Interferon-gamma polymorphisms and risk of iron deficiency and anaemia in Gambian children.
ABSTRACT: Background: Anaemia is a major public health concern especially in African children living in malaria-endemic regions. Interferon-gamma (IFN-?) is elevated during malaria infection and is thought to influence erythropoiesis and iron status. Genetic variants in the IFN-? gene (IFNG) are associated with increased IFN-? production. We investigated putative functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes of IFNG in relation to nutritional iron status and anaemia in Gambian children over a malaria season. Methods: We used previously available data from Gambian family trios to determine informative SNPs and then used the Agena Bioscience MassArray platform to type five SNPs from the IFNG gene in a cohort of 780 Gambian children aged 2-6 years. We also measured haemoglobin and biomarkers of iron status and inflammation at the start and end of a malaria season. Results: We identified five IFNG haplotype-tagging SNPs ( IFNG-1616 [rs2069705], IFNG+874 [rs2430561], IFNG+2200 [rs1861493], IFNG+3234 [rs2069718] and IFNG+5612 [rs2069728]). The IFNG+2200C [rs1861493] allele was associated with reduced haemoglobin concentrations (adjusted ? -0.44 [95% CI -0.75, -0.12]; Bonferroni adjusted P = 0.03) and a trend towards iron deficiency compared to wild-type at the end of the malaria season in multivariable models adjusted for potential confounders. A haplotype uniquely identified by IFNG+2200C was similarly associated with reduced haemoglobin levels and trends towards iron deficiency, anaemia and iron deficiency anaemia at the end of the malaria season in models adjusted for age, sex, village, inflammation and malaria parasitaemia. Conclusion: We found limited statistical evidence linking IFNG polymorphisms with a risk of developing iron deficiency and anaemia in Gambian children. More definitive studies are needed to investigate the effects of genetically influenced IFN-? levels on the risk of iron deficiency and anaemia in children living in malaria-endemic areas.
Project description:Anaemia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality for children in Africa. The plasma protein haptoglobin (Hp) binds avidly to free haemoglobin released following malaria-induced haemolysis. Haptoglobin polymorphisms result in proteins with altered haemoglobin-binding capacity and different antioxidant, iron-recycling, and immune functions. Previous studies examined the importance of haptoglobin polymorphism in malaria and iron homeostasis, but it is unknown whether haptoglobin genotype might be a risk factor for anaemia in children in a malaria-endemic area.A cohort of 780 rural Gambian children aged 2-6 y was surveyed at the start and end of the malaria season. Samples were taken to assess haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, iron status (ferritin, zinc protoporphyrin, transferrin saturation, and soluble transferrin receptor concentration), haptoglobin concentration, alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (a measure of inflammation), and malaria parasites on blood film. We extracted DNA and genotyped for haptoglobin, sickle cell, and glucose-6-phosphate (G6PD) deficiency. Mean Hb levels fell over the malaria season. Children with the haptoglobin 2-2 genotype (17%) had a greater mean drop in Hb level over the malaria season (an 8.9 g/l drop; confidence interval [CI] 5.7, 12.1) compared to other children (a 5.1 g/l drop; CI 3.8, 6.4). In multivariate regression analysis, controlling for baseline Hb level, age group, village, malaria parasites on blood film, iron status, haptoglobin concentration, and G6PD deficiency, haptoglobin genotype predicted Hb level at the end of the malaria season (p = 0.0009, coefficient = -4.2). Iron status was not influenced by haptoglobin genotype.The finding that haptoglobin 2-2 genotype is a risk factor for anaemia in children in a malaria-endemic area may reflect the reduced ability of the Hp2-2 polymer to scavenge free haemoglobin-iron following malaria-induced haemolysis. The magnitude of the effect of haptoglobin genotype (4 g/l Hb difference, p = 0.0009) was comparable to that of G6PD deficiency or HbAS (3 g/l difference, p = 0.03; and 2 g/l difference, p = 0.68, respectively).
Project description:In malaria endemic countries, children who have experienced an episode of severe anaemia are at increased risk of a recurrence of anaemia. There is a need to find ways of protecting these at risk children from malaria and chemoprevention offers a potential way of achieving this objective.During the 2003 and 2004 malaria transmission seasons, 1200 Gambian children with moderate or severe anaemia (Hb concentration <7 g/dL) were randomised to receive either monthly sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) or placebo until the end of the malaria transmission season in which they were enrolled, in a double-blind trial. All study subjects were treated with oral iron for 28 days and morbidity was monitored through surveillance at health centres. The primary endpoint was the proportion of children with moderate or severe anaemia at the end of the transmission season. Secondary endpoints included the incidence of clinical episodes of malaria during the surveillance period, outpatient attendances, the prevalence of parasitaemia and splenomegaly, nutritional status at the end of the malaria transmission season and compliance with the treatment regimen.The proportions of children with a Hb concentration of <7 g/dL at the end of the malaria transmission season were similar in the two study groups, 14/464 (3.0%) in children who received at least one dose of SP and 16/471 (3.4%) in those who received placebo, prevalence ratio 0.89 (0.44,1.8) P = 0.742. The protective efficacy of SP against episodes of clinical malaria was 53% (95% CI 37%, 65%). Treatment with SP was safe and well tolerated; no serious adverse events related to SP administration were observed. Mortality following discharge from hospital was low among children who received SP or placebo (6 in the SP group and 9 in the placebo group respectively).Intermittent treatment with SP did not reduce the proportion of previously anaemic children with moderate or severe anaemia at the end of the malaria season, although it prevented malaria. The combination of appropriate antimalarial treatment plus one month of iron supplementation and good access to healthcare during follow-up proved effective in restoring haemoglobin to an acceptable level in the Gambian setting.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00131716.
Project description:Association between H. pylori infection, iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia has been described, but the mechanisms involved have not been established. We hypothesized that in H. pylori infected children increased gastric concentrations of IL-1? and/or TNF-?, both potent inhibitors of gastric acid secretion that is essential for iron absorption, are predictors for low blood concentrations of ferritin and haemoglobin, markers of early depletion of iron stores and anaemia, respectively. We evaluated 125 children undergoing endoscopy to clarify the origin of gastrointestinal symptoms. Gastric specimens were obtained for H. pylori status and cytokine evaluation and blood samples for determination of iron deficiency/iron deficiency anaemia parameters and IL1 cluster and TNFA polymorphisms that are associated with increased cytokine secretions. Higher IL-1? and TNF-? gastric concentrations were observed in H. pylori-positive (n?=?47) than in -negative (n?=?78) children. Multiple linear regression models revealed gastric IL-1?, but not TNF-?, as a significant predictor of low ferritin and haemoglobin concentrations; results were reproduced in young children in whom IL1RN polymorphic genotypes associated with higher gastric IL-1? expression and lower blood ferritin and haemoglobin concentrations. In conclusion, high gastric levels of IL-1? can be the link between H. pylori infection and iron deficiency/iron deficiency anaemia in childhood.
Project description:Although inherited blood disorders are common among children in many parts of Africa, limited data are available about their prevalence or contribution to childhood anaemia. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 858 children aged 6-35 months who were randomly selected from 60 villages in western Kenya. Haemoglobin (Hb), ferritin, malaria, C-reactive protein (CRP) and retinol binding protein (RBP) were measured from capillary blood. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Hb type, -3.7?kb alpha-globin chain deletion, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) genotype and haptoglobin (Hp) genotype were determined. More than 2 out of 3 children had at least one measured blood disorder. Sickle cell trait (HbAS) and disease (HbSS) were found in 17.1% and 1.6% of children, respectively; 38.5% were heterozygotes and 9.6% were homozygotes for ?(+) -thalassaemia. The Hp 2-2 genotype was found in 20.4% of children, whereas 8.2% of males and 6.8% of children overall had G6PD deficiency. There were no significant differences in the distribution of malaria by the measured blood disorders, except among males with G6PD deficiency who had a lower prevalence of clinical malaria than males of normal G6PD genotype (P?=?0.005). After excluding children with malaria parasitaemia, inflammation (CRP?>?5?mg?L(-1) ), iron deficiency (ferritin?<?12??g?L(-1) ) or vitamin A deficiency (RBP?<?0.7??g?L(-1) ), the prevalence of anaemia among those without ?(+) -thalassaemia (43.0%) remained significantly lower than that among children who were either heterozygotes (53.5%) or homozygotes (67.7%, P?=?0.03). Inherited blood disorders are common among pre-school children in western Kenya and are important contributors to anaemia.
Project description:Iron deficiency (ID) and malaria co-exist in tropical regions and both contribute to high rates of anaemia in young children. It is unclear whether iron fortification combined with intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) of malaria would be an efficacious strategy for reducing anaemia in young children.A 9-month cluster-randomised, single-blinded, placebo-controlled intervention trial was carried out in children aged 12-36 months in south-central Côte d'Ivoire, an area of intense and perennial malaria transmission. The study groups were: group 1: normal diet and IPT-placebo (n = 125); group 2: consumption of porridge, an iron-fortified complementary food (CF) with optimised composition providing 2 mg iron as NaFeEDTA and 3.8 mg iron as ferrous fumarate 6 days per week (CF-FeFum) and IPT-placebo (n = 126); group 3: IPT of malaria at 3-month intervals, using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine and no dietary intervention (n = 127); group 4: both CF-FeFum and IPT (n = 124); and group 5: consumption of porridge, an iron-fortified CF with the composition currently on the Ivorian market providing 2 mg iron as NaFeEDTA and 3.8 mg iron as ferric pyrophosphate 6 days per week (CF-FePP) and IPT-placebo (n = 127). The primary outcome was haemoglobin (Hb) concentration. Linear and logistic regression mixed-effect models were used for the comparison of the five study groups, and a 2 × 2 factorial analysis was used to assess treatment interactions of CF-FeFum and IPT (study groups 1-4).After 9 months, the Hb concentration increased in all groups to a similar extent with no statistically significant difference between groups. In the 2 × 2 factorial analysis after 9 months, no treatment interaction was found on Hb (P = 0.89). The adjusted differences in Hb were 0.24 g/dl (95 % CI -0.10 to 0.59; P = 0.16) in children receiving IPT and -0.08 g/dl (95 % CI -0.42 to 0.26; P = 0.65) in children receiving CF-FeFum. At baseline, anaemia (Hb <11.0 g/dl) was 82.1 %. After 9 months, IPT decreased the odds of anaemia (odds ratio [OR], 0.46 [95 % CI 0.23-0.91]; P = 0.023), whereas iron-fortified CF did not (OR, 0.85 [95 % CI 0.43-1.68]; P = 0.68), although ID (plasma ferritin <30 ?g/l) was decreased markedly in children receiving iron fortified CF (OR, 0.19 [95 % CI 0.09-0.40]; P < 0.001).IPT alone only modestly decreased anaemia, but neither IPT nor iron fortified CF significantly improved Hb concentration after 9 months. Additionally, IPT did not augment the effect of the iron fortified CF. CF fortified with highly bioavailable iron improved iron status but not Hb concentration, despite three-monthly IPT of malaria. Thus, further research is necessary to develop effective combination strategies to prevent and treat anaemia in malaria endemic regions.http://www.clinicaltrials.gov ; identifier NCT01634945; registered on July 3, 2012.
Project description:Anaemia is a persistent problem among young Burkinabe children, yet population-specific information on its determinants is scant. We used baseline data from an evaluation of Helen Keller International's Enhanced Homestead Food Production Program (n=1210 children) to quantify household-, mother-, and child-level factors associated with anaemia in Burkinabe children aged 6-12 months. We used structural equation modelling to assess a theoretical model, which tested four categories of factors: (a) household food security and dietary diversity, (b) household sanitation and hygiene (latrine and poultry access and bednet ownership), (c) maternal factors (anaemia, stress, cleanliness, and health, hygiene and feeding knowledge and practices), and (d) child nutrition and health (iron deficiency (ID), retinol binding protein (RBP), malaria, and inflammation). The model also included household socio-economic status, size, and polygamy; maternal age and education; and child age and sex. Results showed that ID, malaria, and inflammation were the primary direct determinants of anaemia, contributing 15%, 10%, and 10%, respectively. Maternal knowledge directly explained improved child feeding practices and household bednet ownership. Household dietary diversity directly explained 18% of child feeding practices. Additionally, RBP, child age and sex, and maternal anaemia directly predicted child haemoglobin. Our findings suggest that program effectiveness could be increased by addressing the multiple, context-specific contributors of child anaemia. For young Burkinabe children, anaemia control programs that include interventions to reduce ID, malaria, and inflammation should be tested. Other potential intervention entry points suggested by our model include improving maternal knowledge of optimal health, hygiene, and nutrition practices and household dietary diversity.
Project description:Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in children (IPTc) is a promising strategy for malaria control. A study conducted in Mali in 2008 showed that administration of three courses of IPTc with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and amodiaquine (AQ) at monthly intervals reduced clinical malaria, severe malaria and malaria infection by >80% in children under 5 years of age. Here we report the results of a follow-on study undertaken to establish whether children who had received IPTc would be at increased risk of malaria during the subsequent malaria transmission season.Morbidity from malaria and the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and anaemia were measured in children who had previously received IPTc with SP and AQ using similar surveillance methods to those employed during the previous intervention period.1396 of 1508 children (93%) who had previously received IPTc and 1406 of 1508 children (93%) who had previously received placebos were followed up during the high malaria transmission season of the year following the intervention. Incidence rates of clinical malaria during the post-intervention transmission season (July-November 2009) were 1.87 (95% CI 1.76-1.99) and 1.73 (95% CI; 1.62-1.85) episodes per child year in the previous intervention and placebo groups respectively; incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.09 (95% CI 0.99-1.21) (P?=?0.08). The prevalence of malaria infection was similar in the two groups, 7.4% versus 7.5%, prevalence ratio (PR) of 0.99 (95% CI 0.73-1.33) (P?=?0.95). At the end of post-intervention malaria transmission season, the prevalence of anaemia, defined as a haemoglobin concentration<11g/dL, was similar in the two groups (56.2% versus 55.6%; PR?=?1.01 [95% CI 0.91-1.12]) (P?=?0.84).IPTc with SP+AQ was not associated with an increase in incidence of malaria episodes, prevalence of malaria infection or anaemia in the subsequent malaria transmission season.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00738946.
Project description:Iron deficiency and malaria have similar global distributions, and frequently co-exist in pregnant women and young children. Where both conditions are prevalent, iron supplementation is complicated by observations that iron deficiency anaemia protects against falciparum malaria, and that iron supplements increase susceptibility to clinically significant malaria, but the mechanisms remain obscure. Here, using an in vitro parasite culture system with erythrocytes from iron-deficient and replete human donors, we demonstrate that Plasmodium falciparum infects iron-deficient erythrocytes less efficiently. In addition, owing to merozoite preference for young erythrocytes, iron supplementation of iron-deficient individuals reverses the protective effects of iron deficiency. Our results provide experimental validation of field observations reporting protective effects of iron deficiency and harmful effects of iron administration on human malaria susceptibility. Because recovery from anaemia requires transient reticulocytosis, our findings imply that in malarious regions iron supplementation should be accompanied by effective measures to prevent falciparum malaria.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Iron deficiency, the most common micronutrient disorder and cause of anaemia globally, impairs growth, cognition, behaviour and resistance to infection. METHODS/RESULTS:As part of a national survey of inherited haemoglobin variants in 7526 students from 72 secondary schools purposefully selected from the 25 districts of Sri Lanka, we studied 5912 students with a normal haemoglobin genotype. Median age was 16.0 (IQR 15.0-17.0) years and 3189 (53.9%) students were males. Most students were Sinhalese (65.7%), with fewer Tamils (23.1%) and Muslims (11.2%). Anaemia occurred in 470 students and was more common in females (11.1%) than males (5.6%). Haemoglobin, serum ferritin, transferrin receptor and iron were determined in 1196 students with low red cell indices and a structured sample of those with normal red cell indices (n = 513). The findings were weighted to estimate the frequencies of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia classified according to WHO criteria. Iron depletion (serum ferritin <15ug/ml) occurred in 19.2% and cellular iron deficiency (low serum ferritin and transferrin receptor >28.1 nmol/l) in 11.6% students. Iron deficiency anaemia (cellular iron deficiency with low haemoglobin) occurred in only 130/2794 (4.6%) females and 28/2789 (1.0%) males. Iron biomarkers were normal in 83/470 (14.6%) students with anaemia. In multiple regression analysis, the odds for iron depletion and cellular iron deficiency were about one-third in males compared with females, and the odds for iron deficiency anaemia were about one fifth in males compared to females. Tamil ethnicity and age <16 years increased the risk of all three stages of iron deficiency and living at high altitude significantly reduced the risk of iron depletion. CONCLUSIONS:Low iron status and anaemia remain common problems in Sri Lankan secondary school students especially females, younger students and the socioeconomically disadvantaged Tamil population. More research is needed to identify factors other than low iron status that contribute to anaemia in adolescents.
Project description:A Phase 1-2b study of the blood stage malaria vaccine AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel was conducted in 336 children in Donéguébougou and Bancoumana, Mali. In the Phase 2 portion of the study (n = 300), no impact on parasite density or clinical malaria was seen; however, children who received the study vaccine had a higher frequency of anaemia (defined as haemoglobin < 8.5 g/dL) compared to those who received the comparator vaccine (Hiberix). This effect was one of many tested and was not significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons.To further investigate the possible impact of vaccination on anaemia, additional analyses were conducted including patients from the Phase 1 portion of the study and controlling for baseline haemoglobin, haemoglobin types S or C, alpha-thalassaemia, G6PD deficiency, and age. A multiplicative intensity model was used, which generalizes Cox regression to allow for multiple events. Frailty effects for each subject were used to account for correlation of multiple anaemia events within the same subject. Intensity rates were calculated with reference to calendar time instead of time after randomization in order to account for staggered enrollment and seasonal effects of malaria incidence. Associations of anaemia with anti-AMA1 antibody were further explored using a similar analysis.A strong effect of vaccine on the incidence of anaemia (risk ratio [AMA1-C1 to comparator (Hiberix)]= 2.01, 95% confidence interval [1.26,3.20]) was demonstrated even after adjusting for baseline haemoglobin, haemoglobinopathies, and age, and using more sophisticated statistical models. Anti-AMA1 antibody levels were not associated with this effect.While these additional analyses show a robust effect of vaccination on anaemia, this is an intensive exploration of secondary results and should, therefore, be interpreted with caution. Possible mechanisms of the apparent adverse effect on haemoglobin of vaccination with AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel and implications for blood stage vaccine development are discussed. The potential impact on malaria-associated anaemia should be closely evaluated in clinical trials of AMA1 and other blood stage vaccines in malaria-exposed populations.