Evaluation of Changes in Macular Perfusion Detected by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography following 3 Intravitreal Monthly Bevacizumab Injections for Diabetic Macular Edema in the IMPACT Study.
ABSTRACT: Objective:To evaluate macular perfusion changes following intravitreal bevacizumab injections for diabetic macular edema (DME) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography angiography (SD-OCTA). Methods:This study was a prospective noncomparative interventional case series. Treatment naïve patients with DME underwent full ophthalmological examination and SD-OCTA scanning at baseline and after 3 intravitreal bevacizumab injections. Both the 6?×?6 and 3?×?3?mm macular scan protocols were used. Pretreatment and posttreatment OCTA images were automatically aligned using a commercially available retina alignment software (i2k Align Retina software); then the fractal dimension (FD), vascular density (VD), and skeleton VD changes were obtained at the full retinal thickness (Full) and superficial (SCP) and deep (DCP) capillary plexuses after processing images using a semiautomated program. The foveal avascular zone (FAZ) was manually measured and FD was calculated using the FracLac plugin of ImageJ. Results:Forty eyes of 26 patients were included. Following injections, there were an 8.1% increase in FAZ, 1.3% decrease in FD-Full and FD-SCP, 1.9% decrease in FD-DCP, 8% decrease in VD-Full, 9.1% decrease in VD-SCP, 10.6% decrease in VD-DCP, 13.3% decrease in skeleton VD-Full, 12.5% decrease in skeleton VD-SCP, and 16.3% decrease in skeleton VD-DCP in the 6?×?6?mm macular area and a 2.6% decrease in FD-Full, 3.4% decrease in FD-SCP, 11.5% decrease in VD-Full, 14.3% decrease in VD-SCP, and 25.1% decrease in skeleton VD-SCP in the 3?×?3?mm macular area which were all statistically significant (p < 0.05). Using univariate and multivariate analysis, the pretreatment FD, VD, and skeleton VD at each capillary layer significantly negatively correlated with the change in FD, VD, and skeleton VD at the corresponding capillary layer, respectively (p < 0.05). Conclusion:OCTA is a useful noninvasive tool for quantitative evaluation of macular perfusion changes following DME treatment. This trial is registered with NCT03246152.
Project description:To describe the features of foveal microvasculature using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and to determine the related clinical factors in eyes with surgically closed macular hole (MH).A retrospective case series of 18 patients with unilateral MH was reviewed. The patients maintained complete hole closure after vitrectomy with inner limiting membrane (ILM) peeling for at least 12 months. The healthy fellow eyes were studied as controls. The foveal microvasculature of both eyes was examined by OCTA. The area of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and the vascular density (VD) ratio in the superficial and deep capillary plexuses (SCP and DCP) were determined after surgery. Several clinical factors including age, stage and dimensions of MH, papillofoveal distance, the extent of nasal displacement of the fovea after surgery, postoperative central foveal thickness, and outer-retina integrity were evaluated to determine any relationships with the OCTA parameters.The mean FAZ area in both the SCP and DCP (0.29?±?0.11 mm2 and 0.39?±?0.14 mm2) was significantly smaller than those of the controls (0.45?±?0.14 mm2 and 0.62?±?0.22 mm2) (p?=?0.001 and <0.001, respectively). The mean VD ratio in the SCP (0.270?±?0.349) was similar to that of the controls (0.321?±?0.189) (p?=?0.231); however, that in the DCP (0.321?±?0.189) was significantly lower than that of the controls (0.331?±?0.119) (p?=?0.025). Only the extent of nasal displacement of the fovea was correlated with the DCP FAZ-area difference values between the study group and the controls (correlation coefficient?=?0.577; p?=?0.012).After successful MH surgery, the FAZ area in both the SCP and DCP was smaller and the VD ratio of the DCP was lower, suggesting a possible DCP vulnerability to tractional stress. As the FAZ area of the DCP in closed-MH eyes became smaller than that in the controls, the fovea was less displaced toward the optic disc, possibly reflecting a lack of retinal redundancy caused by horizontal stretching accompanied by foveal displacement.
Project description:PURPOSE:To characterize the types of collaterals in eyes with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) and further investigate their correlations with vessel densities of the superficial (SCP) and the deep capillary plexus (DCP) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). METHODS:This cross-sectional study included 25 eyes of 23 patients with RVO. 3 x 3 mm2 OCTA macular scans were used to quantify the parafoveal vessel density (VD) of the SCP and DCP, and to classify the collaterals into one of four types (true superficial, true deep, superficial diving, and foveal collateral). Generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression analysis was performed to identify significant associations between parafoveal VD and collaterals. We further compared parafoveal VD between subgroups classified by the presence of specific collateral types based on the results of a clustering algorithm. RESULTS:16 of 25 eyes (64%) developed collaterals. Of the 43 collateral vessels analyzed, 12/19 (63%) true superficial collaterals developed in eyes with central RVO, while all 10 superficial diving collaterals (100%) developed in eyes with branch RVO. Located exclusively in the SCP, true superficial collaterals were all arteriovenous (A-V), while diving collaterals were all veno-venular (V-V). We found a significant negative correlation between SCP VD and the total number of collaterals (P < 0.001) for the entire study cohort. Furthermore, BRVO eyes that developed superficial diving collaterals and CRVO eyes that developed true superficial collaterals demonstrated significantly lower SCP VD (P-value = 0.014) and DCP VD (P-value = 0.030), respectively, as compared to the eyes without collaterals in the respective RVO group. CONCLUSION:Our data shows that decreased capillary perfusion in RVO is associated with the development of collaterals, while the RVO type largely dictates the type of collateral that ultimately develops.
Project description:PURPOSE:To investigate if there are differences in macular capillaries between black and white subjects using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and identify potential factors underlying the epidemiologically-based higher vulnerability of black populations to diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS:This prospective, observational cross-sectional study included 93 eyes of 47 healthy subjects with no medical history and ocular history who self-identified as black or white and were matched for age, sex, refractive error, and image quality. Subjects underwent OCTA imaging (RTVue-XR Avanti) of the superficial (SCP) and deep (DCP) capillary plexuses and choriocapillaris. AngioAnalytics was used to analyze vessel density (VD) and choriocapillaris % blood flow area (BFA) in the 1mm-diameter fovea, parafovea, and 3mm-diameter circular area including the fovea and parafovea (3x3mm image). Foveal avascular zone (FAZ) was also analyzed. Linear mixed models were used to evaluate for differences between the study groups. RESULTS:Compared to the white subjects in this study, black subjects were found to have: lower foveal VD in the SCP (p<0.05); lower VD in the parafovea and in the 3x3mm image in the DCP (p<0.05); larger FAZ in SCP and DCP (p<0.05); and decreased choriocapillary BFA in the area underlying the fovea, parafovea, and 3x3mm image (p<0.05). CONCLUSION:In our study, our black subjects had decreased macular capillary vasculature compared to matched white subjects, even in early adulthood and the absence of any systemic or ocular conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that retinal and choriocapillary vascular differences may contribute to racial disparities in vulnerability to DR.
Project description:PURPOSE:To identify objective optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) parameters that characterize the spectrum of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), especially those that distinguish moderate from severe NPDR. METHODS:Sixty eyes of 60 patients with treatment-naïve NPDR (mild: 21, moderate: 21, severe: 18), 23 eyes with diabetes and no retinopathy, and 24 healthy control eyes were enrolled. OCTA slabs were segmented into superficial (SCP), middle (MCP), and deep capillary plexus (DCP) and thresholded by a new method based on DCP skeletonized vessel length. The foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, parafoveal vessel density (VD), and adjusted flow index (AFI) from all three capillary layers and the vessel length density (VLD) of the SCP were compared between each severity group, after adjusting for age and image quality. RESULTS:All vessel density markers decreased with increasing severity of NPDR. SCP VD and VLD demonstrated significant differences between eyes with diabetes with no retinopathy and mild NPDR (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively), as well as between moderate vs. severe NPDR (p = 0.004 and p = 0.009, respectively). MCP VD significantly decreased between moderate and severe NPDR (p = 0.01). AFI significantly increased in the SCP and showed a decreasing trend in the MCP and DCP with increasing NPDR severity. CONCLUSIONS:Changes in the SCP VD, SCP VLD, and MCP VD can distinguish severe NPDR from lower-risk stages. SCP changes may be more reliable due to their lower susceptibility to noise and projection artifacts. Thresholding OCTA images based on DCP skeletonized vessel length showed less variability in moderate and severe NPDR. Additional studies are warranted to validate this new thresholding method.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) metrics in the superficial (SCP), intermediate (ICP), and deep (DCP) vascular plexuses across diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity levels.<h4>Methods</h4>This was a cross sectional observational retrospective chart review study. Eligible patients with diabetes who underwent same day RTVue XR Avanti OCTA, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and 200-degree Optos ultrawide field color imaging. SCP, ICP, and DCP vessel density (VD) and vessel length density (VLD) were assessed using 3-D projection artifact removal software (PAROCTA) software.<h4>Results</h4>Of 396 eyes (237 patients), 16.1% had no DR, 26.9% mild nonproliferative DR (NPDR), 21.1% moderate NPDR, 12.1% severe NPDR, 10.1% proliferative DR (PDR) without panretinal photocoagulation (PRP), and 13.4% PDR with PRP. When comparing mild NPDR to no DR eyes, ICP and DCP VD and VLD were significantly lower, but there was no difference for SCP metrics. In eyes with more severe DR, there were significant differences in SCP VD and VLD between DR severity levels (mild versus moderate NPDR: VD 35.45 ± 3.31 vs. 34.14 ± 3.38, P = 0.008 and VLD 17.59 ± 1.83 vs. 16.80 ± 1.83, P = 0.003; moderate versus severe NPDR: VLD 16.80 ± 1.83 vs. 15.79 ± 1.84, P = 0.019), but no significant differences in ICP or DCP.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Although VD of each of the three individual layers decreases with increasing DR severity, DR severity has a substantially different effect on OCTA parameters within each layer. Vascular changes in eyes with no to early DR were present primarily in the deeper vascular layers, whereas in eyes with advanced DR the opposite was observed. This study highlights the effects of ICP and the importance of assessing SCP and DCP changes independently across each DR severity level.
Project description:We investigated the characteristics of microvessel tortuosity in branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and their associations with visual outcomes using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Thirty-four BRVO and 21 CRVO patients and 31 healthy subjects were included. From OCTA, the branch number (BN), mean branch length (BL), mean Euclidean length (EL), vessel density (VD) and vessel tortuosity (VT) were quantified. In BRVO eyes, compared with that in the controls, the affected area of the deep capillary plexus (DCP) showed a decreased BN and VD, an increased BL, and unchanged VT. The nonaffected area of the DCP showed decreases in BN, VD and VT. The affected area of the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) showed higher VT. In CRVO eyes, the DCP showed a lower BN, VD and VT, while the SCP showed a lower BN and greater BL and EL. Improved visual acuity (VA) after 1 year in BRVO eyes was associated with decreases in BN, BL, VD and VT in the affected area in the DCP and lower VT in the nonaffected area of the SCP; in CRVO eyes, improved VA was associated with a higher BL and EL in the DCP. VT, BL, and EL may be new microvascular markers associated with changes in VA in BRVO and CRVO.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To evaluate pre-operative and post-operative morphologic characteristics in idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane (ERM) by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA).<h4>Methods</h4>Thirty-three subjects with unilateral idiopathic ERM were enrolled and the contralateral eyes served as controls. Vascular parameters including superficial capillary plexus (SCP), deep capillary plexus (DCP), outer capillary plexus (OCP), and choroidal capillary plexus (CCP) were evaluated by OCTA.<h4>Results</h4>The superficial foveal avascular zone (FAZ) was significantly smaller in eyes with ERM (P?<?0.0001). The vessel densities (VDs) were significantly increased in the fovea but dramatically decreased in the parafovea in SCP and DCP of ERM eyes (all P?<?0.0001), in contrast to those in OCP and CCP. The blood flow was augmented in OCP but declined in choroid compared with the controls. In CCP, the mean foveal VD in ERM was significantly smaller (P?=?0.023), whereas parafoveal VD did not significantly change (P?=?0.66). At 6 months after surgery, flow area was decreased in OCP (P?=?0.0007), and foveal and parafoveal VDs were significantly altered in all layers except the foveal VD in OCP and the choroid (all P?<?0.05). The total and inner retinal thickness of the fovea and parafovea were correlated with pre-operative and post-operative visual outcomes, respectively. Smaller FAZ and greater interocular differences between post-operative and fellow eyes in FAZ were associated with worse post-operative visual outcomes.<h4>Conclusions</h4>OCTA provides a better display of the vascular network of the retina and choroid to evaluate the severity and surgical prognosis of ERM patients.
Project description:To quantify changes in retinal microvasculature in diabetic retinopathy (DR) by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography (SD-OCTA).Retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study of healthy and diabetic adult subjects with and without DR. Retinal microvascular changes were assessed by using SD-OCTA images and an intensity-based optical microangiography algorithm. A semiautomated program was used to calculate indices of microvascular density and morphology in nonsegmented and segmented SD-OCTA images. Microvascular density was quantified by using skeleton density (SD) and vessel density (VD), while vessel morphology was quantified as fractal dimension (FD) and vessel diameter index (VDI). Statistical analyses were performed by using the Student's t-test or analysis of variance with post hoc Tukey honest significant difference tests for multiple comparisons.Eighty-four eyes with DR and 14 healthy eyes were studied. Spearman's rank test demonstrated a negative correlation between DR severity and SD, VD, and FD, and a positive correlation with VDI (? = -0.767, -0.7166, -0.768, and +0.5051, respectively; P < 0.0001). All parameters showed high reproducibility between graders (ICC = 0.971, 0.962, 0.937, and 0.994 for SD, VD, FD, and VDI, respectively). Repeatability (?) was greater than 0.99 for SD, VD, FD, and VDI.Vascular changes in DR can be objectively and reliably characterized with SD, VD, FD, and VDI. In general, decreasing capillary density (SD and VD), branching complexity (FD), and increasing average vascular caliber (VDI) were associated with worsening DR. Changes in capillary density and morphology were significantly correlated with diabetic macular edema.
Project description:PURPOSE:Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a hereditary disorder that can lead to ophthalmic manifestations, including retinal capillary hemangioma (RCH). The diagnosis of RCH is often guided by wide-field fluorescein angiography. In some cases, optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) serves as a non-invasive alternative to FA. Herein, we used OCT-A to examine the macular microvasculature in patients with VHL disease. SUBJECTS:Subjects were selected from patients with a diagnosis of VHL. The control group included eyes without retinal diagnosis from patients with an episode of unilateral retinal detachment or trauma and age ? 50 years old. METHODS:Subjects were scanned on the Optovue RTVue-XR device to acquire 3mm x 3mm OCT-A images of the superficial (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP). SCP and DCP vessel density (VD) were calculated after the images were binarized. Furthermore, for subjects with RCH, each OCT-A image was divided equally into four quadrants. SCP and DCP VD of quadrants with RCH were compared to those without RCH. T-tests were performed for statistical analysis. RESULTS:67 eyes with a history of VHL disease were included as study subjects, while 16 eyes were included as controls. Significant increases in VD were found in patients with VHL disease for both the SCP (p = 0.0441) and DCP (p = 0.0344). When comparing quadrants with associated RCH development to those without, we found no significant difference in SCP VD (p = 0.160) or DCP VD (p = 0.484). CONCLUSIONS:OCT-A can detect changes in the retinal microvasculature in the macula of patients with VHL disease. OCT-A imaging may be an additional tool for screening and early detection of patients at risk of developing ocular complications of VHL disease. Future studies should explore subtle progression on OCT-A associated with the pathogenesis and development of RCH, particularly with larger scan patterns.
Project description:In this prospective study, we analysed the changes in retinal vessel density (VD) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in patients with commotio retinae up to 6 months after blunt ocular trauma. We analysed the VD in the superficial capillary plexus (SCP), deep capillary plexus (DCP), radial peripapillary capillary (RPC) and the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area at 48 h, and 1, 3 and 6 months after the trauma and compared results with those of healthy fellow eyes. We also evaluated the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and the structural, spectral domain (SD)-OCT parameters: ganglion cell complex (GCC) and retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL). A total of 18 eyes of 18 patients (8 males, 10 females, mean age 49.61 ± 9.2 years) and 18 healthy control eyes were evaluated. GCC and RNFL thicknesses showed a significant trend towards progressively lower values from 1 month and 3 months after the trauma, respectively, compared to healthy eyes (p < 0.005). The reduction in SD-OCT parameters reached a plateau at 6 months. Similar behaviour was found in the VD of the SCP and RPC that significantly decreased, starting from 1 and 3 months after the trauma, respectively (p < 0.001). At 6 months, the VD values were stable. The DCP presented an initial decrease of VD (p < 0.001), and after 1 month, the values statistically increased until the sixth month, reaching values similar to those of the control group. The FAZ area and BCVA did not show statistically significant changes during the follow-up. OCTA provided a detailed and quantitative analysis of early retinal vascular perfusion alterations after commotio retinae, demonstrating that the impairment of the retinal microvasculature and its progressive changes over time occurred even in the absence of compromised visual acuity.