6%) patients had a history of exposure to the Huanan Seafood Market. Compared to the non-severe pneumonia patients, the median age of the severe patients was significantly older, and they were more likely to have chronic comorbidities. Most common symptoms in severe patients were high fever, anorexia and dyspnea. On admission, 33.0% patients showed leukopenia and 73.8% showed lymphopenia. In addition, the severe patients suffered a higher rate of co-infections with bacteria or fungus and they were more likely to developing complications. As of February 15, 2020, 19.0% patients had been discharged and 5.4% patients died. 80% of severe cases received ICU (intensive care unit) care, and 52.3% of them transferred to the general wards due to relieved symptoms, and the mortality rate of severe patients in ICU was 20.5%. CONCLUSIONS:Patients with elder age, chronic comorbidities, blood leukocyte/lymphocyte count, procalcitonin level, co-infection and severe complications might increase the risk of poor clinical outcomes.
Project description:Rationale: The current outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China, spreads across national and international borders. The overall death rate of COVID-19 pneumonia in the Chinese population was 4%.Objectives: To describe the process of hospitalization and critical care of patients who died of COVID-19 pneumonia.Methods: This was a multicenter observational study of 109 decedents with COVID-19 pneumonia from three hospitals in Wuhan. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and treatment data were collected and analyzed, and the final date of follow-up was February 24, 2020.Results: The mean age of 109 decedents with COVID-19 pneumonia was 70.7 years, 35 patients (32.1%) were female, and 85 patients (78.0%) suffered from one or more underlying comorbidities. Multiple organ failure, especially respiratory failure and heart failure, appeared in all patients even at the early stage of disease. Overall, the mean time from onset of symptoms to death was 22.3 days. All 109 hospitalized patients needed admission to an intensive care unit (ICU); however, because of limited availability, only 51 (46.8%) could be admitted. The period from hospitalization to death in the ICU group and non-ICU group was 15.9 days (standard deviation?=?8.8 d) and 12.5 days (8.6 d, P?=?0.044), respectively.Conclusions: Mortality due to COVID-19 pneumonia was concentrated in patients above the age of 65 years, especially those with major comorbidities. Patients who were admitted to the ICU lived longer than those who were not. Our findings should aid in the recognition and clinical management of such infections, especially with regard to ICU resource allocation.
Project description:<b>Background and Objective:</b> The epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) has expanded from China throughout the world. This study aims to estimate the risk of disease progression of patients who have been confirmed with COVID-19. <b>Methods:</b> Meta-analysis was performed in existing literatures to identify risk factors associated with COVID-19 pneumonia progression. Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were admitted to hospitals in Wuhan or Hangzhou were retrospectively enrolled. The risk prediction model and nomogram were developed from Wuhan cohort through logistic regression algorithm, and then validated in Hangzhou and Yinchuan cohorts. <b>Results:</b> A total of 270 patients admitted to hospital between Dec 30, 2019, and Mar 30, 2020, were retrospectively enrolled (Table 1). The development cohort (Wuhan cohort) included 87 (43%) men and 115 (57%) women, and the median age was 53 years old. Hangzhou validation cohort included 20 (48%) men and 22 (52%) women, and the median age was 59 years old. Yinchuan validation cohort included 12 (46%) men and 14 (54%) women, and the median age was 44 years old. The meta-analysis along with univariate logistic analysis in development cohort have shown that age, fever, diabetes, hypertension, CREA, BUN, CK, LDH, and neutrophil count were significantly associated with disease progression of COVID-19 pneumonia. The model and nomogram derived from development cohort show good performance in both development and validation cohorts. <b>Conclusion:</b> The severe COVID-19 pneumonia is associated with various types of risk factors including age, fever, comorbidities, and some laboratory examination indexes. The model integrated with these factors can help to evaluate the disease progression of COVID-19 pneumonia.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:COVID-19 has a varied clinical presentation. Elderly patients with comorbidities are more vulnerable to severe disease. This study identifies specific symptoms and comorbidities predicting severe COVID-19 and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. METHODS:A literature search identified studies indexed in MEDLINE, EMBASE and Global Health before 5th March 2020. Two reviewers independently screened the literature and extracted data. Quality appraisal was performed using STROBE criteria. Random effects meta-analysis identified symptoms and comorbidities associated with severe COVID-19 or ICU admission. RESULTS:Seven studies (including 1813 COVID-19 patients) were included. ICU patients were older (62.4 years) than non-ICU (46 years), with a greater proportion of males. Dyspnoea was the only symptom predictive for severe disease (pOR 3.70, 95% CI 1.83-7.46) and ICU admission (pOR 6.55, 95% CI 4.28-10.0). COPD was the strongest predictive comorbidity for severe disease (pOR 6.42, 95% CI 2.44-16.9) and ICU admission (pOR 17.8, 95% CI 6.56-48.2), followed by cardiovascular disease and hypertension. CONCLUSIONS:Dyspnoea was the only symptom predictive for severe COVID-19 and ICU admission. Patients with COPD, cardiovascular disease and hypertension were at higher risk of severe illness and ICU admission.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The aim of this study is to determine whether severe COVID-19 patients harbour a higher risk of ICU-acquired pneumonia.<h4>Methods</h4>This retrospective multicentre cohort study comprised all consecutive patients admitted to seven ICUs for severe COVID-19 pneumonia during the first COVID-19 surge in France. Inclusion criteria were laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and requirement for invasive mechanical ventilation for 48 h or more. Control groups were two historical cohorts of mechanically ventilated patients admitted to the ICU for bacterial or non-SARS-CoV-2 viral pneumonia. The outcome of interest was the development of ICU-acquired pneumonia. The determinants of ICU-acquired pneumonia were investigated in a multivariate competing risk analysis.<h4>Result</h4>One hundred and seventy-six patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia admitted to the ICU between March 1st and 30th June of 2020 were included into the study. Historical control groups comprised 435 patients with bacterial pneumonia and 48 ones with viral pneumonia. ICU-acquired pneumonia occurred in 52% of COVID-19 patients, whereas in 26% and 23% of patients with bacterial or viral pneumonia, respectively (p?<?0.001). Times from initiation of mechanical ventilation to ICU-acquired pneumonia were similar across the three groups. In multivariate analysis, the risk of ICU-acquired pneumonia remained independently associated with underlying COVID-19 (SHR?=?2.18; 95 CI 1.2-3.98, p?=?0.011).<h4>Conclusion</h4>COVID-19 appears an independent risk factor of ICU-acquired pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients with pneumonia. Whether this is driven by immunomodulatory properties by the SARS-CoV-2 or this is related to particular processes of care remains to be investigated.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Previous studies on the pneumonia outbreak caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were based on information from the general population. Limited data are available for pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in pregnancy and the intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection. METHODS:Clinical records, laboratory results, and chest CT scans were retrospectively reviewed for nine pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia (ie, with maternal throat swab samples that were positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) who were admitted to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China, from Jan 20 to Jan 31, 2020. Evidence of intrauterine vertical transmission was assessed by testing for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in amniotic fluid, cord blood, and neonatal throat swab samples. Breastmilk samples were also collected and tested from patients after the first lactation. FINDINGS:All nine patients had a caesarean section in their third trimester. Seven patients presented with a fever. Other symptoms, including cough (in four of nine patients), myalgia (in three), sore throat (in two), and malaise (in two), were also observed. Fetal distress was monitored in two cases. Five of nine patients had lymphopenia (<1·0?×?10? cells per L). Three patients had increased aminotransferase concentrations. None of the patients developed severe COVID-19 pneumonia or died, as of Feb 4, 2020. Nine livebirths were recorded. No neonatal asphyxia was observed in newborn babies. All nine livebirths had a 1-min Apgar score of 8-9 and a 5-min Apgar score of 9-10. Amniotic fluid, cord blood, neonatal throat swab, and breastmilk samples from six patients were tested for SARS-CoV-2, and all samples tested negative for the virus. INTERPRETATION:The clinical characteristics of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnant women were similar to those reported for non-pregnant adult patients who developed COVID-19 pneumonia. Findings from this small group of cases suggest that there is currently no evidence for intrauterine infection caused by vertical transmission in women who develop COVID-19 pneumonia in late pregnancy. FUNDING:Hubei Science and Technology Plan, Wuhan University Medical Development Plan.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The first cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Brazil were diagnosed in February 2020. Our Emergency Department (ED) was designated as a COVID-19 exclusive service. We report our first 500 confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia patients.<h4>Methods</h4>From 14 March to 16 May 2020, we enrolled all patients admitted to our ED that had a diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. Infection was confirmed via nasopharyngeal swabs or tracheal aspirate PCR. The outcomes included hospital discharge, invasive mechanical ventilation, and in-hospital death, among others.<h4>Results</h4>From 2219 patients received in the ED, we included 506 with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. We found that 333 patients were discharged home (65.9%), 153 died (30.2%), and 20 (3.9%) remained in the hospital. A total of 300 patients (59.3%) required ICU admission, and 227 (44.9%) needed invasive ventilation. The multivariate analysis found age, number of comorbidities, extension of ground glass opacities on chest CT and troponin with a direct relationship with all-cause mortality, whereas dysgeusia, use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin-ii receptor blocker and number of lymphocytes with an inverse relationship with all-cause mortality.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This was a sample of severe patients with COVID-19, with 59.2% admitted to the ICU and 41.5% requiring mechanical ventilator support. We were able to ascertain the outcome in majority (96%) of patients. While the overall mortality was 30.2%, mortality for intubated patients was 55.9%. Multivariate analysis agreed with data found in other studies although the use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin-ii receptor blocker as a protective factor could be promising but would need further studies.<h4>Trial registration</h4>The study was registered in the Brazilian registry of clinical trials: RBR-5d4dj5.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To better inform efforts to treat and control the current outbreak with a comprehensive characterization of COVID-19. METHODS:We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and CNKI (Chinese Database) for studies published as of March 2, 2020, and we searched references of identified articles. Studies were reviewed for methodological quality. A random-effects model was used to pool results. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2. Publication bias was assessed using Egger's test. RESULTS:43 studies involving 3600 patients were included. Among COVID-19 patients, fever (83.3% [95% CI 78.4-87.7]), cough (60.3% [54.2-66.3]), and fatigue (38.0% [29.8-46.5]) were the most common clinical symptoms. The most common laboratory abnormalities were elevated C-reactive protein (68.6% [58.2-78.2]), decreased lymphocyte count (57.4% [44.8-69.5]) and increased lactate dehydrogenase (51.6% [31.4-71.6]). Ground-glass opacities (80.0% [67.3-90.4]) and bilateral pneumonia (73.2% [63.4-82.1]) were the most frequently reported findings on computed tomography. The overall estimated proportion of severe cases and case-fatality rate (CFR) was 25.6% (17.4-34.9) and 3.6% (1.1-7.2), respectively. CFR and laboratory abnormalities were higher in severe cases, patients from Wuhan, and older patients, but CFR did not differ by gender. CONCLUSIONS:The majority of COVID-19 cases are symptomatic with a moderate CFR. Patients living in Wuhan, older patients, and those with medical comorbidities tend to have more severe clinical symptoms and higher CFR.
Project description:In December, 2019, reports emerged from Wuhan, China, of a severe acute respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). By the end of April, 2020, over 3 million people had been confirmed infected, with over 1 million in the USA alone, and over 215?000 deaths. The symptoms associated with COVID-19 are diverse, ranging from mild upper respiratory tract symptoms to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. The major risk factors for severe COVID-19 are shared with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), namely increasing age, male sex, and comorbidities such as hypertension and diabetes. However, the role of antifibrotic therapy in patients with IPF who contract SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the scientific rationale for their continuation or cessation, is poorly defined. Furthermore, several licensed and potential antifibrotic compounds have been assessed in models of acute lung injury and viral pneumonia. Data from previous coronavirus infections such as severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome, as well as emerging data from the COVID-19 pandemic, suggest there could be substantial fibrotic consequences following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Antifibrotic therapies that are available or in development could have value in preventing severe COVID-19 in patients with IPF, have the potential to treat severe COVID-19 in patients without IPF, and might have a role in preventing fibrosis after SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged first in December 2019 in Wuhan, China and quickly spread throughout the world. Clinical and laboratory data are of importance to increase the success in the management of COVID-19 patients. METHODS:Data were obtained retrospectively from medical records of 191 hospitalized patients diagnosed with COVID-19 from a tertiary single-center hospital between March and April 2020. Prognostic effects of variables on admission among patients who received intensive care unit (ICU) support and those who didn't require ICU care were compared. RESULTS:Patients required ICU care (n = 46) were older (median, 71 vs. 43 years), with more underlying comorbidities (76.1% vs. 33.1%). ICU patients had lower lymphocytes, percentage of large unstained cell (%LUC), hemoglobin, total protein, and albumin, but higher leucocytes, neutrophils, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), monocyte-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), platelet-lymphocytes ratio (PLR), urea, creatinine, aspartate amino transferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and D-dimer when compared with non-critically ill patients (p < 0.001). A logistic regression model was created to include ferritin, %LUC, NLR, and D-dimer. %LUC decrease and D-dimer increase had the highest odds ratios (0.093 vs 5.597, respectively) to predict severe prognosis. D-dimer, CRP, and NLR had the highest AUC in the ROC analysis (0.896, 0.874, 0.861, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:The comprehensive analysis of clinical and admission laboratory parameters to identify patients with severe prognosis is important not only for the follow-up of the patients but also to identify the pathophysiology of the disease. %LUC decrease and D-dimer, NLR, and CRP increases seem to be the most powerful laboratory predictors of severe prognosis.
Project description:AIM:To investigate clinical characteristics and identify risk factors for severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia outside of Wuhan, China. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We included 213 patients with confirmed COVID-19 who had been discharged or died by 15 March 2020. We retrospectively collected epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, computed tomography imaging and outcome data. Clinical characteristics were described and relative risk factors were compared. RESULTS:Most clinical characteristics of this study were similar to those from studies in Wuhan, but there were lower mortality rate and milder severity. The median time from onset of symptoms to confirmation and hospitalization was 4 and 5?days, respectively. The median virus clearance and shedding times were 10 and 15?days, respectively. When the severe/critical group was compared with the mild/moderate group, significant risk factors included: older age; dyspnea; hypertension; poor appetite; fatigue; higher white cell count, neutrophil count, prothrombin time, creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB, D-dimer, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and C-reactive protein; and lower lymphocyte count and albumin (p?<?0.05). In the intensive care unit (ICU) group compared with the non-ICU group, risk factors included: older age; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); dyspnea; poor appetite; higher white cell count, D-dimer, ALT, AST and LDH; and lower lymphocyte count and albumin (p?<?0.05). Independent risk factors associated with the severe/critical group were dyspnea [odds ratio (OR)?=?19.48], ALT (OR?=?6.02) and albumin (OR?=?3.36). Independent risk factors associated with the ICU group were dyspnea (OR?=?8.88), COPD (OR?=?31.80), D-dimer (OR?=?8.37), ALT (OR?=?28.76) and LDH (OR?=?9.95) (p?<?0.05). CONCLUSION:The severity of COVID-19 outside Wuhan, China was milder than that within Wuhan. The clinical infective period was long, and the longest virus shedding time was 35?days. The most important risk factors were dyspnea, COPD, D-dimer, ALT, LDH and albumin.The reviews of this paper are available via the supplemental material section.