Differences in airway microbiome and metabolome of single lung transplant recipients.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Recent studies suggest that alterations in lung microbiome are associated with occurrence of chronic lung diseases and transplant rejection. To investigate the host-microbiome interactions, we characterized the airway microbiome and metabolome of the allograft (transplanted lung) and native lung of single lung transplant recipients. METHODS:BAL was collected from the allograft and native lungs of SLTs and healthy controls. 16S rRNA microbiome analysis was performed on BAL bacterial pellets and supernatant used for metabolome, cytokines and acetylated proline-glycine-proline (Ac-PGP) measurement by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. RESULTS:In our cohort, the allograft airway microbiome was distinct with a significantly higher bacterial burden and relative abundance of genera Acinetobacter & Pseudomonas. Likewise, the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine VEGF and the neutrophil chemoattractant matrikine Ac-PGP in the allograft was significantly higher. Airway metabolome distinguished the native lung from the allografts and an increased concentration of sphingosine-like metabolites that negatively correlated with abundance of bacteria from phyla Proteobacteria. CONCLUSIONS:Allograft lungs have a distinct microbiome signature, a higher bacterial biomass and an increased Ac-PGP compared to the native lungs in SLTs compared to the native lungs in SLTs. Airway metabolome distinguishes the allografts from native lungs and is associated with distinct microbial communities, suggesting a functional relationship between the local microbiome and metabolome.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the natural history of fibrotic lung disease in recipients of a single lung transplant for scleroderma-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD). METHODS:Global ILD (including ground glass, nodular opacities and fibrosis) was categorized into severity quintiles on first and last post-transplant CT scans, and percent fibrosis by manual contouring was also determined, in nine single lung transplant recipients. Quantitative mean lung densities and volumes for the native and allograft lungs were also acquired. RESULTS:In the native lung, global ILD severity quintile worsened in two cases and percent fibrosis worsened in four cases (range 5-28%). In the lung allograft, one case each developed mild, moderate and severe ILD; of these, new fibrotic ILD (involving <10% of lung) occurred in two cases and acute cellular rejection occurred in one. The average change in native lung density over time was +2.2 Hounsfield Units per year and lung volume +1.4 ml per year, whereas the allograft lung density changed by -5.5 Hounsfield Units per year and total volume +27 ml per year (P = 0.011 and P = 0.039 for native vs allograft density and volume comparisons, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:While the course of ILD in the native and transplanted lungs varied in this series, these cases illustrate that disease progression is common in the native lung, suggesting that either the immune process continues to target autoantigens or ongoing fibrotic pathways are active in the native lung. Mild lung disease may occur in the allograft after several years due to either allograft rejection or recurrent mild ILD.
Project description:Chronic inflammation in lung diseases contributes to lung tissue destruction leading to the formation of chemotactic collagen fragments such as N-acetylated Proline-Glycine-Proline (N-ac-PGP). In this study, we investigated in more detail the mechanism of action of N-ac-PGP in neutrophilic inflammation. N-ac-PGP was chemotactic for human neutrophils via pertussis toxin sensitive G protein-coupled receptors in vitro and directly activated this cell type, which led to cytosolic calcium mobilization and release of CXCL8. Furthermore, using a selective CXCR2 antagonist confirmed that N-ac-PGP-induced neutrophil chemotaxis is mediated through CXCR2 activation. To determine whether N-ac-PGP was solely responsible for the migration and activation of human neutrophils in vitro and not the released CXCL8 upon stimulation with N-ac-PGP, an antibody directed against CXCL8 was used. Performing chemotaxis and calcium influx assays in the presence of this antibody did not alter the effects of N-ac-PGP whereas effects of CXCL8 were attenuated. These experiments indicate that N-ac-PGP, in addition to the direct induction of chemotaxis, also directly activates neutrophils to release CXCL8. In vivo, this may lead in the long term to a self-maintaining situation enhanced by both N-ac-PGP and CXCL8, leading to a further increase in neutrophil infiltration and chronic inflammation.
Project description:This study was undertaken to characterize the molecular and pathological mechanisms of pulmonary vascular remodeling in a patient who developed chronic lung allograft dysfunction and recurrent pulmonary hypertension (PH) 22 years after undergoing a right single lung transplantation for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Histopathologic examination of the explanted lungs at the time of retransplantation showed characteristics of diffuse vascular remodeling combined with features of acute and chronic thromboemboli and evidence of bronchiolitis obliterans in the right lung allograft. In contrast, the native left lung demonstrated pulmonary arterial changes in keeping with PAH associated with disseminated pulmonary ossification. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot-performed on the first lung allograft, the native lung, and the new donor lung-demonstrated increased expression of apoptotic-related gene and protein levels in the lung allograft compared with the native PAH lung and the donor lung. Localization of cell apoptosis determined by triple immunostaining for caspase 3, CD31, and smooth muscle actin was positive in the pulmonary endothelial cells but not the smooth muscle cells of the lung allograft, while no positive staining was detected for cell death in the native PAH lung. The presence of PH in the lung allograft 22 years after transplantation was associated with upregulation of apoptotic markers and evidence of apoptotic endothelial cell death compared with the native lung and donor lung.
Project description:Lung transplantation can be lifesaving in end-stage cystic fibrosis (CF), but long-term survival is limited by chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). Persistent upper airway Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PsA) colonization can seed the allograft. While de novo PsA infection is associated with CLAD in non-CF recipients, this association is less clear for CF recipients experiencing PsA recolonization. Here, we evaluate host and pathogen contributions to this phenomenon. In the context of PsA infection, brushings from the airways of CF recipients demonstrate type 1 interferon gene suppression. Airway epithelial cell (AEC) cultures demonstrate similar findings in the absence of pathogens or immune cells, contrasting with the pre-transplant CF AEC phenotype. Type 1 interferon promoters are relatively hypermethylated in CF AECs. CF subjects in this cohort have more mucoid PsA, while non-CF PsA subjects have decreased microbiome ? diversity. Peri-transplant protocols may benefit from consideration of this host and microbiome equilibrium.
Project description:In a prior report, we observed two distinct lung microbiomes in healthy subjects that we termed “pneumotypes”: pneumotypeSPT, characterized by high bacterial load and supraglottic predominant taxa (SPT) such as the anaerobes Prevotella and Veillonella; and pneumotypeBPT, with low bacterial burden and background predominant taxa (BPT) found in the saline lavage and bronchoscope. Here, we determined the prevalence of these two contrasting lung microbiome types, in a multi-center study of healthy subjects. We confirmed that a lower airway microbiome enriched with upper airway microbes (pneumotypeSPT) was present in ~45% of healthy individuals. Cross-sectional Multicenter cohort. BAL of 49 healthy subjects from three cohort had their lower airway microbiome assessed by 16S rDNA sequencing and microbial gene content (metagenome) was computationally inferred from taxonomic assignments. The amplicons from total 100 samples are barcoded; the barcode and other clinical characteristics (e.g. inflammatory biomarkers and metabolome data) for each sample are provided in the 'Pneumotype.sep.Map.A1.txt' file.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cigarette smoking induces inflammatory responses in all smokers and is the major risk factor for lung disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this progressive disease, chronic inflammation in the lung contributes to lung tissue destruction leading to the formation of chemotactic collagen fragments such as N-acetylated Proline-Glycine-Proline (N-ac-PGP). The generation of this tripeptide is mediated by a multistep pathway involving matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) 8 and 9 and prolyl endopeptidase (PE). Here we investigated whether cigarette smoke extract (CSE) stimulates human PMNs to breakdown whole matrix collagen leading to the generation of the chemotactic collagen fragment N-ac-PGP. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Incubating PMNs with CSE led to the release of chemo-attractant CXCL8 and proteases MMP8 and MMP9. PMNs constitutively expressed PE activity as well as PE protein. Incubating CSE-primed PMNs with collagen resulted in collagen breakdown and in N-ac-PGP generation. Incubation of PMNs with the tripeptide N-ac-PGP resulted in the release of CXCL8, MMP8 and MMP9. Moreover, we tested whether PMNs from COPD patients are different from PMNs from healthy donors. Here we show that the intracellular basal PE activity of PMNs from COPD patients increased 25-fold compared to PMNs from healthy donors. Immunohistological staining of human lung tissue for PE showed that besides neutrophils, macrophages and epithelial cells express PE. CONCLUSIONS:This study indicates that neutrophils activated by cigarette smoke extract can breakdown collagen into N-ac-PGP and that this collagen fragment itself can activate neutrophils, which may lead in vivo to a self-propagating cycle of neutrophil infiltration, chronic inflammation and lung emphysema. MMP-, PE- or PGP-inhibitors can serve as an attractive therapeutic target and may open new avenues towards effective treatment of COPD.
Project description:Pulmonary responses to the air pollutant, ozone, are increased in obesity. Both obesity and ozone cause changes in systemic metabolism. Consequently, we examined the impact of ozone on the lung metabolomes of obese and lean mice. Lean wildtype and obese db/db mice were exposed to acute ozone (2 ppm for 3 h) or air. 24 hours later, the lungs were excised, flushed with PBS to remove blood and analyzed via liquid-chromatography or gas-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for metabolites. Both obesity and ozone caused changes in the lung metabolome. Of 321 compounds identified, 101 were significantly impacted by obesity in air-exposed mice. These included biochemicals related to carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, which were each increased in lungs of obese versus lean mice. These metabolite changes may be of functional importance given the signaling capacity of these moieties. Ozone differentially affected the lung metabolome in obese versus lean mice. For example, almost all phosphocholine-containing lysolipids were significantly reduced in lean mice, but this effect was attenuated in obese mice. Glutathione metabolism was also differentially affected by ozone in obese and lean mice. Finally, the lung metabolome indicated a role for the microbiome in the effects of both obesity and ozone: all measured bacterial/mammalian co-metabolites were significantly affected by obesity and/or ozone. Thus, metabolic derangements in obesity appear to impact the response to ozone.
Project description:Surfactant instillation into the lungs is used to treat several respiratory disorders such as neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS). The success of the treatments significantly depends on the uniformity of distribution of the instilled surfactant in airways. This is challenging to directly evaluate due to the inaccessibility of lung airways and great difficulty with imaging them. To tackle this problem, we developed a 3D physical model of human lung airway tree. Using a defined set of principles, we first generated computational models of eight generations of neonates' tracheobronchial tree comprising the conducting zone airways. Similar to native lungs, these models contained continuously-branching airways that rotated in the 3D space and reduced in size with increase in the generation number. Then, we used additive manufacturing to generate physical airway tree models that precisely replicated the computational designs. We demonstrated the utility of the physical models to study surfactant delivery in the lungs and showed the effect of orientation of the airway tree in the gravitational field on the distribution of instilled surfactant between the left and right lungs and within each lung. Our 3D lung airway tree model offers a novel tool for quantitative studies of therapeutics delivery.
Project description:Most microbiome research related to airway diseases has focused on the gut microbiome. This is despite advances in culture independent microbial identification techniques revealing that even healthy lungs possess a unique dynamic microbiome. This conceptual change raises the question; if lung diseases could be causally linked to local dysbiosis of the local lung microbiota. Here, we manipulate the murine lung and gut microbiome, in order to show that the lung microbiota can be changed experimentally. We have used four different approaches: lung inflammation by exposure to carbon nano-tube particles, oral probiotics and oral or intranasal exposure to the antibiotic vancomycin. Bacterial DNA was extracted from broncho-alveolar and nasal lavage fluids, caecum samples and compared by DGGE. Our results show that: the lung microbiota is sex dependent and not just a reflection of the gut microbiota, and that induced inflammation can change lung microbiota. This change is not transferred to offspring. Oral probiotics in adult mice do not change lung microbiome detectible by DGGE. Nasal vancomycin can change the lung microbiome preferentially, while oral exposure does not. These observations should be considered in future studies of the causal relationship between lung microbiota and lung diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Children with oropharyngeal dysphagia have impaired airway protection mechanisms and are at higher risk for pneumonia and other pulmonary complications. Aspiration of gastric contents is often implicated as a cause for these pulmonary complications, despite being supported by little evidence. The goal of this study is to determine the relative contribution of oropharyngeal and gastric microbial communities to perturbations in the lung microbiome of children with and without oropharyngeal dysphagia and aspiration. METHODS:We conducted a prospective cohort study of 220 patients consecutively recruited from a tertiary aerodigestive center undergoing simultaneous esophagogastroduodenoscopy and flexible bronchoscopy. Bronchoalveolar lavage, gastric and oropharyngeal samples were collected from all recruited patients and 16S sequencing was performed. A subset of 104 patients also underwent video fluoroscopic swallow studies to assess swallow function and were categorized as aspiration/no aspiration. To ensure the validity of the results, we compared the microbiome of these aerodigestive patients to the microbiome of pediatric patients recruited to a longitudinal cohort study of children with suspected GERD; patients recruited to this study had oropharyngeal, gastric and/or stool samples available. The relationships between microbial communities across the aerodigestive tract were described by analyzing within- and between-patient beta diversities and identifying taxa which are exchanged between aerodigestive sites within patients. These relationships were then compared in patients with and without aspiration to evaluate the effect of aspiration on the aerodigestive microbiome. RESULTS:Within all patients, lung, oropharyngeal and gastric microbiomes overlap. The degree of similarity is the lowest between the oropharynx and lungs (median Jensen-Shannon distance (JSD) = 0.90), and as high between the stomach and lungs as between the oropharynx and stomach (median JSD = 0.56 for both; p = 0.6). Unlike the oropharyngeal microbiome, lung and gastric communities are highly variable across people and driven primarily by person rather than body site. In patients with aspiration, the lung microbiome more closely resembles oropharyngeal rather than gastric communities and there is greater prevalence of microbial exchange between the lung and oropharynx than between gastric and lung sites (p = 0.04 and 4x10-5, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:The gastric and lung microbiomes display significant overlap in patients with intact airway protective mechanisms while the lung and oropharynx remain distinct. In patients with impaired swallow function and aspiration, the lung microbiome shifts towards oropharyngeal rather than gastric communities. This finding may explain why antireflux surgeries fail to show benefit in pediatric pulmonary outcomes.