Antidiarrheal Activity of Hydromethanolic Root Extract and Solvent Fractions of Clutia abyssinica Jaub. & Spach. (Euphorbiaceae) in Mice.
ABSTRACT: Introduction:Diarrheal diseases are associated with an estimated 1.3 million deaths annually, with most occurring in resource-limited countries; up to 25% of deaths in young children living in Africa and southeast Asia are attributable to acute gastroenteritis. Due to limitations associated with various treatments available, the need for developing newer drugs is imperative. Objective:This study was aimed to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of root extract and fractions of C. abyssinica Jaub. & Spach. (Euphorbiaceae) in mice. Methods:After plant extraction and subsequent fractionation of the crude extract, the antidiarrheal activity was screened in castor oil induced diarrhea, castor oil induced enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility test models accordingly. Result:The root extract of C. abyssinica produced neither visible signs of toxicity nor death at a single dose of 2000?mg/kg, suggesting the LD50?>?2000?mg/kg. In the castor oil induced diarrheal model, the highest dose of the extract (400?mg/kg) showed a maximal inhibition in the onset (158.00?±?14.64, p < 0.01, in minutes) of wet feces as compared to the negative control. In the enteropooling model, 400?mg/kg treated mice showed a significant reduction in volume (0.47?±?0.02?ml, p < 0.01) and weight (0.50?±?0.02?g, p < 0.05) of intestinal content as compared to the vehicle treated group. In the gastrointestinal motility test, the hydromethanolic root extract of C. abyssinica significantly inhibited the intestinal transit of charcoal meal at 400?mg/kg. In addition, chloroform and n-butanol fractions significantly reduced the distance moved by charcoal at doses of 200?mg/kg and 400?mg/kg, whereas aqueous fraction showed a significant effect at all test doses. The highest antidiarrheal index was observed at the maximal dose of extract and each fraction. Conclusion:The results obtained showed that the findings provide scientific support for the folkloric repute of C. abyssinica roots as treatment of diarrhea.
Project description:Verbena officinalis L. has a folkloric repute for the management of digestive disorders, including diarrhea. However, the safety and efficacy of the plant material has not been scientifically validated yet. This study was, therefore, aimed to evaluate the overall antidiarrheal activity of the 80% methanol extracts of V officinalis in mice. The antidiarrheal activity of the 80% methanol extracts of the roots (R-80ME) and the leaves (L-80ME) of V officinalis was tested in castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. R-80ME was further evaluated using charcoal meal and entero-pooling. In each test, group I and group II (controls) received 10 mL/kg distilled water and standard drug (5 mg/kg loperamide), respectively, whereas groups III, IV, and V (test groups) received 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the 80ME, respectively. The R-80ME at 200 mg/kg (P < .01) and 400 mg/kg (P < .001) significantly delayed the onset of diarrhea compared with negative control. Both R-80ME and L-80ME at 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly decreased the frequency of wet fecal outputs (P < .01). Generally, 70.24% inhibition of the number of wet fecal output was recorded at R-80ME 400 mg/kg. Results from the charcoal meal test revealed that the R-80ME at 200 (P < .01) and 400 mg/kg (P < .001) produced a significant antimotility effect. In entero-pooling test, the R-80ME, at 200 and 400 mg/kg doses (P < .01), showed a significant decline in both the volume and weight of intestinal contents. The maximum in vivo antidiarrheal index was determined to be 95.25 at dose of 400 mg/kg R-80ME. This study demonstrated that the 80ME, mainly the root extract, produced promising antidiarrheal activity and hence provides a scientific support for acclaimed traditional use of the plant material for treatment of diarrheal diseases.
Project description:Background:The herbal medicine practitioners in Ethiopia have used a wide range of medicinal plants as antidiarrheal agents. Among these, Ruta chalepensis and Vernonia amygdalina were claimed to have antidiarrheal activity in Ethiopian folklore medicine. Hence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of the crude extracts of Ruta chalepensis and Vernonia amygdalina in mice. Methods:The crude extracts were obtained by cold maceration with 80% methanol, and its antidiarrheal activities were evaluated using a castor oil-induced diarrheal model. The test groups were treated with 100, 200, and 400?mg/kg body weight (bw) of the crude extract of each plant, while the positive controls and negative controls were given loperamide (3?mg/kg.bw) and 2% Tween 80 (10?ml/kg.bw), respectively. Results:In the castor oil-induced model, the crude extract of Ruta chalepensis (200 and 400?mg/kg.bw) significantly prolonged the onset of diarrhea in mice. Besides, it also showed a significant reduction in the frequency of stooling and weight of feces. Contrastingly, the crude extract of Vernonia amygdalina had a significant effect in delaying the onset of time of diarrhea and reduction of the frequency of stool and the weight of feces only at the maximum tested dose (400?mg/kg.bw). Conclusion:The present study demonstrated that the crude leaves extract of Ruta chalepensis (200 and 400?mg/kg.bw) and Vernonia amygdalina (400?mg/kg.bw) possessed significant antidiarrheal activity in the castor oil-induced diarrheal model.
Project description:Our research work was designed to investigate the curative and preventive effects of Carthamus oxycantha root extract against diarrhea and microorganisms. For the antibacterial experiment, the agar well diffusion method was used against standard bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, and Salmonella typhi, while for the assessment of antidiarrheal activity, castor oil and the magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea method was used on albino, laboratory-bred (BALB/c) mice at a dose rate of 200 and 400?mg/kg (body weight, b.w) orally. The methanol extract of C. oxycantha significantly (p < 0.001) decreased the frequency of defecation, and wet stools in a dose depended on the manner of after receiving magnesium sulfate (2 g/kg (b.w)) and castor oil (1.0 mL/mice). Furthermore, the extract of C. oxycantha showed concentration-dependent antimicrobial properties against S. aureus followed by S. typhi, E. coli, and P. aeroginosa bacterial strains, with inhibitions ranging from 10.5-15 mm. These findings show significant results that C. oxycantha is effective as an antidiarrheal and antibacterial agent. However, further works are needed to establish its mode of action.
Project description:The use of traditional medicine as an alternative source of cure for many ailments has played an important role in health care delivery in both developing and developed countries. Byrsocarpus coccineus Schum and Thonn (Connaraceae) is used in traditional medicine for treatment of various disease conditions, including diarrhea. The anti-diarrhea activity of the root bark aqueous extract of B. coccineus was investigated in this study.Acute toxicity evaluation of the aqueous extract of B. coccineus root bark was performed in exposed rats. Diarrhea was induced in exposed rats with castor oil, and the effect of the extract on castor oil-induced gastrointestinal motility and enteropooling was consequently investigated.In the acute toxicity study, the extract caused no death in treated rats nor produced signs of delayed toxicity, even at 5000 mg/kg. The aqueous root bark extract of B. coccineus also decreased the distance travelled by activated charcoal in the gastrointestinal tract of treated rats when compared to control rats. Results of castor oil-induced enteropooling revealed slight reduction in the weight of intestinal contents of treated rats compared to control rats. There was significant (p<0.05) decrease in the frequency of defecation as well as in the number of unformed feces produced by castor oil-induced diarrhea at 100 mg/kg dose with 74.96% inhibition of defecation.The study demonstrated the anti-diarrheic property of the aqueous extract of B. coccineus root bark as currently exploited in our traditional herbal therapy.
Project description:As a widely used traditional medicine, Galla Chinensis is rich in tannins. However, there are few detailed studies about pharmaceutical preparations of Galla Chinensis tannin extract (GTE). In the present experiments, for better application and to investigate the possibility that Galla Chinensis tannin extract can be used as an antidiarrheal drug, we prepared Galla Chinensis oral solution (GOS).GOS was prepared with GTE, and its physicochemical and microbiological stability was evaluated. The oral acute toxicity of GOS was calculated by the 50% lethal dose (LD50). The antidiarrheal activity was determined in a castor oil-induced diarrhea model in mice through diarrhea symptoms, fluid accumulation ratio, and percentage of distance moved by charcoal meal.The tannin content of GTE was 47.75%. GOS could endure a high temperature without a significant decrease of tannin content. After storage for six months, the tannin content of GOS was still more than 90%. GOS was determined to be nontoxic. Meanwhile, GOS showed significant antidiarrheal activity in a castor oil-induced diarrhea model in mice (P < 0.01).The results suggested that GOS is an effective and stable antidiarrheal drug that can be used to complement other therapies.
Project description:The current study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant, analgesic, antihyperglycemic, neuropharmacological and antidiarrheal activities of ethanolic extract of Lepisanthes rubiginosa L. leaves in different experimental models.Quantitative and qualitative analysis were done by TLC (thin layer chromatography) and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay. Analgesic, antihyperglycemic and antidiarrheal activities were evaluated using acetic acid induced writhing in mice, oral glucose tolerance test and castor oil induced diarrhea, respectively. Neuropharmacological activity was investigated in mice using both Open Field and Hole Board methods.TLC analysis indicated the presence of antioxidant compounds in the extract we used. The extract showed IC50 value was 31.62 μg/mL whereas the standard ascorbic acid showed 12.02 μg/mL. In acetic acid induced writhing assay, the extract showed 46.07% and 58.43% writhing inhibition at the doses of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight, respectively whereas standard diclofenac-Na (25 mg/kg) showed 86.52% writhing inhibition. The plant extract showed significant (p < 0.05) antihyperglycemic activity on mice as compared to control groups. In neuropharmacological activity assay the experimental animal showed a noticeable decrease in locomotion by showing a decrease in number of square crossed and head dipping at both doses (250 mg/kg & 500 mg/kg). In antidiarrheal activity test, the plant extract at the doses of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg showed percent inhibition of defecation 57.89 and 77.19 respectively, whereas standard loperamide (3 mg/kg) showed percent inhibition of defecation 88.59.The results demonstrated that the extract has potential antioxidant, analgesic, antihyperglycemic, neuropharmacological and antidiarrheal activity.
Project description:This study aims to delineate the effects of Manilkara zapota Linn. (Sapodilla) fruit chloroform (Mz.CHCl3) and aqueous (Mz.Aq) extracts tested through different techniques. Antidiarrheal activity and intestinal fluid accumulation were examined by using castor oil-induced diarrhea and castor oil fluid accumulation models. Isolated rabbit jejunum tissues were employed for in vitro experiments. Antimotility and antiulcer were performed through charcoal meal transient time and ethanol-induced ulcer assay, molecular studies were conducted through proteomic analysis, and virtual screening was performed by using a discovery studio visualizer (DSV). Mz.CHCl3 and Mz.Aq extracts attributed dose-dependent (50-300?mg/kg) protection (20-100%) against castor oil-induced diarrhea and dose-dependently (50-300?mg/kg) inhibited intestinal fluid secretions in mice. Mz.CHCl3 and Mz.Aq extracts produce relaxation of spontaneous and K+ (80?Mm) induced contractions in isolated tissue preparations and decreased the distance moved by charcoal in the gastrointestinal transit model in rats. It showed gastroprotective effect in ulcerative stomach of rats and decreased levels of IL-18 quantified by proteomic analysis. Histopathological results showed ethanol-induced significant gastric injury, leading to cloudy swelling, hydropic degeneration, apoptosis, and focal necrosis in all gastric zones using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Moreover, ethanol increased the activation and the expression of tumor necrotic factor (TNF-?), cyclooxygenase (COX-2), and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (p-NF?B). In silico results were comparative to in vitro results evaluated through virtual screening. Moreover, ethanol increased the activation and expression of tumor necrotic factor, cyclooxygenase, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells. This study exhibits the gastroprotective effect of Manilkara zapota extracts in the peritoneal cavity using a proteomic and in silico approach which reveals different energy values against target proteins, which mediate the gastrointestinal functions.
Project description:Tetrastigma leucostaphylum (TL) is an important ethnic medicine of Bangladesh used to treat diarrhea and dysentery. Hence, current study has been designed to characterize the antidiarrheal (in vivo) and cytotoxic (in vitro) effects of T. leucostaphylum. A crude extract was prepared with methanol (MTL) and further partitioned into n-hexane (NTL), dichloromethane (DTL), and n-butanol (BTL) fractions. Antidiarrheal activity was investigated using castor oil induced diarrhea, enteropooling, and gastrointestinal transit models, while cytotoxicity was evaluated using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. In antidiarrheal experiments, all doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) of the DTL extract significantly reduced diarrheal stool frequency, volume and weight of intestinal contents, and gastrointestinal motility in mice. Similarly, in the cytotoxicity assay, all extracts exhibited activity, with the DTL extract the most potent (LC50 67.23 ?g/mL). GC-MS analysis of the DTL extract identified 10 compounds, which showed good binding affinity toward M3 muscarinic acetylcholine, 5-HT3, Gut inhibitory phosphodiesterase, DNA polymerase III subunit alpha, and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-1 carboxyvinyltransferase enzyme targets upon molecular docking analysis. Although ADME/T analyses predicted the drug-likeness and likely safety upon consumption of these bioactive compounds, significant toxicity concerns are evident due to the presence of the known phytotoxin, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. In summary, T. leucostaphylum showed promising activity, helping to rationalize the ethnomedicinal use and importance of this plant, its safety profile following both acute and chronic exposure warrants further investigation.
Project description:The current study aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively determine the phytochemical components of Cycas pectinata methanol extract (MECP), along with its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, thrombolytic, locomotor, anxiolytic, analgesic, and antidiarrheal activities. The in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH scavenging assay and the total phenol and total flavonoid contents, while the anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by a protein denaturation assay. The in vivo locomotor effects were examined using the open field test and hole-cross test. The anxiolytic effect was examined using the elevated plus maze (EPM) test, hole-board test (HBT), and light-dark test (LDT), while the analgesic activity was investigated using the acetic acid-induced writhing test. The antidiarrheal effect was evaluated by castor oil-induced diarrhea and gastrointestinal motility. Ten bioactive compounds were selected on the basis of their biological activities and further investigated using in silico molecular docking simulation to correlate with the identified pharmacological properties. Additionally, the ADME properties of the compounds were evaluated according to their drug-likeness profile. MECP had a maximum total phenol content of 209.85 ± 3.40 gallic acid equivalents/g extract and a total flavonoid content of 105.17 ± 3.45 quercetin equivalents/g extract, with an IC50 value of 631.44 ?g/mL. MECP (62.5-500 ?g/mL) elicited 20.96-38.12% decreased protein denaturation compared to diclofenac sodium (65.40-83.50%), while a 35.72% (P < 0.001) clot lysis activity was observed for the 10 mg/mL concentration. MECP induced a dose-dependent reduction in locomotor activity, with a significant anxiolytic effect. In the analgesic test, MECP (200, 400 mg/kg) showed a 45.12% and 58.82% inhibition in analgesia, and the 400 mg/kg dose elicited a 27.5% inhibition in intestinal motility. These findings suggest that MECP might be effective in treating antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuropharmacological defects, but this requires further study.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ficus palmata (Fig), are distributed in different parts of the world, and are used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments including inflammation, tumor, epilepsy, jaundice, influenza and bacillary dysentery. The present study aimed to evaluate the antidiarrheal, antisecretary, antispasmodic, antiulcer and anti motility properties of Ficus palmata. METHODS:In-vivo, in-vitro and in-silico techniques were used to investigate various gastrointestinal effects of Ficus palmata. Antidiarrheal, antisecretary, antispasmodic, antiulcer, anti motility and molecular docking were performed using castor oil induced diarrhea and fluid accumulation, isolated tissue preparations, ethanol-HCl induced ulcer assay, charcoal meal transit time and Auto Doc Vina. RESULTS:Ficus palmata crude extract (Fp.Cr) exhibited protection against castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice and dose-dependently inhibited intestinal fluid secretions. Fp.Cr caused relaxation of spontaneous and K+ (80?Mm)-induced contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum preparations. It showed protective effect against gastric ulcers induced by ethanol-hydrochloric acid in rats. Fp.Cr reduced distance travelled by charcoal meal in the gastrointestinal transit model in mice. The plant constituents: psoralenoside and bergapten showed high binding affinities (E-value ? -?6.5 Kcal/mol) against histaminergic H1, calmodulin and voltage gated L-type calcium channels, while showed moderate affinities (E-value ?7 Kcal/mol) against dopaminergic D2, adrenergic ?1, muscranic M3, mu-opioid, whereas revealed lower affinities (E-value ?9.5 Kcal/mol) vs. muscranic M1, histaminergic H2 and H+/K+ ATPase pump. Germanicol acetate and psoralene exhibited weak affinities against aforementioned targets. CONCLUSION:This study reveals that Ficus palmata possesses anti-diarrheal, anti-secretory, anti-spasmodic, anti-motility and anti-ulcer activities. The various constituents reveal different binding affinities against target proteins, which mediate the gastrointestinal functions.