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Resolvin E1 is a pro-repair molecule that promotes intestinal epithelial wound healing.

ABSTRACT: Resolution of intestinal inflammation and wound repair are active processes that mediate epithelial healing at mucosal surfaces. Lipid molecules referred to as specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) play an important role in the restorative response. Resolvin E1 (RvE1), a SPM derived from omega-3 fatty acids, has been reported to dampen intestinal inflammation by promoting anti-inflammatory responses including increased neutrophil spherocytosis and macrophage production of IL-10. Despite these observations, a role for RvE1 in regulating intestinal epithelial cell migration and proliferation during mucosal wound repair has not been explored. Using an endoscopic biopsy-based wound healing model, we report that RvE1 is locally produced in response to intestinal mucosal injury. Exposure of intestinal epithelial cells to RvE1 promoted wound repair by increasing cellular proliferation and migration through activation of signaling pathways including CREB, mTOR, and Src-FAK. Additionally, RvE1-triggered activation of the small GTPase Rac1 led to increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cell-matrix adhesion, and cellular protrusions at the leading edge of migrating cells. Furthermore, in situ administration of RvE1-encapsulated synthetic targeted polymeric nanoparticles into intestinal wounds promoted mucosal repair. Together, these findings demonstrate that RvE1 functions as a prorepair lipid mediator by increasing intestinal epithelial cell migration and proliferation, and highlight potential therapeutic applications for this SPM to promote mucosal healing in the intestine.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC7197018 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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