Sexual function after voluntary medical male circumcision for human immunodeficiency virus prevention: Results from a programmatic delivery setting in Botswana.
ABSTRACT: BackgroundUptake of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) remains modest in Botswana in spite of the government’s commitment and service provision availability. Data on sexual function post-VMMC in programmatic settings could help guide messaging tailored to Botswana.ObjectivesAt 3-month post-VMMC, we evaluated changes in sexual function and satisfaction with the VMMC procedure amongst a cohort of HIV-negative, sexually active men aged 18–49 years who underwent VMMC in a public-sector clinic in Botswana.MethodsWe assessed whether each of the following domains of sexual function had improved, stayed the same or worsened since VMMC: sexual desire, ability to use condoms, ease of vaginal penetration, ease of ejaculation, ability to achieve and maintain an erection and hygiene or cleanliness.ResultsData on sexual function were available for 378 men at 3-month post-VMMC. Median age was 27 years – 54% had a higher than secondary education, 72% were employed and 27% were married. Nearly all (96%) the men reported improvement in at least one domain of sexual function, while 19% reported improvement in all six domains. One-fourth (91/378, 24%) of the men reported that at least one domain of sexual function worsened post-VMMC. The most frequently reported domain that worsened was sexual desire (11%); in all other domains, < 10% of the men reported worsening. Men who reported any worsening sexual function were 2.3-fold as likely to be less than ‘very satisfied’ with the VMMC procedure (risk ratio 2.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.66–3.34, p < 0.001).ConclusionEmphasising improved sexual function experienced after VMMC in demand-creation efforts could potentially increase VMMC uptake in Botswana.
Project description:Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is an important HIV prevention strategy, particularly in regions with high HIV incidence and low rates of male circumcision. However, 88% of the Zambian male population remain uncircumcised, and of these 80% of men surveyed expressed little interest in undergoing VMMC.The Spear and Shield study (consisting of 4 weekly, 90-minute sexual risk reduction/VMMC promotion sessions) recruited and enrolled men (N = 800) who self-identified as at risk of HIV by seeking HIV testing and counseling at community health centers. Eligible men tested HIV-negative, were uncircumcised, and expressed no interest in VMMC. Participants were encouraged (but not required) to invite their female partners (N = 668) to participate in the program in a gender-concordant intervention matched to their partners'. Men completed assessments at baseline, post-intervention (about 2 months after baseline), and 6 and 12 months post-intervention; women completed assessments at baseline and post-intervention. For those men who underwent VMMC and for their partners, an additional assessment was conducted 3 months following the VMMC. The ancillary analysis in this article compared the pre- and post-VMMC responses of the 257 Zambian men who underwent circumcision during or following study participation, using growth curve analyses, as well as of the 159 female partners.Men were satisfied overall with the procedure (mean satisfaction score, 8.4 out of 10), and nearly all men (96%) and women (94%) stated they would recommend VMMC to others. Approximately half of the men reported an increase or no change in erections, orgasms, and time to achieve orgasms from pre-VMMC, while one-third indicated fewer erections and orgasms and decreased time to achieve orgasms post-VMMC. Nearly half (42%) of the men, and a greater proportion (63%) of the female partners, said their sexual pleasure increased while 22% of the men reported less sexual pleasure post-VMMC. Growth curve analysis of changes in sexual functioning and satisfaction over time revealed no changes in erectile functioning or intercourse satisfaction, but there were increases in orgasm functioning, overall sexual satisfaction, and sexual desire. The majority (61% to 70%) of men and women thought penile cleanliness and appearance had improved post-VMMC. Of the 69% of men who reported having sexual intercourse at least once between having the procedure and their 3-month post-VMMC assessment, the large majority (76%) waited at least 6 weeks before resuming sex. Sexual intercourse prior to the 6-week healing period was associated with adverse events and lower levels of post-VMMC sexual satisfaction.Both men and their partners can generally expect equal or improved sexual satisfaction and penile hygiene following VMMC. Future studies should consider innovative strategies to assist men in their efforts to abstain from sexual activities prior to complete healing.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Men's understanding of counseling messages after voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) plays an important role in whether they follow them. Data on triggers for early resumption of sex may be useful as scale-up of VMMC for HIV prevention continues in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS:Data on understanding of post-VMMC abstinence recommendations, resumption of sex, condom use, and triggers for resuming sex were collected from participants during a follow-up interview 35-42 days after ShangRing circumcision in Kenya and Zambia. RESULTS:Of 1149 men who had ShangRing circumcision, 1096 (95.4%) completed follow-up. Nearly all (99.2%) reported being counseled to abstain from sex post-VMMC; among those, most (92.2%) recalled the recommended abstinence period was 6 weeks. Most men (94.1%) reported that the counselor gave reasons for post-VMMC abstinence and recalled appropriate reasons. Few (13.4%) men reported resuming sex at 35-42 days' follow-up. Among those, 54.8% reported never using a condom post-VMMC. Younger participants (odds ratio 0.3, 95% confidence interval: 0.2 to 0.5, P < 0.0001) and those reporting at least some condom use at baseline (odds ratio 0.5, 95% confidence interval: 0.3 to 0.7, P = 0.0003) were less likely to report resuming sex. Among men who reported some condom use, most (71.5%) said condoms were much easier or easier to use after circumcision. Men reported various reasons for early resumption of sex, primarily strong sexual desire (76.4%). CONCLUSIONS:Most men reported awareness of and adherence to the counseling recommendations for post-VMMC abstinence. A minority reported early resumption of sex, and, among those, condom use was low. Results could be used to improve post-VMMC counseling.
Project description:Several studies have shown that voluntary male medical circumcision (VMMC) reduces the incidence of the Type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in heterosexual men by up to 60%. However, there is an increased risk of transmission of STIs, including HIV, in the immediate post-operative period after receiving VMMC. This study is to understand sexual practices of couples in the post-operative period in a Coloured population in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.Coloured Males who had undergone VMMC in the previous six months in the Cape Town area and their partners participated in eight single-gender focus group discussions. The groups explored why the men decided to undergo VMMC, what kind of counselling they received, and how they experienced the 6-week post-operative period, including sexually.The primary motivation to VMMC uptake included religious injunction and hygiene reasons and protection against sexually transmitted infections not necessarily HIV. There was some exploration of alternative sexual practices. During the period immediately post operation the respondents spoke of pain and fear of any sexual arousal, but towards the end of the six week period, sexual desire returned. Both men and women felt that sex was important to maintain the relationship. Gaps were identified in the pre- and post-MC procedure counselling.There is a real risk that men in this population may begin sex before complete healing has occurred. VMMC counselling to encourage men to stay sexually safe in the wound-healing period, needs to take into account the real-life factors of the circumcised men. It is essential from a public health, and gender perspective that effective counselling strategies for the VMMC post-operative period, and the longer term, are developed and tested.
Project description:Two cohort studies using data from randomized controlled trials in Africa offer the best evidence to date on the effects of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) on male sexual function and satisfaction, suggesting no significant impairments in sexual function or satisfaction and some improvements in sexual function after male circumcision.To assess the effects of VMMC on sexual function and satisfaction in a large population-based cohort of men circumcised as adults and uncircumcised controls in Kenya.Sexual function and satisfaction of young (median age = 20 years) sexually active men (1,509 newly circumcised men and 1,524 age-matched uncircumcised controls after 5% loss to follow-up) were assessed at baseline and 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, with data collected in 2008 to 2012. Self-reported data on lack of sexual interest or pleasure, difficulty getting or maintaining erections, orgasm difficulties, premature ejaculation, pain during intercourse, and satisfaction with sexual intercourse were analyzed with mixed-effect models to detect differences between circumcised and uncircumcised men and changes over time.Changes over time in sexual interest, desire and pleasure, erectile and ejaculatory function, and pain during intercourse (dyspareunia) in circumcised and uncircumcised men; group differences in time trends; satisfaction with sexual performance; and enjoyment of sex before and after circumcision.Sexual dysfunctions decreased in the two study groups from 17% to 54% at baseline to 11% to 44% at 24 months (P < .001), except dyspareunia, which decreased only in circumcised men (P < .001). Sexual satisfaction outcomes increased in the two study groups from 34% to 82% at baseline to 66% to 93% at 24 months (P < .001), with greater improvements in circumcised men (P < .001). On average, 97% of circumcised men were satisfied with sexual intercourse and 92% rated sex as more enjoyable or no different after circumcision compared with before circumcision.Results are applicable to VMMC programs seeking to increase the acceptability of male circumcision as part of comprehensive HIV prevention.Large-scale population-based longitudinal data restricted to sexually active individuals and adjusted for differences in baseline levels of outcomes and potential confounders are used. The questionnaire used, although not a standardized survey instrument, includes all major domains of male sexual function and satisfaction used in the most common standardized tools.Results are consistent with large cohort studies of VMMC using data from randomized controlled trials and indicate that VMMC has no significant detrimental effect or might have beneficial effects on male sexual function and satisfaction for the great majority of men circumcised as adults. Nordstrom MPC, Westercamp N, Jaoko W, et al. Medical Male Circumcision Is Associated With Improvements in Pain During Intercourse and Sexual Satisfaction in Kenya. J Sex Med 2017;14:601-612.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) is one of the strategies being promoted to prevent sexual heterosexual transmission of HIV. It has been adopted by 14 countries with high HIV prevalence and low circumcision rates. The 60.0% protective efficacy of VMMC has come with misconceptions in some societies in Malawi, hence VMMC clients may opt for risky sexual practices owing to its perceived protective effect. The study estimated proportion of circumcised men engaging in risky sexual behaviors post-VMMC, assessed knowledge on VMMC protective effect and identified socio-demographic factors associated with risky sexual practices. METHOD:A cross sectional study was conducted at two sites of Mzuzu city. Systematic random sampling was used to select 322 participants aged 18-49 who had undergone VMMC. The independent variables included age, location, occupation, religion, marital status and education. Outcome variables were non condom use, having multiple sexual partners and engaging in transactional sex. Data from questionnaires was analyzed using Pearson's chi square test and logistic regression. RESULTS:Out of 322 respondents, 84.8% (273) understood the partial protection offered by VMMC in HIV prevention. Ninety-six percent of the participants self-reported continued use of condoms post VMMC. Overall 23.7-38.3% participants self-reported engaging in risky sexual practices post VMMC, 23.7% (76) had more than one sexual partner; 29.2% (94) paid for sex while 39.9% (n?=?187) did not use a condom. Residing in high density areas was associated with non-condom use, (p?=?0.043). Being single (p?<?0.001), and residing in low density areas (p?=?0.004) was associated with engaging in transactional sex. CONCLUSION:Risky sexual practices are evident among participants that have undergone VMMC. Messages on safer sexual practices and limitations of VMMC need to be emphasized to clients, especially unmarried or single and those residing in low density areas.
Project description:Randomized trials have shown that voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) significantly reduces the risk of HIV acquisition in men. However, the rate of complications associated with the surgical procedure varies from 0.7% to 37.4% in real-world settings. We assessed the frequency, type and severity of adverse events following VMMC among 427 adult men surgically circumcised in southeastern Botswana; 97% completed ?1 follow-up visit within seven days post-circumcision. Thirty moderate AEs were observed in 28 men resulting in an overall AE rate of 6.7%. Patient satisfaction was high: >95% were very or somewhat satisfied with the procedure and subsequent follow-up care.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Free VMMC services have been available in Uganda since 2010. However, uptake in Northern Uganda remains disproportionately low. We aimed to determine if this is due to men's insufficient knowledge on VMMC, and if women's knowledge on VMMC has any association with VMMC status of their male sexual partners. METHODS:In this cross sectional study, participants were asked their circumcision status (or that of their male sexual partner for female respondents) and presented with 14 questions on VMMC benefits, procedure, risk, and misconceptions. Chi square tests or fisher exact tests were used to compare circumcision prevalence among those who gave correct responses versus those who failed to and if p?<?0.05, the comparison groups were balanced with propensity score weights in modified poisson models to estimate prevalence ratios, PR. RESULTS:A total of 396 men and 50 women were included in the analyses. Circumcision was 42% less prevalent among males who failed to reject the misconception that VMMC reduces sexual performance (PR?=?0.58, 95% CI 0.38-0.89, p?=?0.012), and less prevalent among male sexual partners of females who failed to reject the same misconception (PR?=?0.22, 95% CI?=?0.07-0.76, p?=?0.016). Circumcision was also 35% less prevalent among male respondents who failed to reject the misconception that VMMC increases a man's desire for more sexual partners i.e. promiscuity (PR?=?0.65, 95% CI?=?0.46-0.92, p?=?0.014). CONCLUSION:Misconceptions regarding change in sexual drive or performance were associated with circumcision status in this population, while knowledge of VMMC benefits, risks and procedure was not.
Project description:The World Health Organization endorsed voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in 2007 as an effective method to provide partial protection against heterosexual female-to-male transmission of HIV in regions with high rates of such transmission, and where uptake of VMMC is low. Qualitative research conducted in east and southern Africa has focused on assessing acceptability, barriers to uptake of VMMC and the likelihood of VMMC increasing men's adoption of risky sexual behaviours. Less researched, however, have been the perceptions of women and sexual minorities towards VMMC, even though they are more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS transmission than are heterosexual men. The purpose of this paper is to identify core areas in which a gendered perspective in qualitative research might improve the understanding and framing of VMMC in east and southern Africa. Issues explored in this analysis are risk compensation, the post-circumcision appearance of the penis, inclusion of men who have sex with men as study respondents and the antagonistic relation between VMMC and female genital cutting. If biomedical and social science researchers explore these issues in future qualitative inquiry utilising a gendered perspective, a more thorough understanding of VMMC can be achieved, which could ultimately inform policy and implementation.
Project description:We examine the associations between different patterns of sexual behavior and function and three indicators of subjective well-being (SWB) covering eudemonic, evaluative, and affective well-being in a representative sample of partnered older people.Using data from a Sexual Relationships and Activities Questionnaire (SRA-Q) in Wave 6 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, latent class analysis identified groups characterized by distinctive patterns of sexual behavior and function and then examined their link to SWB. Eudemonic SWB was measured using a revised 15-item version of the CASP-19, evaluative SWB using the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and affective SWB using the 8-item version of the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale.Sexual behavior and function was best described by six classes among men and five classes among women. These ranged from high sexual desire, frequent partnered sexual activities, and few sexual problems (Class 1) to low sexual desire, infrequent/no sexual activity, and problems with sexual function (Class 5([women])/6([men])). Men and women who reported either infrequent/no sexual activity, or were sexually active but reported sexual problems, generally had lower SWB than those individuals identified in Class 1. Poorer SWB in men was more strongly associated with sexual function difficulties, whereas in women desire and frequency of partnered activities appeared more important in relation to SWB.Within the context of a partnered relationship continuing sexual desire, activity and functioning are associated with higher SWB, with distinctive patterns for women and men.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Obesity is associated with reduced testosterone and worsened erectile and sexual function in men. Weight loss improves these outcomes. High protein diets potentially offer anthropometric and metabolic benefits, but their effects on reproductive and sexual outcomes is not known. AIM:To examine the long-term effects of weight loss with a higher protein or carbohydrate diet on testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, erectile dysfunction, lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual desire in overweight and obese men. METHODS:One-hundred and eighteen overweight or obese men (body mass index 27-40 kg/m2, age 20-65 years) were randomly assigned to an energy restricted higher protein low fat (35% protein, 40% carbohydrate, 25% fat; n = 57) or higher carbohydrate low fat diet (17% protein, 58% carbohydrate, 25% fat, n = 61) diet for 52 weeks (12 weeks weight loss, 40 weeks weight maintenance). Primary outcomes were serum total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin and calculated free testosterone. Secondary outcomes were erectile function as assessed by the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) (total score and erectile function domain), lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual desire. RESULTS:Total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin and free testosterone increased (P<0.001) and the total IIEF increased (P = 0.017) with no differences between diets (P?0.244). Increases in testosterone (P = 0.037) and sex hormone binding globulin (P<0.001) and improvements in the total IIEF (P = 0.041) occurred from weeks 0-12 with a further increase in testosterone from week 12-52 (P = 0.002). Increases in free testosterone occurred from week 12-52 (p = 0.002). The IIEF erectile functon domain, lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual desire did not change in either group (P?0.126). CONCLUSIONS:In overweight and obese men, weight loss with both high protein and carbohydrate diets improve testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin and overall sexual function. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Anzctr.org.au ACTRN12606000002583.