Unipotent Megakaryopoietic Pathway Bridging Hematopoietic Stem Cells and Mature Megakaryocytes.
ABSTRACT: Recent identification of platelet/megakaryocyte-biased hematopoietic stem/repopulating cells requires revision of the intermediate pathway for megakaryopoiesis. Here, we show a unipotent megakaryopoietic pathway bypassing the bipotent megakaryocyte/erythroid progenitors (biEMPs). Cells purified from mouse bone marrow by CD42b (GPIb?) marking were demonstrated to be unipotent megakaryocytic progenitors (MKPs) by culture and transplantation. A subpopulation of freshly isolated CD41(+) cells in the lineage Sca1(+) cKit(+) (LSK) fraction (subCD41(+) LSK) differentiated only into MKP and mature megakaryocytes in culture. Although CD41(+) LSK cells as a whole were capable of differentiating into all myeloid and lymphoid cells in vivo, they produced unipotent MKP, mature megakaryocytes, and platelets in vitro and in vivo much more efficiently than Flt3(+) CD41(-) LSK cells, especially at the early phase after transplantation. In single cell polymerase chain reaction and thrombopoietin (TPO) signaling analyses, the MKP and a fraction of CD41(+) LSK, but not the biEMP, showed the similarities in mRNA expression profile and visible TPO-mediated phosphorylation. On increased demand of platelet production after 5-FU treatment, a part of CD41(+) LSK population expressed CD42b on the surface, and 90% of them showed unipotent megakaryopoietic capacity in single cell culture and predominantly produced platelets in vivo at the early phase after transplantation. These results suggest that the CD41(+) CD42b(+) LSK are straightforward progenies of megakaryocytes/platelet-biased stem/repopulating cells, but not progenies of biEMP. Consequently, we show a unipotent/highly biased megakaryopoietic pathway interconnecting stem/repopulating cells and mature megakaryocytes, the one that may play physiologic roles especially in emergency megakaryopoiesis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Iron deficiency is associated with reactive thrombocytosis; however, the mechanisms driving this phenomenon remain unclear. We previously demonstrated that this occurs alongside enhanced megakaryopoiesis in iron-deficient rats, without alterations in the megakaryopoietic growth factors thrombopoietin, interleukin-6, or interleukin-11.<h4>Objectives</h4>The aim of this study was to evaluate megakaryocyte differentiation under iron deficiency in an in vitro model and to investigate potential genes involved in this process.<h4>Methods</h4>Human erythroleukemia and megakaryoblastic leukemia cell lines, as well as cord-blood derived hematopoietic stem cells were cultured under iron deficiency. Cell morphology, ploidy, expression of CD41, CD61, and CD42b, and proplatelet formation were assessed in iron-deficient cultures. Polymerase chain reaction arrays were used to identify candidate genes that were verified using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, ? subunit (HIF2?) protein expression was assessed in bone marrow sections from iron-deficient rats and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A in culture supernatants.<h4>Results and conclusions</h4>Iron deficiency enhanced megakaryoid features in cell lines, increasing ploidy and initiating formation of proplatelet-like structures. In cord blood cell cultures, iron deficiency increased the percentage of cells expressing megakaryopoietic markers and enhanced proplatelet formation. HIF2? and VEGF were identified as potential pathways involved in this process. HIF2? protein expression was increased in megakaryocytes from iron-deficient rats, and VEGF-A concentration was higher in iron-deficient culture supernatants. Addition of VEGF-A to cell cultures increased percentage expression of megakaryocyte CD41. In conclusion, the data demonstrate that iron deficiency augments megakaryocytic differentiation and proplatelet formation and a potential role of HIF2? in megakaryopoiesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Several sources of haematopoietic stem cells have been used for static culture of megakaryocytes to produce platelets in vitro. This study compares and characterizes platelets produced in shear flow using precursor cells from either umbilical (UCB) or adult peripheral blood (PB). MATERIALS AND METHODS:The efficiency of platelet production of the cultured cells was studied after perfusion in custom-built von Willebrand factor-coated microfluidic flow chambers. Platelet receptor expression and morphology were investigated by flow cytometry and microscopy, respectively. RESULTS:Proliferation of stem cells isolated out of UCB was significantly higher (P < 0·0001) compared to PB. Differentiation of these cells towards megakaryocytes was significantly lower from PB compared to UCB where the fraction of CD42b/CD41 double positive events was 44 ± 9% versus 76 ± 11%, respectively (P < 0·0001). However, in vitro platelet production under hydrodynamic conditions was more efficient with 7·4 platelet-like particles per input cell from PB compared to 4·2 from UCB (P = 0·02). The percentage of events positive for CD42b, CD41 and CD61 was comparable between both stem cell sources. The mean number of receptors per platelet from UCB and PB was similar to that on blood bank platelets with on average 28 000 CD42b, 57 000 CD61 and 5500 CD49b receptors. Microscopy revealed platelets appearing similar to blood bank platelets in morphology, size and actin cytoskeleton, alongside smaller fragments and source megakaryocytes. CONCLUSION:This characterization study suggests that platelets produced in vitro under flow either from UCB or from PB share receptor expression and morphology with donor platelets stored in the blood bank.
Project description:Platelet microparticles are a normal constituent of circulating blood. Several studies have demonstrated positive correlations between thrombotic states and platelet microparticle levels. Yet little is known about the processes by which platelet microparticles are generated in vivo. We now characterize microparticles derived directly from megakaryocytes. Video microscopy of live mouse megakaryocytes demonstrated that microparticles form as submicron beads along the lengths of slender, unbranched micropodia. These microparticles are CD41(+), CD42b(+), and express surface phosphatidylserine. Megakaryocyte microparticle generation is resistant to inhibition of microtubule assembly, which is critical to platelet formation, and augmented by inhibition of actin polymerization. To determine whether circulating microparticles are derived primarily from activated platelets or megakaryocytes, we identified markers that distinguish between these 2 populations. CD62P and LAMP-1 were found only on mouse microparticles from activated platelets. In contrast, full-length filamin A was found in megakaryocyte-derived microparticles, but not microparticles from activated platelets. Circulating microparticles isolated from mice were CD62P(-), LAMP-1(-) and expressed full-length filamin A, indicating a megakaryocytic origin. Similarly, circulating microparticles isolated from healthy volunteers were CD62P(-) and expressed full-length filamin A. Cultured human megakaryocytes elaborated microparticles that were CD41(+), CD42b(+), and express surface phosphatidylserine. These results indicate that direct production by megakaryocytes represents a physiologic means to generate circulating platelet microparticles.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Megakaryopoiesis allows platelet formation, which is necessary for coagulation, also playing an important role in different pathologies. However, this process remains to be fully characterized. C3G, an activator of Rap1 GTPases, is involved in platelet activation and regulates several differentiation processes. METHODS:We evaluated C3G function in megakaryopoiesis using transgenic mouse models where C3G and C3GΔCat (mutant lacking the GEF domain) transgenes are expressed exclusively in megakaryocytes and platelets. In addition, we used different clones of K562, HEL and DAMI cell lines with overexpression or silencing of C3G or GATA-1. RESULTS:We found that C3G participates in the differentiation of immature hematopoietic cells to megakaryocytes. Accordingly, bone marrow cells from transgenic C3G, but not those from transgenic C3GΔCat mice, showed increased expression of the differentiation markers CD41 and CD61, upon thrombopoietin treatment. Furthermore, C3G overexpression increased the number of CD41+ megakaryocytes with high DNA content. These results are supported by data obtained in the different models of megakaryocytic cell lines. In addition, it was uncovered GATA-1 as a positive regulator of C3G expression. Moreover, C3G transgenic megakaryocytes from fresh bone marrow explants showed increased migration from the osteoblastic to the vascular niche and an enhanced ability to form proplatelets. Although the transgenic expression of C3G in platelets did not alter basal platelet counts, it did increase slightly those induced by TPO injection in vivo. Moreover, platelet C3G induced adipogenesis in the bone marrow under pathological conditions. CONCLUSIONS:All these data indicate that C3G plays a significant role in different steps of megakaryopoiesis, acting through a mechanism dependent on its GEF activity.
Project description:Megakaryopoiesis is the process during which megakaryoblasts differentiate to polyploid megakaryocytes that can subsequently shed thousands of platelets in the circulation. Megakaryocytes accumulate mRNA during their maturation, which is required for the correct spatio-temporal production of cytoskeletal proteins, membranes and platelet-specific granules, and for the subsequent shedding of thousands of platelets per cell. Gene expression profiling identified the RNA binding protein ATAXIN2 (ATXN2) as a putative novel regulator of megakaryopoiesis. ATXN2 expression is high in CD34+/CD41+ megakaryoblasts and sharply decreases upon maturation to megakaryocytes. ATXN2 associates with DDX6 suggesting that it may mediate repression of mRNA translation during early megakaryopoiesis. Comparative transcriptome and proteome analysis on megakaryoid cells (MEG-01) with differential ATXN2 expression identified ATXN2 dependent gene expression of mRNA and protein involved in processes linked to hemostasis. Mice deficient for Atxn2 did not display differences in bleeding times, but the expression of key surface receptors on platelets, such as ITGB3 (carries the CD61 antigen) and CD31 (PECAM1), was deregulated and platelet aggregation upon specific triggers was reduced.
Project description:Dys-megakaryopoiesis is defined as ≥10 % of dysplastic megakaryocytes in bone marrow smears by the World Health Organization. However, concordance rates for dysplastic megakaryocytes between different observers is low and, consequently, evaluation of dysmegakaryopoiesis is also often discordant.We performed CD41 immune staining and proposed a systematic classification of dys-megakaryopoiesis on bone marrow films: (1) micro-megakaryocytes (<12 µm); (2) micro-megakaryocytes (12-40 µm) with 1 nucleus; (3) micro-megakaryocytes (12-40 µm) with 2 nuclei; (4) micro-megakaryocytes (12-40 um) with multiple (more than 2) nuclei; (5) dysplastic megakaryocytes (≥40 µm) with 1 nucleus; (6) dysplastic megakaryocytes (≥40 µm) with 2 nuclei; and (7) dysplastic megakaryocytes (≥40 µm) with multiple (more than 2) nuclei. Further, we evaluated the prognostic impact of micro-megakaryocytes and dysplastic mono-nucleated megakaryocytes on MDS patients. The best discriminator cut-off point for each group was determined by the minimal P value approach. In multivariate analyses micro-megakaryocytes ≥25 % and dysplastic mono-nucleated megakaryocytes ≥30 % were independent adverse prognostic factors (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.58 [95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.11, 2.23]; P = 0.010 and 1.53 [1.09, 2.16]; P = 0.014).Our data suggest integration of micro-megakaryocytes and dysplastic mono-nucleated megakaryocytes improve predictive accuracy of the international prognostic scoring system-revised (IPSS-R) scoring system.
Project description:We previously determined that protein kinase C ? (PKC?) regulates platelet function. However, the function of PKC? in megakaryopoiesis is unknown.Using PKC?(-/-) and wild-type littermate mice, we found that deficiency of PKC? caused an increase in white blood cells and platelet counts, as well as in bone marrow and splenic megakaryocytes (P<0.05). Additionally, the megakaryocyte number and DNA content were enhanced in PKC?(-/-) mouse bone marrow after culturing with exogenous thrombopoietin compared with wild-type (P<0.05). Importantly, thrombopoietin-induced signaling was also altered with PKC? deletion because both extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Akt308 phosphorylation were heightened in PKC?(-/-) megakaryocytes compared with wild-type. Finally, PKC?(-/-) mice recovered faster and had a heightened rebound thrombocytosis after thrombocytopenic challenge.These data suggest that PKC? is an important megakaryopoietic protein, which regulates signaling induced by thrombopoietin and represents a potential therapeutic target.
Project description:Platelets are essential for hemostatic plug formation and thrombosis. The mechanisms of megakaryocyte (MK) differentiation and subsequent platelet production from stem cells remain only partially understood. The manufacture of megakaryocytes (MKs) and platelets from cell sources including hematopoietic stem cells and pluripotent stem cells have been highlighted for studying the platelet production mechanisms as well as for the development of new strategies for platelet transfusion. The mouse bone marrow stroma cell line OP9 has been widely used as feeder cells for the differentiation of stem cells into MK lineages. OP9 cells are reported to be pre-adipocytes. We previously reported that 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes differentiated into MKs and platelets. In the present study, we examined whether OP9 cells differentiate into MKs and platelets using MK lineage induction (MKLI) medium previously established to generate MKs and platelets from hematopoietic stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and pre-adipocytes. OP9 cells cultured in MKLI medium had megakaryocytic features, i.e., positivity for surface markers CD41 and CD42b, polyploidy, and distinct morphology. The OP9-derived platelets had functional characteristics, providing the first evidence for the differentiation of OP9 cells into MKs and platelets. We then analyzed gene expressions of critical factors that regulate megakaryopoiesis and thrombopoiesis. The gene expressions of p45NF-E2, FOG, Fli1, GATA2, RUNX1, thrombopoietin, and c-mpl were observed during the MK differentiation. Among the observed transcription factors of MK lineages, p45NF-E2 expression was increased during differentiation. We further studied MK and platelet generation using p45NF-E2-overexpressing OP9 cells. OP9 cells transfected with p45NF-E2 had enhanced production of MKs and platelets. Our findings revealed that OP9 cells differentiated into MKs and platelets in vitro. OP9 cells have critical factors for megakaryopoiesis and thrombopoiesis, which might be involved in a mechanism of this differentiation. p45NF-E2 might also play important roles in the differentiation of OP9 cells into MK lineages cells.
Project description:In the hematopoietic system, Notch signaling specifies T cell lineage fate, in part through negative regulation of B cell and myeloid lineage development. However, we unexpectedly observed the development of megakaryocytes when using heterotypic cocultures of hematopoietic stem cells with OP9 cells expressing Delta-like1, but not with parental OP9 cells. This effect was abrogated by inhibition of Notch signaling either with gamma-secretase inhibitors or by expression of the dominant-negative Mastermind-like1. The importance of Notch signaling for megakaryopoietic development in vivo was confirmed by using mutant alleles that either activate or inhibit Notch signaling. These findings indicate that Notch is a positive regulator of megakaryopoiesis and plays a more complex role in cell-fate decisions among myeloid progenitors than previously appreciated.
Project description:Since the hemorrhage in severe dengue seems to be primarily related to the defect of the platelet, the possibility that dengue virus (DENV) is selectively tropic for one of its surface receptors was investigated. Flow cytometric data of DENV-infected megakaryocytic cell line superficially expressing human glycoprotein Ib (CD42b) and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (CD41 and CD41a) were analyzed by our custom-written software in MATLAB. In two-dimensional analyses, intracellular DENV was detected in CD42b+, CD41+ and CD41a+ cells. In three-dimensional analyses, the DENV was exclusively detected in CD42b+ cells but not in CD42b- cells regardless of the other expressions. In single-cell virus-protein analyses, the amount of DENV was directly correlated with those of CD42b at the Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.9. Moreover, RT- PCR and apoptosis assays showed that DENV was able to replicate itself and release its new progeny from the infected CD42b+ cells and eventually killed those cells. These results provide evidence for the involvement of CD42b in DENV infection.