General lifestyle interventions on their own seem insufficient to improve the level of physical activity after stroke or TIA: a systematic review.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Insufficient amounts of physical activity is a risk factor for (recurrent) stroke. People with a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) have a high risk of recurrent stroke and have lower levels of physical activity than their healthy peers. Though several reviews have looked at the effects of lifestyle interventions on a number of risk factors of recurrent stroke, the effectiveness of these interventions to increase the amounts of physical activity performed by people with stroke or TIA are still unclear. Therefore, the research question of this study was: what is the effect of lifestyle interventions on the level of physical activity performed by people with stroke or TIA? METHOD:A systematic review was conducted following the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. Pubmed, Embase and Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), were searched up to August 2018. Randomised controlled trials that compared lifestyle interventions, aimed to increase the amount of physical activity completed by participants with a stroke or TIA, with controls were included. The Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) score was used to assess the quality of the articles, and the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) method for the best evidence synthesis. RESULTS:Eleven trials (n?=?2403) met the inclusion criteria. The quality of the trials was mostly high, with 8 (73%) of trials scoring ?6 on the PEDro scale. The overall best evidence syntheses showed moderate quality evidence that lifestyle interventions do not lead to significant improvements in the physical activity level of people with stroke or TIA. There is low quality evidence that lifestyle interventions that specifically target physical activity are effective at improving the levels of physical activity of people with stroke or TIA. CONCLUSION:Based on the results of this review, general lifestyle interventions on their own seem insufficient in improving physical activity levels after stroke or TIA. Lifestyle interventions that specifically encourage increasing physical activity may be more effective. Further properly powered trials using objective physical activity measures are needed to determine the effectiveness of such interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION:PROSPERO, CRD42018094437.
Project description:Background:Most patients with minor stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) are discharged with little or no specialised follow-up. Nonetheless, these patients have a high prevalence of cognitive impairments and a considerable risk of recurrent stroke. Smoking cessation, physical activity, and adherence to antihypertensive and antithrombotic medication are highly recommended in patients with minor stroke and TIA. Evidence suggests that simple encouragement to change lifestyle is ineffective. Behavioural interventions might therefore be needed to support patients in managing their own health post-discharge. Objectives:We aim to test the (1) feasibility of randomisation acceptance and an early initiated, client-centred lifestyle and behavioural intervention in a clinical setting, and (2) potential effect of the intervention on arterial blood pressure in patients with minor stroke or TIA and (3) explore the participants experience of barriers and facilitators for health behaviour after a stroke, including perceived needs and social support. Methods:We will conduct a randomized controlled pilot trial: Eligible patients with acute minor stroke or TIA (n = 40) will be randomly allocated to either early initiated counselling with four weekly post-discharge follow-up sessions for 12?weeks or usual care. The primary outcome will be program feasibility and to discuss the relevance of arterial blood pressure as primary outcome after 12?weeks intervention. Selected participants will be invited to participate in semi-structured interviews, based on purposeful sampling, to evaluate the intervention and explore their experience of life after a stroke. The interviews will be analysed using a five-step thematic analysis approach. Discussion:The study will provide evidence of the feasibility and potential effect of early initiated counselling on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with minor stroke and TIA. Qualitative interviews will contribute with a more nuanced understanding of the barriers and facilitators of health enhancing behaviour. Optimizing health behaviour counselling and providing formal support to the patients' post-discharge may ease the transition and help more patients adhere to lifestyle and medication recommendations. Trial registration:ClinicalTrial.gov, NCT03648957.
Project description:Strokes are often preceded by a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or 'minor' stroke. The immediate period after a TIA/minor stroke is a crucial time to initiate secondary prevention. However, the optimal approach to prevention, including non-pharmacological measures, after TIA is not clear.To systematically review evidence about the effectiveness of delivering secondary prevention, with lifestyle interventions, in comprehensive rehabilitation programmes, initiated within 90 days of a TIA/minor stroke. Also, to categorise the specific behaviour change techniques used.The review identified randomised controlled trials by searching the Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Web of Science, EBSCO CINAHL and Ovid PsycINFO.Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts for eligibility (programmes initiated within 90 days of event; outcomes reported for TIA/minor stroke) and extracted relevant data from appraised studies; a meta-analysis was used to synthesise the results.A total of 31 potentially eligible papers were identified and four studies, comprising 774 patients post-TIA or minor stroke, met the inclusion criteria; two had poor methodological quality. Individual studies reported increased aerobic capacity but meta-analysis found no significant change in resting and peak systolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, aerobic capacity, falls, or mortality. The main behaviour change techniques were goal setting and instructions about how to perform given behaviours.There is limited evidence of the effectiveness of early post-TIA rehabilitation programmes with preventive lifestyle interventions. Further robust randomised controlled trials of comprehensive rehabilitation programmes that promote secondary prevention and lifestyle modification immediately after a TIA are needed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Stroke is an important cause of death and disability worldwide. Since high blood pressure is an important risk factor for stroke and stroke recurrence, drugs that lower blood pressure might play an important role in secondary stroke prevention. OBJECTIVES:To investigate whether blood pressure-lowering drugs (BPLDs) started at least 48 hours after the index event are effective for the prevention of recurrent stroke, major vascular events, and dementia in people with stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA). Secondary objectives were to identify subgroups of people in which BPLDs are effective, and to investigate the optimum systolic blood pressure target after stroke or TIA for preventing recurrent stroke, major vascular events, and dementia. SEARCH METHODS:In August 2017, we searched the Trials Registers of the Cochrane Stroke Group and the Cochrane Hypertension Group, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 8), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to August 2017), Embase Ovid (1974 to August 2017), ClinicalTrials.gov, the ISRCTN Registry, Stroke Trials Registry, Trials Central, and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Portal. SELECTION CRITERIA:Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of BPLDs started at least 48 hours after stroke or TIA. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:Two review authors independently screened all titles and abstracts, selected eligible trials, extracted the data, assessed risk of bias, and used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence. If necessary, we contacted the principal investigators or corresponding authors for additional data. MAIN RESULTS:We included 11 studies involving a total of 38,742 participants: eight studies compared BPLDs versus placebo or no treatment (35,110 participants), and three studies compared different systolic blood pressure targets (3632 participants). The risk of bias varied greatly between included studies. The pooled risk ratios (RRs) of BPLDs were 0.81 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70 to 0.93; 8 RCTs; 35,110 participants; moderate-quality evidence), 0.90 (95% CI 0.78 to 1.04; 4 RCTs; 28,630 participants; high-quality evidence) for major vascular event, and 0.88 (95% CI 0.73 to 1.06; 2 RCTs; 6671 participants; high-quality evidence) for dementia. We mainly observed a reduced risk of recurrent stroke in the subgroup of participants using an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or a diuretic (I2 statistic for subgroup differences 72.1%; P = 0.006). The pooled RRs of intensive blood pressure-lowering were 0.80 (95% CI 0.63 to 1.00) for recurrent stroke and 0.58 (95% CI 0.23 to 1.46) for major vascular event. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:Our results support the use of BPLDs in people with stroke or TIA for reducing the risk of recurrent stroke. Current evidence is primarily derived from trials studying an ACE inhibitor or a diuretic. No definite conclusions can be drawn from current evidence regarding an optimal systolic blood pressure target after stroke or TIA.
Project description:Guidelines recommend implementation of multimodal interventions to help prevent recurrent TIA/stroke. We undertook a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of behavioral secondary prevention interventions.Searches were conducted in 14 databases, including MEDLINE (1980-January 2014). We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) testing multimodal interventions against usual care/modified usual care. All review processes were conducted in accordance with Cochrane guidelines.Twenty-three papers reporting 20 RCTs (6,373 participants) of a range of multimodal behavioral interventions were included. Methodological quality was generally low. Meta-analyses were possible for physiological, lifestyle, psychosocial and mortality/recurrence outcomes. Note: all reported confidence intervals are 95%. Systolic blood pressure was reduced by 4.21 mmHg (mean) (-6.24 to -2.18, P = 0.01 I2 = 58%, 1,407 participants); diastolic blood pressure by 2.03 mmHg (mean) (-3.19 to -0.87, P = 0.004, I2 = 52%, 1,407 participants). No significant changes were found for HDL, LDL, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, high sensitivity-CR, BMI, weight or waist:hip ratio, although there was a significant reduction in waist circumference (-6.69 cm, -11.44 to -1.93, P = 0.006, I2 = 0%, 96 participants). There was no significant difference in smoking continuance, or improved fruit and vegetable consumption. There was a significant difference in compliance with antithrombotic medication (OR 1.45, 1.21 to 1.75, P<0.0001, I2 = 0%, 2,792 participants) and with statins (OR 2.53, 2.15 to 2.97, P< 0.00001, I2 = 0%, 2,636 participants); however, there was no significant difference in compliance with antihypertensives. There was a significant reduction in anxiety (-1.20, -1.77 to -0.63, P<0.0001, I2 = 85%, 143 participants). Although there was no significant difference in odds of death or recurrent TIA/stroke, there was a significant reduction in the odds of cardiac events (OR 0.38, 0.16 to 0.88, P = 0.02, I2 = 0%, 4,053 participants).There are benefits to be derived from multimodal secondary prevention interventions. However, the findings are complex and should be interpreted with caution. Further, high quality trials providing comprehensive detail of interventions and outcomes, are required.PROSPERO CRD42012002538.
Project description:Objectives Recent meta-analyses suggest a physical activity health paradox: high levels of occupational physical activity (OPA) increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, while leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) decreases risk. However, studies of women and cerebrovascular disease are limited. This report examines physical activity effects on stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) among working women in the United States. Methods OPA history, health status, and lifestyle were assessed by baseline interviews of 31 270 employed Sister Study participants aged 35-74 years. OPA was assessed at six intensity levels (lowest: "mostly sitting"); the highest three were combined as "high intensity work." Independent OPA and LTPA effects on 6-year cerebrovascular disease incidence were estimated in adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. Results Stroke (N=441) and TIA (N=274) risk increased with more standing and higher intensity work at current and longest held job. Compared with mostly sitting, high intensity work at the current job increased TIA risk by 57% [hazard ratio (HR) 1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-2.38]. High intensity OPA at the longest held job increased risk for stroke by 44% (HR 1.44; 95% CI 1.08-1.93). Among women with CVD, sitting and standing equally, especially at the current job, increased risks up to two-fold (TIA HR 1.98, 95% CI 1.10-3.55) compared with mostly sitting at work. LTPA showed inverse associations. Conclusions Higher intensity levels of OPA increased stroke and TIA risks, while LTPA decreased risks; results corroborate the physical activity health paradox for women and cerebrovascular disease. More standing at work increased cerebrovascular disease risks, especially for women with CVD.
Project description:To evaluate the care and outcomes of patients with TIA or minor stroke admitted to the hospital vs discharged from the emergency department (ED).We used the Ontario Stroke Registry to create a cohort of patients with minor ischemic stroke/TIA who presented to the hospital April 1, 2008, to March 31, 2009, or April 1, 2010, to March 31, 2011, in the province of Ontario, Canada. We compared processes of care and outcomes (death or recurrent stroke/TIA) in patients admitted to the hospital and discharged with and without stroke prevention clinic follow-up.In our sample of 8,540 patients, the use of recommended interventions was highest in admitted patients, followed by discharged patients referred to prevention clinics, followed by those discharged without clinic referral. Eight percent of nonadmitted patients returned to the hospital with recurrent stroke/TIA within 1 week of the index event. One-year stroke case-fatality was similar in admitted and discharged patients (adjusted hazard ratio 1.11; 95% confidence interval 0.92-1.34). Among patients discharged from EDs, referral to a stroke prevention clinic was associated with a markedly lower risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 0.49; 95% confidence interval 0.38-0.64).Patients with minor ischemic stroke or TIA discharged from the ED are less likely than admitted patients to receive timely stroke care interventions. Among discharged patients, referral to a stroke prevention clinic is associated with improved processes of care and lower mortality. Additional strategies are needed to improve access to high-quality outpatient TIA care.
Project description:Importance:Patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure may prevent recurrent stroke after cryptogenic transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke (TIA/stroke) in patients aged 60 years or younger. Patent foramen ovale is associated with cryptogenic stroke in the older population, but risk of recurrence is unknown. Data on prognosis of patients receiving medical treatment at older ages (?60 years) are essential to justify trials of PFO closure. Objective:To examine the age-specific risk of recurrence in patients with cryptogenic TIA/stroke with PFO. Design, Setting, and Participants:A prospective study was nested in the population-based Oxford Vascular Study between September 1, 2014, and March 31, 2019, with face-to-face follow-up for 5 years. A total of 416 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of cryptogenic TIA or nondisabling stroke, screened for PFO at a rapid-access TIA/stroke clinic, were included. A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies reporting on ischemic stroke recurrence after cryptogenic TIA/stroke in patients with PFO who were receiving medical therapy alone, or with PFO vs no-PFO was conducted. Sample size calculation for future trials on PFO closure was performed for patients aged 60 years or older. Exposures:Patent foramen ovale and age as modifiers of risk of recurrent stroke after cryptogenic TIA/stroke in patients receiving only medical therapy. Main Outcomes and Measures:Risk of ischemic stroke recurrence in patients with cryptogenic TIA/stroke and PFO receiving medical therapy only, and in patients with vs without PFO, stratified by age (<65 vs ?65 years), as well as sample-size calculation for future trials of PFO closure in patients aged 60 years or older. Results:Among the 153 Oxford Vascular Study patients with PFO (mean [SD] age, 66.7 [13.7] years; 80 [52.3%] men), recurrent ischemic stroke risk (2.05 per 100 patient-years) was similar to the pooled estimate from a systematic review of 23 other studies (9 trials and 14 observational studies) (2.00 per 100 patient-years; 95% CI, 1.55-2.58). However, there was heterogeneity between studies (P?<?.001 for heterogeneity), owing mainly to risk increasing with mean cohort age (meta-regression: R2?=?0.31; P?=?.003). In the pooled analysis of 4 studies including patients with or without PFO, increased risk of stroke recurrence with PFO was seen only at age 65 years or older (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.4-4.2; P?=?.001 for difference; P?=?.39 for heterogeneity). The pooled ischemic stroke risk was 3.27 per 100 patient-years (95% CI, 2.59-4.13) in 4 cohorts with mean age 60 years or older. Assuming the more conservative 2.0 per 100 patient-years ischemic stroke risk in the PFO nonclosure arms of future trials in patients aged 60 years or older, projected sample sizes were 1080 per arm for 80% power to detect a 33% relative risk reduction. Conclusions and Relevance:The findings of this study suggest that age is a determinant of risk of ischemic stroke after cryptogenic TIA/stroke in patients with PFO, such that trials of PFO closure at older ages are justified; however, projected sample sizes are large.
Project description:BACKGROUND:First Nations people have high rates of diabetes mellitus, which is a risk factor for stroke. We studied the rates of hospital admission, processes of care and outcomes of stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) in First Nations people in Ontario. METHODS:Using linked administrative databases, we identified annual cohorts of people aged 20-105 years in Ontario with prevalent diabetes between Apr. 1, 1995, and Mar. 31, 2015. We identified Status First Nations people in Ontario from the Indian Register. We compared age- and sex-standardized rates of hospital admission for stroke or TIA, processes of care and case fatality among First Nations versus other people in Ontario with diabetes. RESULTS:Overall, 28 874 people with diabetes (of whom 536 were First Nations people) were admitted to hospital with a stroke or TIA between Apr. 1, 2011, and Mar. 31, 2016. Admission rates for stroke or TIA declined over the study period but were higher among First Nations people than other Ontarians in most years after 2005/06. First Nations people admitted with stroke or TIA were as likely as other Ontarians to undergo neuroimaging within 24 hours (94.6% v. 96.0%), be discharged to inpatient rehabilitation (31.8% v. 34.8%) and receive carotid revascularization (1.4% v. 2.7%), but were less likely to receive thrombolysis (6.3% v. 11.0%). Age- and sex-standardized stroke case fatality was similar in First Nations people and other Ontarians at 7 days (12.0% v. 8.5%), 30 days (19.2% v. 16.0%) and 1 year (33.8% v. 28.1%). INTERPRETATION:Rates of hospital admission for stroke or TIA were higher among First Nations people than other people with diabetes in Ontario. Future work should focus on determining Indigenous-specific determinants of health related to this disparity and implementing appropriate interventions to mitigate the risks and sequelae of stroke in First Nations people.
Project description:Background:Recurrent stroke is associated with increased disability and cognitive impairment, but the availability of secondary prevention measures after transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or stroke in Europe is uncertain. This limits prioritisation of investment and development of national stroke strategies. Methods:National stroke representatives throughout Europe were surveyed. Consensus panels reported national data if available, or else expert opinion, estimating the availability of each intervention by quintiles of patients, dichotomised for analysis at 60%. Countries were classified into tertiles of gross domestic product per capita. Results:Of 50 countries, 46 responded; 14/45 (31%) had national stroke registries and 25/46 (54.3%) had national stroke strategies incorporating secondary prevention. Respondents reported that the majority of TIA patients were assessed by specialist services within 48 hours in 74.4% of countries, but in nine countries more than 20% of patients were seen after more than seven days and usually assessed by non-specialists (7/46 countries). Eighty percent of countries deferred blood pressure assessment to primary care, whilst lifestyle management programmes were commonly available in only 46% of countries. Although basic interventions were widely available, interventions frequently not available to more than 60% of patients included: ambulatory cardiac monitoring (40% countries); prescription (26%) and continuation (46%) of statins; blood pressure control at follow-up (44%); carotid endarterectomy within one month (15%); face-to-face follow-up in hospital (33%); direct oral anticoagulants (21%). Gross domestic product per capita and reimbursement of interventions were the commonest predictors of availability of interventions. Conclusions:Provision of secondary prevention varied, with gaps in care prevalent throughout Europe, particularly in lower income countries.
Project description:Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can occur after life-threatening events, including illness, but correlates of PTSD after stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) have not been well described.We measured the prevalence of stroke-induced PTSD with the PTSD Checklist Specific for stroke (PCL-S) in adults who had a stroke or TIA within 5 years. A PCL-S score of 50 or more indicated likely PTSD. We tested for potential predictors of stroke-associated PTSD, including demographics, stroke history, disability, medical comorbidities, depression, and emotional support and then examined the association between poststroke PTSD and measures of physical and mental health.Of 535 participants, 95 (18%) had a PCL-S score of 50 or more; the mean score was 35.4 ± 13.7 (range 17-80 of 85). In logistic regression analysis, low income (odds ratio [OR] 1.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-3.61), recurrent stroke or TIA (OR 1.86, 1.10-3.16), more disability (OR 1.79, 1.43-2.23), and increased comorbidities (OR 1.90, 1.05-3.45) were independently associated with PTSD. Older age (OR .93, .90-.95), marriage or partnership (OR .52, .28-.98), and having emotional support (OR .25, .11-.54) were protective against developing PTSD. Participants with likely PTSD had worse physical and mental health.In this racially and ethnically diverse cohort of stroke and TIA survivors, stroke-induced PTSD was associated with younger age, recurrent strokes, greater disability, and comorbidities. PTSD was associated with a substantially increased physical, mental, and quality of life burden in this already vulnerable population. Having social support was protective, suggesting a potential target for intervention.