High Glucose Induces the Loss of Retinal Pericytes Partly via NLRP3-Caspase-1-GSDMD-Mediated Pyroptosis.
ABSTRACT: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the hallmark complications of diabetes and a leading cause of vision loss in adults. Retinal pericyte death seems to be a prominent feature in the onset of DR. Pyroptosis is an inflammatory form of programmed cell death, defined as being caspase-gasdermin-D (GSDMD)-dependent. The NOD-like receptor pyrin 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome plays an important role in mediating GSDMD activation. However, the role and mechanism of pyroptosis in the loss of retinal pericytes during the pathogenesis of DR are still unclear. In the present study, we cultured primary human retinal pericytes (HRPs) in high glucose medium; caspase-3 inhibitor DEVD, caspase-1 inhibitor YVAD, or NLRP3 inhibitor glyburide was used as intervention reagents; GSDMD was overexpressed or suppressed by transfection with an expressing vector or retroviral silencing of GSDMD, respectively. Our data showed that high glucose induced NLRP3-caspase-1-GSDMD activation and pore formation in a dose- and time-dependent manner (p < 0.05) and resulted in the inflammatory cytokines IL-1? and IL-18 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release from HRPs (p < 0.05), which are all signs of HRP pyroptosis. Overexpression of GSDMD facilitated high glucose-induced pyroptosis (all p < 0.05). However, these effects were blunted by synergistically treating DEVD, YVAD, and silencing GSDMD (p < 0.05). Taken together, our results firstly revealed that high glucose induced the loss of retinal pericytes partly via NLRP3-caspase-1-GSDMD-mediated pyroptosis.
Project description:Dioscin, a natural steroid saponin, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects, but its protective mechanism against mastitis is still unknown. NLRP3 inflammasome and pyroptosis play important roles in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases, including mastitis. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of dioscin on lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced mastitis in vivo and in vitro and its mechanism of action. In vivo experiments, dioscin can reduce the inflammatory lesions and neutrophil motility in mammary tissue. Moreover, dioscin also can reduce the production of proinflammatory factors such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1<i>?</i>) and inhibit the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in LPS-induced mice mastitis. In vitro experiments, the results showed that dioscin inhibited the inflammatory response and the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, but the survival rate of mouse mammary epithelial cells (mMECs) induced by LPS+ATP is increased. Subsequently, the experiment convinces that dioscin can reduce LPS+ATP-induced mMEC pyroptosis by adding Ac-DEVD-CHO (a caspase-3 inhibitor). Further mechanistic studies demonstrate that dioscin can activate AMPK/Nrf2 to inhibit NLRP3/GSDMD-induced mMEC pyroptosis. In summary, this paper reveals a novel function of dioscin on mMEC pyroptosis and provides a new potential therapy of dioscin for the treatment and prevention of mastitis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Acute glaucoma, characterized by a sudden elevation in intraocular pressure (IOP) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) death, is a major cause of irreversible blindness worldwide that lacks approved effective therapies, validated treatment targets and clear molecular mechanisms. We sought to explore the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the causal link between high IOP and glaucomatous RGCs death. METHODS:A murine retinal ischemia/ reperfusion (RIR) model and an in vitro oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGDR) model were used to investigate the pathogenic mechanisms of acute glaucoma. RESULTS:Our findings reveal a novel mechanism of microglia-induced pyroptosis-mediated RGCs death associated with glaucomatous vision loss. Genetic deletion of gasdermin D (GSDMD), the effector of pyroptosis, markedly ameliorated the RGCs death and retinal tissue damage in acute glaucoma. Moreover, GSDMD cleavage of microglial cells was dependent on caspase-8 (CASP8)-hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) signaling. Mechanistically, the newly identified nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat-containing receptor (NLR) family pyrin domain-containing 12 (NLRP12) collaborated with NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) and NLR family CARD domain-containing protein 4 (NLRC4) downstream of the CASP8-HIF-1? axis, to elicit pyroptotic processes and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) maturation through caspase-1 activation, facilitating pyroptosis and neuroinflammation in acute glaucoma. Interestingly, processing of IL-1? in turn magnified the CASP8-HIF-1?-NLRP12/NLRP3/NLRC4-pyroptosis circuit to accelerate inflammatory cascades. CONCLUSIONS:These data not only indicate that the collaborative effects of NLRP12, NLRP3 and NLRC4 on pyroptosis are responsible for RGCs death, but also shed novel mechanistic insights into microglial pyroptosis, paving novel therapeutic avenues for the treatment of glaucoma-induced irreversible vision loss through simultaneously targeting of pyroptosis.
Project description:Purpose:Photoreceptor degeneration occurs in various retinal diseases including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), Retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and diabetic retinopathy (DR). However, molecular mechanisms are not fully understood yet. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) forms the outer blood retinal barrier (oBRB) and supplies glucose, oxygen and nutrients from the fenestrated choriocapillaris to photoreceptors for visual function. Therefore, RPE dysfunction leads to photoreceptor injury/death and progression of blinding eye diseases. This study aims to understand the role of the thioredoxin (Trx) and its reductase (TrxR) redox signaling in human RPE dysfunction and cell death mechanism(s) in an in vitro system. Methods:A human RPE cell line (APRE-19) was cultured in DMEM/F12 medium and treated with auranofin (AF - 4 ?M, an inhibitor of TrxR) for 4 and 24 h. Mitochondrial and lysosomal function, cellular oxidative stress and NLRP3 inflammasome activity were measured using cell assays, Western blotting, and confocal microscopy. Antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds were tested for blocking AF effects on RPE damage. Cell death mechanisms (LDH release to culture media) were determined using necroptosis, ferroptosis and pyroptosis inhibitors. P < 0.05 was considered significant in statistical analysis. Results:Auranofin causes mitochondrial dysfunction (??m? and ATP?), oxidative stress (H2O2?) and mitophagic flux to lysosomes. Furthermore, the lysosomal enzyme (cathepsin L) activity is reduced while that of pro-inflammatory caspase-1 (NLRP3 inflammasome) is enhanced in ARPE-19. These effects of AF on ARPE-19 are inhibited by antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (5 mM, NAC) and significantly by a combination of SS31 (mitochondrial antioxidant) and anti-inflammatory drugs (amlexanox and tranilast). AF also causes cell death as measured by cytosolic LDH release/leakage, which is not inhibited by either ferrostatin-1 or necrostatin-1 (ferroptosis and necroptosis inhibitors, respectively). Conversely, AF-induced LDH release is significantly reduced by MCC950 and Ac-YVAD-cmk (NLRP3 and Caspase-1 inhibitors, respectively), suggesting a pro-inflammatory cell death by pyroptosis. Conclusion:The Trx/TrxR redox system is critical for RPE function and viability. We previously showed that thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) is strongly induced in DR inhibiting the Trx/TrxR system and RPE dysfunction. Therefore, our results suggest that the TXNIP-Trx-TrxR redox pathway may participate in RPE dysfunction in DR and other retinal neurodegenerative diseases.
Project description:Inflammasome is an intracellular signaling complex of the innate immune system. Activation of inflammasomes promotes the secretion of interleukin 1? (IL-1?) and IL-18 and triggers pyroptosis. Caspase-1 and -11 (or -4/5 in human) in the canonical and non-canonical inflammasome pathways, respectively, are crucial for inflammasome-mediated inflammatory responses. Here we report that gasdermin D (GSDMD) is another crucial component of inflammasomes. We discovered the presence of GSDMD protein in nigericin-induced NLRP3 inflammasomes by a quantitative mass spectrometry-based analysis. Gene deletion of GSDMD demonstrated that GSDMD is required for pyroptosis and for the secretion but not proteolytic maturation of IL-1? in both canonical and non-canonical inflammasome responses. It was known that GSDMD is a substrate of caspase-1 and we showed its cleavage at the predicted site during inflammasome activation and that this cleavage was required for pyroptosis and IL-1? secretion. Expression of the N-terminal proteolytic fragment of GSDMD can trigger cell death and N-terminal modification such as tagging with Flag sequence disrupted the function of GSDMD. We also found that pro-caspase-1 is capable of processing GSDMD and ASC is not essential for GSDMD to function. Further analyses of LPS plus nigericin- or Salmonella typhimurium-treated macrophage cell lines and primary cells showed that apoptosis became apparent in Gsdmd(-/-) cells, indicating a suppression of apoptosis by pyroptosis. The induction of apoptosis required NLRP3 or other inflammasome receptors and ASC, and caspase-1 may partially contribute to the activation of apoptotic caspases in Gsdmd(-/-) cells. These data provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of pyroptosis and reveal an unexpected interplay between apoptosis and pyroptosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pyroptosis belongs to a novel inflammatory programmed cell death pathway, with the possible prognosis of endometrial cancer related to the terminal protein GSDMD. Hydrogen exerts a biphasic effect on cancer by promoting tumor cell death and protecting normal cells, which might initiate GSDMD pathway-mediated pyroptosis. METHODS:We performed immunohistochemical staining and western immunoblotting analysis to observe expression of NLRP3, caspase-1, and GSDMD in human and xenograft mice endometrial cancer tissue and cell lines. We investigated treatment with hydrogen could boost ROS accumulation in endometrial cancer cells by intracellular and mitochondrial sources. GSDMD shRNA lentivirus was used to transfect endometrial cancer cells to investigate the function of GSDMD protein in pyroptosis. Propidium iodide (PI) staining, TUNEL assay, measurement of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and IL-1? ELISA were used to analysis pyroptosis between hydrogen-supplemented or normal culture medium. We conducted in vivo human endometrial tumor xenograft mice model to observe anti-tumor effect in hydrogen supplementation. RESULTS:We observed overexpression of NLRP3, caspase-1, and GSDMD in human endometrial cancer and cell lines by IHC and western immunoblotting. Hydrogen pretreatment upregulated ROS and the expression of pyroptosis-related proteins, and increased the number of PI- and TUNEL-positive cells, as well as the release of LDH and IL-1?, however, GSDMD depletion reduced their release. We further demonstrated that hydrogen supplementation in mice was sufficient for the anti-tumor effect to inhibit xenograft volume and weight of endometrial tumors, as mice subjected to hydrogen-rich water displayed decreased radiance. Tumor tissue sections in the HRW groups presented moderate-to-strong positive expression of NLRP3, caspase-1 and GSDMD. Hydrogen attenuated tumor volume and weight in a xenograft mouse model though the pyroptotic pathway. CONCLUSIONS:This study extended our original analysis of the ability of hydrogen to stimulate NLRP3 inflammasome/GSDMD activation in pyroptosis and revealed possible mechanism (s) for improvement of anti-tumor effects in the clinical management of endometrial cancer.
Project description:Background: Acute gouty arthritis is a common inflammatory arthropathy resulting from urate deposition in joints during persistent hyperuricemia. Nevertheless, effective therapeutic strategies are still unavailable. Here, we propose the crucial role of bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) in acute gouty arthritis. Methods: Therapeutic effect of BRD4 specific inhibitor JQ-1 on acute gouty arthritis was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. Pyroptosis was analyzed by Caspase-1/PI double staining and cleavage of gasdermin D (GSDMD). Expression of key factors involved in BRD4/NF-?B/NLRP3/GSDMD signaling pathway were measured by western blot, and colocalization of NLRP3 and ASC was detected using immunofluorescence. In addition, the role of BRD4 on monosodium uric acid crystals (MSU)-induced pyroptosis was verified in BRD4 siRNA-transfected THP-1 cells. Results: Pretreatment of JQ1 and BRD4 siRNA significantly suppressed pyroptosis and inhibited activation of p65 NF-?B signaling as well as NLRP3 inflammasome in THP-1 cells exposed to MSU. In vivo, JQ-1 administration could effectively attenuate joint swelling and synovial inflammation in rats treated by intra-articular injection of MSU. More importantly, MSU led to macrophage pyroptosis and Brd4/NF-?B/NLRP3/GSDMD signaling induction in rat synoviums, which was improved by JQ-1. Conclusions: Our study identifies the role of BRD4 in MSU-induced pyroptosis through regulating NF-?B/NLRP3/GSDMD signaling pathways, which provides a potential target for treatment of acute gouty arthritis.
Project description:Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is one of the most common diseases in the gastrointestinal tract related to aberrant inflammation. Pyroptosis, which is characterized by inflammasome formation, the activation of caspase-1, and the separation of the N- and C-terminals of GSDMD, might be related to IBD pathogenesis. NEK7 is an important component of the NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages. We attempted to investigate the mechanism of NEK7 interacting with NLRP3 to modulate the pyroptosis in IBD. NEK7 mRNA and protein expression and pyroptosis-associated factors, including Caspase-1 (p45, p20), NLRP3, and GSDMD, were upregulated in IBD tissues. NEK7 knockdown abolish ATP?+?LPS-induced pyroptosis in vitro and improved DSS-induced chronic colitis in vivo. NEK7 interacted with NLRP3, as revealed by Co-IP and GST pull-down assays, to exert its effects. Moreover, short-term LPS treatment alone induced no significant changes in NEK7 protein level. TLR4/NF-?B signaling in MODE-K cells could be activated by LPS treatment. LPS-induced NEK7 upregulation could be significantly reversed by JSH-23, an inhibitor of p65. Furthermore, LUC and ChIP assays revealed that RELA might activate the transcription of NEK7 via targeting its promoter region. LPS-induced TLR4/NF-?B activation causes an increase in NEK7 expression by RELA binding NEK7 promoter region. In conclusion, NEK7 interacts with NLRP3 to modulate NLRP3 inflammasome activation, therefore modulating the pyroptosis in MODE-K cells and DSS-induced chronic colitis in mice. We provide a novel mechanism of NEK7-NLRP3 interaction affecting IBD via pyroptosis.
Project description:Limited proteolysis of gasdermin D (GSDMD) generates an N-terminal pore-forming fragment that controls pyroptosis in macrophages. GSDMD is processed via inflammasome-activated caspase-1 or -11. It is currently unknown whether macrophage GSDMD can be processed by other mechanisms. Here, we describe an additional pathway controlling GSDMD processing. The inhibition of TAK1 or I?B kinase (IKK) by the Yersinia effector protein YopJ elicits RIPK1- and caspase-8-dependent cleavage of GSDMD, which subsequently results in cell death. GSDMD processing also contributes to the NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent release of interleukin-1? (IL-1?). Thus, caspase-8 acts as a regulator of GSDMD-driven cell death. Furthermore, this study establishes the importance of TAK1 and IKK activity in the control of GSDMD cleavage and cytotoxicity.
Project description:Disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation are often associated with macrophage pyroptosis. It remains unclear how these forms of mitochondrial dysfunction relate to inflammasome activation and gasdermin-D (Gsdmd) cleavage, two central steps of the pyroptotic process. Here, we also found MMP collapse and ROS generation induced by Nlrp3 inflammasome activation as previous studies reported. The elimination of ROS alleviated the cleavage of Gsdmd, suggesting that Gsdmd cleavage occurs downstream of ROS release. Consistent with this result, hydrogen peroxide treatment augmented the cleavage of Gsdmd by caspase-1. Indeed, four amino acid residues of Gsdmd were oxidized under oxidative stress in macrophages. The efficiency of Gsdmd cleavage by inflammatory caspase-1 was dramatically reduced when oxidative modification was blocked by mutation of these amino acid residues. These results demonstrate that Gsdmd oxidation serves as a de novo mechanism by which mitochondrial ROS promote Nlrp3 inflammasome-dependent pyroptotic cell death.
Project description:Innate immune response against Brucella abortus involves activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs). Among the NLRs involved in the recognition of B. abortus are NLRP3 and AIM2. Here, we demonstrate that B. abortus triggers non-canonical inflammasome activation dependent on caspase-11 and gasdermin-D (GSDMD). Additionally, we identify that Brucella-LPS is the ligand for caspase-11 activation. Interestingly, we determine that B. abortus is able to trigger pyroptosis leading to pore formation and cell death, and this process is dependent on caspase-11 and GSDMD but independently of caspase-1 protease activity and NLRP3. Mice lacking either caspase-11 or GSDMD were significantly more susceptible to infection with B. abortus than caspase-1 knockout or wild-type animals. Additionally, guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) present in mouse chromosome 3 participate in the recognition of LPS by caspase-11 contributing to non-canonical inflammasome activation as observed by the response of Gbpchr3-/- BMDMs to bacterial stimulation. We further determined by siRNA knockdown that among the GBPs contained in mouse chromosome 3, GBP5 is the most important for Brucella LPS to be recognized by caspase-11 triggering IL-1? secretion and LDH release. Additionally, we observed a reduction in neutrophil, dendritic cell and macrophage influx in spleens of Casp11-/- and Gsdmd-/- compared to wild-type mice, indicating that caspase-11 and GSDMD are implicated in the recruitment and activation of immune cells during Brucella infection. Finally, depletion of neutrophils renders wild-type mice more susceptible to Brucella infection. Taken together, these data suggest that caspase-11/GSDMD-dependent pyroptosis triggered by B. abortus is important to infection restriction in vivo and contributes to immune cell recruitment and activation.