Calciprotein particle inhibition explains magnesium-mediated protection against vascular calcification.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Phosphate (Pi) toxicity is a strong determinant of vascular calcification development in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Magnesium (Mg2+) may improve cardiovascular risk via vascular calcification. The mechanism by which Mg2+ counteracts vascular calcification remains incompletely described. Here we investigated the effects of Mg2+ on Pi and secondary crystalline calciprotein particles (CPP2)-induced calcification and crystal maturation. METHODS:Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were treated with high Pi or CPP2 and supplemented with Mg2+ to study cellular calcification. The effect of Mg2+ on CPP maturation, morphology and composition was studied by medium absorbance, electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. To translate our findings to CKD patients, the effects of Mg2+ on calcification propensity (T50) were measured in sera from CKD patients and healthy controls. RESULTS:Mg2+ supplementation prevented Pi-induced calcification in VSMCs. Mg2+ dose-dependently delayed the maturation of primary CPP1 to CPP2 in vitro. Mg2+ did not prevent calcification and associated gene and protein expression when added to already formed CPP2. Confirmatory experiments in human serum demonstrated that the addition of 0.2?mmol/L Mg2+ increased T50 from healthy controls by 51?±?15?min (P?
Project description:Introduction:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence suggests that increases in both serum and intracellular magnesium (Mg) can slow or even prevent the development of vascular calcification seen in CKD. Serum calcification propensity (T50) is a novel functional test, which is associated with all-cause mortality in CKD and measures the ability of serum to delay the formation of crystalline nanoparticles. Theoretically, increasing serum Mg should improve T50 and thereby reduce the propensity towards ectopic calcification. Methods:We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled double-blinded clinical trial to investigate the safety of 2 different doses of oral Mg supplementation in subjects with CKD stages 3 and 4 as well as their effects on intracellular Mg and T50. Thirty-six subjects with CKD stages 3 and 4 were randomized to one of 3 groups (placebo, elemental Mg 15 mmol/d or elemental Mg 30 mmol/d) given as slow-release Mg hydroxide and followed for 8 weeks. Results:Thirty-four subjects completed the trial. Intracellular Mg remained stable throughout the trial despite significant increases in both serum and urine Mg. T50 increased significantly by 40 min from 256 ± 60 (mean ± SD) to 296 ± 64 minutes (95% confidence interval, 11-70, P < 0.05) in the Mg 30 mmol/d group after 8 weeks. No serious adverse events related to the study medication were reported during the study. Discussion:Oral Mg supplementation was safe and well tolerated in CKD stages 3 and 4 and improved T50, but did not increase intracellular Mg. Further studies are needed to investigate the long-term effects of Mg supplementation in CKD stage 3 and 4 and whether improvement in calcification propensity is related to clinical endpoints.
Project description:Vascular calcification is a life-threatening clinical condition in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with reduced zinc serum levels. Anemia is another frequent complication of CKD. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stabilizers, also known as HIF prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors (PHI), are promising candidates to treat CKD-associated anemia by increasing erythropoietin synthesis. Recent evidence suggests that HIFs play a pivotal role in vascular calcification. Our study explored feasible impacts of HIF PHI on phosphate (Pi)-induced calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and tested whether zinc might inhibit this mineralization process. Treatment of VSMCs with PHI aggravated Pi-induced calcium deposition and Pi uptake. PHI promoted Pi-induced loss of smooth muscle cell markers (ACTA-2, MYH11, SM22?) and enhanced osteochondrogenic gene expression (Msx-2, BMP-2, Sp7) triggering osteochondrogenic phenotypic switch of VSMCs. These effects of PHI paralleled with increased pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) expression, decreased Runx2 Ser451 phosphorylation, and reduced cell viability. Zinc inhibited Pi-induced mineralization of VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner and also attenuated the pro-calcification effect of PHI in Pi-induced mineralization. Zinc inhibited osteochondrogenic phenotypic switch of VSMCs reflected by lowering Pi uptake, decreasing the expressions of Msx-2, BMP-2, and Sp7 as well as the loss of smooth muscle cell-specific markers. Zinc preserved phosphorylation state of Runx2 Ser451, decreased PDK4 level, and restored cell viability. PHI alone reduced the expression of smooth muscle markers without inducing mineralization, which was also inhibited by zinc. In addition, we observed a significantly lower serum zinc level in CKD as well as in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy compared to healthy individuals. Conclusion - PHI promoted the loss of smooth muscle markers and augmented Pi-induced osteochondrogenic phenotypic switch leading to VSMCs calcification. This mineralization process was attenuated by zinc. Enhanced vascular calcification is a potential risk factor during PHI therapy in CKD which necessitates the strict follow up of vascular calcification and zinc supplementation.
Project description:Medial arterial calcification is accelerated in patients with CKD and strongly associated with increased arterial rigidity and cardiovascular mortality. Recently, a novel in vitro blood test that provides an overall measure of calcification propensity by monitoring the maturation time (T50) of calciprotein particles in serum was described. We used this test to measure serum T50 in a prospective cohort of 184 patients with stages 3 and 4 CKD, with a median of 5.3 years of follow-up. At baseline, the major determinants of serum calcification propensity included higher serum phosphate, ionized calcium, increased bone osteoclastic activity, and lower free fetuin-A, plasma pyrophosphate, and albumin concentrations, which accounted for 49% of the variation in this parameter. Increased serum calcification propensity at baseline independently associated with aortic pulse wave velocity in the complete cohort and progressive aortic stiffening over 30 months in a subgroup of 93 patients. After adjustment for demographic, renal, cardiovascular, and biochemical covariates, including serum phosphate, risk of death among patients in the lowest T50 tertile was more than two times the risk among patients in the highest T50 tertile (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 5.4; P=0.04). This effect was lost, however, after additional adjustment for aortic stiffness, suggesting a shared causal pathway. Longitudinally, serum calcification propensity measurements remained temporally stable (intraclass correlation=0.81). These results suggest that serum T50 may be helpful as a biomarker in designing methods to improve defenses against vascular calcification.
Project description:Vascular calcification is a component of cardiovascular disease, which is leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A functional assay (T50-test) measuring the propensity of human serum to calcify associates with mortality and cardiovascular events in CKD patients. Calcification propensity is known to increase with CKD stage. We investigated whether the T50 readout is directly dependent on excretory kidney function (eGFR) or rather explained by deranged parameters of bone and mineral metabolism in the course of CKD. T50, along with markers implicated in calcification and mineral metabolism, were measured in a cross-sectional cohort of 118 patients with CKD stage 1-5. Associations of T50 with measured parameters were analysed and partial correlations performed to test to which extent the association of T50 with eGFR can be attributed to variation of these parameters. T50 correlates with eGFR, but serum levels of phosphate and calcium largely explain this association. Phosphate, magnesium, fetuin A, albumin, bicarbonate, and serum cross-laps but not Parathyroid Hormone or Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 are associated with T50 in multivariate adjusted models. These findings indicate that T50 values depend mainly on the concentration of promoters and inhibitors of calcification in serum, but not excretory kidney function.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cardiovascular disease including vascular calcification (VC) remains the leading cause of death in patients suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD). The process of VC seems likely to be a tightly regulated process where vascular smooth muscle cells are playing a key role rather than just a mere passive precipitation of calcium phosphate. Characterisation of the chemical and crystalline structure of VC was mainly led in patients or animal models with CKD. Likewise, Mg2+ was found to be protective in living cells although a potential role for Mg2+ could not be excluded on crystal formation and precipitation. In this study, the crystal formation and the role of Mg2+ were investigated in an in vitro model of primary human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HAVSMC) with physical techniques. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:In HAVSMC incubated with increased Ca x Pi medium, only calcium phosphate apatite crystals (CPA) were detected by Micro-Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy (µFTIR) and Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) at the cell layer level. Supplementation with Mg2+ did not alter the crystal composition or structure. The crystal deposition was preferentially positioned near or directly on cells as pictured by FE-SEM observations and EDX measurements. Large µFTIR maps revealed spots of CPA crystals that were associated to the cellular layout. This qualitative analysis suggests a potential beneficial effect of Mg2+ at 5 mM in noticeably reducing the number and intensities of CPA µFTIR spots. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:For the first time in a model of HAVSMC, induced calcification led to the formation of the sole CPA crystals. Our data seems to exclude a physicochemical role of Mg2+ in altering the CPA crystal growth, composition or structure. Furthermore, Mg2+ beneficial role in attenuating VC should be linked to an active cellular role.
Project description:Klotho knock-out mice are an important model for CKD-induced calcification. In CKD, serum magnesium (Mg2+) inversely correlates with vascular calcification. This study aims to determine the effects of Mg2+ on aortic calcification in Klotho knock-out mice. Klotho knock-out mice were treated with either a minimal or a high Mg2+ diet from birth. After eight weeks, serum biochemistry was studied and organs were harvested. Protective effects of Mg2+ were characterized by RNA-sequencing of aortic tissue. Micro-CT analysis was performed to study bone integrity. High Mg2+ diet prevented vascular calcification and reduced aortic gene expression of Runx2 and matrix Gla protein, demonstrating the protective effect on pro-osteogenic signaling. Differential expression of inflammation and extracellular matrix remodeling genes accompany the beneficial effects of Mg2+ on calcification. High dietary Mg2+ did not affect serum parathyroid hormone, vitamin D3 and calcium. High Mg2+ intake prevented calcification despite increasing fibroblast growth factor-23 and phosphate concentration in knock-out mice. In addition, mice on the high Mg2+ diet had a 20% reduced femoral bone mineral density and increased osteoid formation indicating osteomalacia, while osteoclast activity was decreased in Klotho knock-out mice. In Saos-2 osteoblasts, Mg2+ supplementation reduced mineralization independent of osteoblastic matrix production, alkaline phosphatase activity and maturation markers alpha-1 type-I collagen and sclerostin. In conclusion, high dietary Mg2+ prevents calcification in Klotho knock-out mice. These effects are potentially mediated by reduction of inflammatory and extracellular matrix remodeling pathways in the aorta. Mg2+ treatment is promising to prevent vascular calcification, but the risk for osteomalacia should be considered. Overall design: Both wild-type (n=6 for each diet) and Klotho knock-out (n=6 for each diet) mice were treated with either a minimal (0.05% w/w) or a high magnesium diet (0.48% w/w) and treated for 8 weeks from brith to ensure maximal exposure. After 8 weeks the mice were sacrificed and the aorta was harvested, cleaned and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen. Samples were homogenized in TRIreagent for RNA isolation and RNA was sequenced at BaseClear Leiden B.V. The Netherlands. Wild-type mice on a minimal magnesium diet served as control group for the analysis.
Project description:Background The high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality of patients with CKD may result in large part from medial vascular calcification, a process promoted by hyperphosphatemia and involving osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Reduced serum zinc levels have frequently been observed in patients with CKD, but the functional relevance of this remains unclear.Methods We performed experiments in primary human aortic VSMCs; klotho-hypomorphic (kl/kl), subtotal nephrectomy, and cholecalciferol-overload mouse calcification models; and serum samples from patients with CKD.Results In cultured VSMCs, treatment with zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) blunted phosphate-induced calcification, osteo-/chondrogenic signaling, and NF-κB activation. ZnSO4 increased the abundance of zinc-finger protein TNF-α-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3, also known as A20), a suppressor of the NF-κB pathway, by zinc-sensing receptor ZnR/GPR39-dependent upregulation of TNFAIP3 gene expression. Silencing of TNFAIP3 in VSMCs blunted the anticalcific effects of ZnSO4 under high phosphate conditions. kl/kl mice showed reduced plasma zinc levels, and ZnSO4 supplementation strongly blunted vascular calcification and aortic osteoinduction and upregulated aortic Tnfaip3 expression. ZnSO4 ameliorated vascular calcification in mice with chronic renal failure and mice with cholecalciferol overload. In patients with CKD, serum zinc concentrations inversely correlated with serum calcification propensity. Finally, ZnSO4 ameliorated the osteoinductive effects of uremic serum in VSMCs.Conclusions Zinc supplementation ameliorates phosphate-induced osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of VSMCs and vascular calcification through an active cellular mechanism resulting from GPR39-dependent induction of TNFAIP3 and subsequent suppression of the NF-κB pathway. Zinc supplementation may be a simple treatment to reduce the burden of vascular calcification in CKD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Chronic kidney disease (CKD)-mineral and bone disorder (MBD) is a systemic disorder that leads to vascular calcification and accelerated atherosclerosis. Uric acid has been shown to associate with vascular calcification and with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and to suppress the 1 ?-hydroxylase enzyme leading to lower 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) and higher intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels. We hypothesized that lowering serum uric acid would reduce CIMT, calcification propensity, and circulating markers of CKD-MBD in CKD. METHODS:This is a post-hoc analysis of a randomized, double-blind study of 80 patients with stage 3 CKD and hyperuricemia who received allopurinol or placebo for 12 weeks. CIMT and T50 were measured as markers of vascular disease and serum calcification propensity, respectively. The following markers of CKD-MBD were measured: serum calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D metabolites, iPTH, and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23). Expression of extra-renal 1?-hydroxylase was evaluated in endothelial cells of study participants. FINDINGS:Allopurinol successfully lowered serum uric acid levels compared to placebo with an estimate of -3.3 mg/dL (95% C.I. -4.1,-2.5; p < 0.0001). After 12 weeks, however, we found no significant change in CIMT or serum T50. There was not a significant change in vitamin D metabolites, iPTH, FGF-23, or the expression of endothelial 1?-hydroxylase. CONCLUSION:These data suggest that factors other than uric acid may play a more important role in the regulation of CKD- MBD including vascular calcification and vitamin D metabolism in patients with CKD.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Patients with CKD are at high risk for cardiovascular disease, ESKD, and mortality. Vascular calcification is one pathway through which cardiovascular disease risks are increased. We hypothesized that a novel measure of serum calcification propensity is associated with cardiovascular disease events, ESKD, and all-cause mortality among patients with CKD stages 2-4. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS:Among 3404 participants from the prospective, longitudinal Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study, we quantified calcification propensity as the transformation time (T50) from primary to secondary calciprotein particles, with lower T50 corresponding to higher calcification propensity. We used multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models to assess the associations of T50 with risks of adjudicated atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events (myocardial infarction, stroke, and peripheral artery disease), adjudicated heart failure, ESKD, and mortality. RESULTS:The mean T50 was 313 (SD 79) minutes. Over an average 7.1 (SD 3.1) years of follow-up, we observed 571 atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events, 633 heart failure events, 887 ESKD events, and 924 deaths. With adjustment for traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, lower T50 was significantly associated with higher risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio [HR] per SD lower T50, 1.14; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.05 to 1.25), ESKD within 3 years from baseline (HR per SD lower T50, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.52 to 1.86), and all-cause mortality (HR per SD lower T50, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.24), but not heart failure (HR per SD lower T50, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.15). After adjustment for eGFR and 24-hour urinary protein, T50 was not associated with risks of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, ESKD, and mortality. CONCLUSIONS:Among patients with CKD stages 2-4, higher serum calcification propensity is associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events, ESKD, and all-cause mortality, but this association was not independent of kidney function. PODCAST:This article contains a podcast at https://www.asn-online.org/media/podcast/CJASN/2019_10_28_CJN04710419.mp3.
Project description:Medial vascular calcification, associated with enhanced mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD), is fostered by osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Here, we describe that serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) was upregulated in VSMCs under calcifying conditions. In primary human aortic VSMCs, overexpression of constitutively active SGK1S422D, but not inactive SGK1K127N, upregulated osteo-/chondrogenic marker expression and activity, effects pointing to increased osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation. SGK1S422D induced nuclear translocation and increased transcriptional activity of NF-?B. Silencing or pharmacological inhibition of IKK abrogated the osteoinductive effects of SGK1S422D. Genetic deficiency, silencing, and pharmacological inhibition of SGK1 dissipated phosphate-induced calcification and osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of VSMCs. Aortic calcification, stiffness, and osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation in mice following cholecalciferol overload were strongly reduced by genetic knockout or pharmacological inhibition of Sgk1 by EMD638683. Similarly, Sgk1 deficiency blunted vascular calcification in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice after subtotal nephrectomy. Treatment of human aortic smooth muscle cells with serum from uremic patients induced osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation, effects ameliorated by EMD638683. These observations identified SGK1 as a key regulator of vascular calcification. SGK1 promoted vascular calcification, at least partly, via NF-?B activation. Inhibition of SGK1 may, thus, reduce the burden of vascular calcification in CKD.