Transmission Genetics of a Sorghum bicolor × S. halepense Backcross Populations.
ABSTRACT: Despite a "ploidy barrier," interspecific crosses to wild and/or cultivated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, 2n = 2x = 20) may have aided the spread across six continents of Sorghum halepense, also exemplifying risks of "transgene escape" from crops that could make weeds more difficult to control. Genetic maps of two BC1F1 populations derived from crosses of S. bicolor (sorghum) and S. halepense with totals of 722 and 795 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers span 37 and 35 linkage groups, with 2-6 for each of the 10 basic sorghum chromosomes due to fragments covering different chromosomal portions or independent segregation from different S. halepense homologs. Segregation distortion favored S. halepense alleles on chromosomes 2 (1.06-4.68 Mb, near a fertility restoration gene), 7 (1.20-6.16 Mb), 8 (1.81-5.33 Mb, associated with gene conversion), and 9 (47.5-50.1 Mb); and S. bicolor alleles on chromosome 6 (0-40 Mb), which contains both a large heterochromatin block and the Ma1 gene. Regions of the S. halepense genome that are recalcitrant to gene flow from sorghum might be exploited as part a multi-component system to reduce the likelihood of spread of transgenes or other modified genes. Its SNP profile suggests that chromosome segments from its respective progenitors S. bicolor and Sorghum propinquum have extensively recombined in S. halepense. This study reveals genomic regions that might discourage crop-to-weed gene escape, and provides a foundation for marker-trait association analysis to determine the genetic control of traits contributing to weediness, invasiveness, and perenniality of S. halepense.
Project description:From noble beginnings as a prospective forage, polyploid Sorghum halepense ('Johnsongrass') is both an invasive species and one of the world's worst agricultural weeds. Formed by S. bicolor x S. propinquum hybridization, we show S. halepense to have S. bicolor-enriched allele composition and striking mutations in 5,957 genes that differentiate it from representatives of its progenitor species and an outgroup. The spread of S. halepense may have been facilitated by introgression from closely-related cultivated sorghum near genetic loci affecting rhizome development, seed size, and levels of lutein, a photochemical protectant and abscisic acid precursor. Rhizomes, subterranean stems that store carbohydrates and spawn clonal propagules, have growth correlated with reproductive rather than other vegetative tissues, and increase survival of both temperate cold seasons and tropical dry seasons. Rhizomes of S. halepense are more extensive than those of its rhizomatous progenitor S. propinquum, with gene expression including many alleles from its non-rhizomatous S. bicolor progenitor. The first surviving polyploid in its lineage in ?96 million years, its post-Columbian spread across six continents carried rich genetic diversity that in the United States has facilitated transition from agricultural to non-agricultural niches. Projected to spread another 200-600 km northward in the coming century, despite its drawbacks S. halepense may offer novel alleles and traits of value to improvement of sorghum.
Project description:The efficient use of sorghum as a renewable energy source requires high biomass yields and reduced agricultural inputs. Hybridization of <i>Sorghum bicolor</i> with wild <i>Sorghum halepense</i> can help meet both requirements, generating high-yielding and environment friendly perennial sorghum cultivars. Selection efficiency, however, needs to be improved to exploit the genetic potential of the derived recombinant lines and remove weedy and other wild traits. In this work, we present the results from a Genome-Wide Association Study conducted on a diversity panel made up of <i>S. bicolor</i> and an advanced population derived from <i>S. bicolor</i> × <i>S. halepense</i> multi-parent crosses. The objective was to identify genetic loci controlling biomass yield and biomass-relevant traits for breeding purposes. Plants were phenotyped during four consecutive years for dry biomass yield, dry mass fraction of fresh material, plant height and plant maturity. A genotyping-by-sequencing approach was implemented to obtain 92,383 high quality SNP markers used in this work. Significant marker-trait associations were uncovered across eight of the ten sorghum chromosomes, with two main hotspots near the end of chromosomes 7 and 9, in proximity of dwarfing genes <i>Dw1</i> and <i>Dw3</i>. No significant marker was found on chromosomes 2 and 4. A large number of significant marker loci associated with biomass yield and biomass-relevant traits showed minor effects on respective plant characteristics, with the exception of seven loci on chromosomes 3, 8, and 9 that explained 5.2-7.8% of phenotypic variability in dry mass yield, dry mass fraction of fresh material, and maturity, and a major effect (<i>R</i> <sup>2</sup> = 16.2%) locus on chromosome 1 for dry mass fraction of fresh material which co-localized with a zinc-finger homeodomain protein possibly involved in the expression of the <i>D</i> (Dry stalk) locus. These markers and marker haplotypes identified in this work are expected to boost marker-assisted selection in sorghum breeding.
Project description:Rhizomes facilitate the wintering and vegetative propagation of many perennial grasses. Sorghum halepense (johnsongrass) is an aggressive perennial grass that relies on a robust rhizome system to persist through winters and reproduce asexually from its rootstock nodes. This study aimed to sequence and assemble expressed transcripts within the johnsongrass rhizome. A de novo transcriptome assembly was generated from a single johnsongrass rhizome meristem tissue sample. A total of 141,176 probable protein-coding sequences from the assembly were identified and assigned gene ontology terms using Blast2GO. Estimated expression analysis and BLAST results were used to reduce the assembly to 64,447 high-confidence sequences. The johnsongrass assembly was compared to Sorghum bicolor, a related nonrhizomatous species, along with an assembly of similar rhizome tissue from the perennial grain crop Thinopyrum intermedium. The presence/absence analysis yielded a set of 98 expressed johnsongrass contigs that are likely associated with rhizome development.
Project description:Tetraploid johnsongrass [Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.] is a sexually-compatible weedy relative of diploid sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. To determine the extent of interspecific hybridization between male sterile grain sorghum and johnsongrass and the ploidy of their progeny, cytoplasmic (CMS), genetic (GMS) and chemically induced male sterile lines of Tx623 and Tx631 were pollinated with johnsongrass pollen. At maturity 1% and 0.07% of the developing seeds of Tx623 and Tx631 respectively were recovered. Ninety-one percent of recovered hybrids were tetraploid and two percent were triploid, the tetraploids resulting from 2n gametes present in the sorghum female parent. Their formation appears to be genotype dependent as more tetraploids were recovered from Tx623 than Tx631. Because a tetraploid sorghum x johnsongrass hybrid has a balanced genome, they are male and female fertile providing opportunities for gene flow between the two species. Given the differences in 2n gamete formation among Tx623 and Tx631, seed parent selection may be one way of reducing the likelihood of gene flow. These studies were conducted in controlled and optimum conditions; the actual outcrossing rate in natural conditions is expected to be much lower. More studies are needed to assess the rates of hybridization, fitness, and fertility of the progeny under field conditions.
Project description:While rhizome formation is intimately associated with perennialism and the derived benefit of sustainability, the introduction of this trait into temperate-zone adapted Sorghum cultivars requires precise knowledge of the genetics conditioning this trait in order to minimize the risk of weediness (e.g., Johnsongrass, S. halepense) while maximizing the productivity of perennial sorghum. As an incremental step towards dissecting the genetics of perennialism, a segregating F4 heterogeneous inbred family derived from a cross between S. bicolor and S. propinquum was phenotyped in both field and greenhouse environments for traits related to over-wintering and rhizome formation. An unseasonably cold winter in 2011 provided high selection pressure, and hence 74.8 % of the population did not survive. This severe selection pressure for cold tolerance allowed the resolution of two previously unidentified over-wintering quantitative trait locus (QTL) and more powerful correlation models than previously reported. Conflicting with previous reports, a maximum of 33 % of over-wintering variation could be explained by above-ground shoot formation from rhizomes; however, every over-wintering plant exhibited rhizome growth. Thus, while rhizome formation is required for over-wintering, other factors also determine survival in this interspecific population. The fine mapping of a previously reported rhizome QTL on sorghum chromosome SBI-01 was conducted by targeting this genomic region with additional simple sequence repeat markers. Fine mapping reduced the 2-LOD rhizome QTL interval from ~59 to ~14.5 Mb, which represents a 75 % reduction in physical distance and a 53 % reduction in the number of putative genes in the locus. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11032-012-9778-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Project description:Single sequence repeats (SSR) developed for Sorghum bicolor were used to characterize the genetic distance of 46 different Sorghum halepense (Johnsongrass) accessions from Argentina some of which have evolved toward glyphosate resistance. Since Johnsongrass is an allotetraploid and only one subgenome is homologous to cultivated sorghum, some SSR loci amplified up to two alleles while others (presumably more conserved loci) amplified up to four alleles. Twelve SSR providing information of 24 loci representative of Johnsongrass genome were selected for genetic distance characterization. All of them were highly polymorphic, which was evidenced by the number of different alleles found in the samples studied, in some of them up to 20. UPGMA and Mantel analysis showed that Johnsongrass glyphosate-resistant accessions that belong to different geographic regions do not share similar genetic backgrounds. In contrast, they show closer similarity to their neighboring susceptible counterparts. Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components using the clusters identified by K-means support the lack of a clear pattern of association among samples and resistance status or province of origin. Consequently, these results do not support a single genetic origin of glyphosate resistance. Nucleotide sequencing of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) encoding gene from glyphosate-resistant and susceptible accessions collected from different geographic origins showed that none presented expected mutations in aminoacid positions 101 and 106 which are diagnostic of target-site resistance mechanism.
Project description:Sorghum is widely used for producing food, feed, and biofuel, and it is increasingly grown to produce grains rich in health-promoting antioxidants. The conventional use of grain color as a proxy to indirectly select against or for antioxidants polyphenols in sorghum grain was hampered by the lack of consistency between grain color and the expected antioxidants concentration. Marker-assisted selection built upon significant loci identified through linkage disequilibrium studies showed interesting potential in several plant breeding and animal husbandry programs, and can be used in sorghum breeding for consumer-tailored antioxidant production. The purpose of this work was therefore to conduct genome-wide association study of sorghum grain antioxidants using single nucleotide polymorphisms in a novel diversity panel of Sorghum bicolor landraces and S. bicolor × S. halepense recombinant inbred lines. The recombinant inbred lines outperformed landraces for antioxidant production and contributed novel polymorphism. Antioxidant traits were highly correlated and showed very high broad-sense heritability. The genome-wide association analysis uncovered 96 associations 55 of which were major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) explaining 15 to 31% of the observed antioxidants variability. Eight major QTLs localized in novel chromosomal regions. Twenty-four pleiotropic major effect markers and two novel functional markers (Chr9_1550093, Chr10_50169631) were discovered. A novel pleiotropic major effect marker (Chr1_61095994) explained the highest proportion (R2 = 27-31%) of the variance observed in most traits evaluated in this work, and was in linkage disequilibrium with a hotspot of 19 putative glutathione S-transferase genes conjugating anthocyanins into vacuoles. On chromosome four, a hotspot region was observed involving major effect markers linked with putative MYB-bHLH-WD40 complex genes involved in the biosynthesis of the polyphenol class of flavonoids. The findings in this work are expected to help the scientific community particularly involved in marker assisted breeding for the development of sorghum cultivars with consumer-tailored antioxidants concentration.
Project description:Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense) is a striking example of a post-Columbian founder event. This natural experiment within ecological time-scales provides a unique opportunity for understanding patterns of continent-wide genetic diversity following range expansion. Microsatellite markers were used for population genetic analyses including leaf-optimized Neighbor-Joining tree, pairwise FST, mismatch analysis, principle coordinate analysis, Tajima's D, Fu's F and Bayesian clusterings of population structure. Evidence indicates two geographically distant introductions of divergent genotypes, which spread across much of the US in <200 years. Based on geophylogeny, gene flow patterns can be inferred to have involved five phases. Centers of genetic diversity have shifted from two introduction sites separated by ~2000 miles toward the middle of the range, consistent with admixture between genotypes from the respective introductions. Genotyping provides evidence for a 'habitat switch' from agricultural to non-agricultural systems and may contribute to both Johnsongrass ubiquity and aggressiveness. Despite lower and more structured diversity at the invasion front, Johnsongrass continues to advance northward into cooler and drier habitats. Association genetic approaches may permit identification of alleles contributing to the habitat switch or other traits important to weed/invasive management and/or crop improvement.
Project description:The infrageneric phylogeny and temporal divergence of Sorghum were explored in the present study. Sequence data of two low-copy nuclear (LCN) genes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase 4 (Pepc4) and granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI), from 79 accessions of Sorghum plus Cleistachne sorghoides together with those from outgroups were used for maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) analyses. Bayesian dating based on three plastid DNA markers (ndhA intron, rpl32-trnL, and rps16 intron) was used to estimate the ages of major diversification events in Sorghum. The monophyly of Sorghum plus Cleistachne sorghoides (with the latter nested within Sorghum) was strongly supported by the Pepc4 data using BI analysis, and the monophyly of Sorghum was strongly supported by GBSSI data using both ML and BI analyses. Sorghum was divided into three clades in the Pepc4, GBSSI, and plastid phylograms: the subg. Sorghum lineage; the subg. Parasorghum and Stiposorghum lineage; and the subg. Chaetosorghum and Heterosorghum lineage. Two LCN homoeologous loci of Cleistachne sorghoides were first discovered in the same accession. Sorghum arundinaceum, S. bicolor, S. x drummondii, S. propinquum, and S. virgatum were closely related to S. x almum in the Pepc4, GBSSI, and plastid phylograms, suggesting that they may be potential genome donors to S. almum. Multiple LCN and plastid allelic variants have been identified in S. halepense of subg. Sorghum. The crown ages of Sorghum plus Cleistachne sorghoides and subg. Sorghum are estimated to be 12.7 million years ago (Mya) and 8.6 Mya, respectively. Molecular results support the recognition of three distinct subgenera in Sorghum: subg. Chaetosorghum with two sections, each with a single species, subg. Parasorghum with 17 species, and subg. Sorghum with nine species and we also provide a new nomenclatural combination, Sorghum sorghoides.
Project description:To facilitate the mapping of genes in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] underlying economically important traits, we analyzed the genetic structure and linkage disequilibrium in a sorghum mini core collection of 242 landraces with 13,390 single-nucleotide polymorphims. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms were produced using a highly multiplexed genotyping-by-sequencing methodology. Genetic structure was established using principal component, Neighbor-Joining phylogenetic, and Bayesian cluster analyses. These analyses indicated that the mini-core collection was structured along both geographic origin and sorghum race classification. Examples of the former were accessions from Southern Africa, East Asia, and Yemen. Examples of the latter were caudatums with widespread geographical distribution, durras from India, and guineas from West Africa. Race bicolor, the most primitive and the least clearly defined sorghum race, clustered among other races and formed only one clear bicolor-centric cluster. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium analyses showed linkage disequilibrium decayed, on average, within 10-30 kb, whereas the short arm of SBI-06 contained a linkage disequilibrium block of 20.33 Mb, confirming a previous report of low recombination on this chromosome arm. Four smaller but equally significant linkage disequilibrium blocks of 3.5-35.5 kb were detected on chromosomes 1, 2, 9, and 10. We examined the genes encoded within each block to provide a first look at candidates such as homologs of GS3 and FT that may indicate a selective sweep during sorghum domestication.