Anticoagulation after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: Current Status.
ABSTRACT: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is the standard of care for symptomatic severe aortic stenosis. Antithrombotic therapy is required after TAVI to prevent thrombotic complications but it increases the risk of bleeding events. Current clinical guidelines are mostly driven by expert opinion and therefore yield low-grade recommendations. The optimal antithrombotic regimen following TAVI has yet to be determined and several randomised controlled trials assessing this issue are ongoing. The purpose of this article is to critically explore the impact of antithrombotic drugs, especially anticoagulants, on long-term clinical outcomes following successful TAVI.
Project description:Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has emerged as the gold standard technique for all patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis at elevated surgical risk. Much progress has been made to reduce procedural complications and improve patient outcomes. The impressive results of contemporary TAVI can be attributed to a variety of factors, including improving operator experience, pre-operative patient screening, and developments in transcatheter heart valve and delivery system technology. Despite these advances, serious procedural complications continue to occur and there remain some anatomical subsets and patient groups to whom TAVI technology has not been expanded. Herein we discuss these unmet needs in TAVI.
Project description:Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a less invasive aortic valve replacement technique and is indicated for patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis and a high operative risk. Cerebral embolisation seems inherent to TAVI, as illustrated by the consistent appearance of new brain lesions on post-procedural MRI studies. Embolic protection devices may capture or deflect embolised material en route to the brain and thus reduce TAVI-related brain injury. Histopathology studies of captured debris revealed a diverse aetiology including recent or organised thrombotic material, tissue originating from the aortic valve, atherosclerotic plaques or myocardium and foreign body components. In this overview we provide a perspective on current evidence and implications for embolic protection devices in the dynamic TAVI field.
Project description:Balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) has historically been recommended prior to transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Pre-implantation BAV (pBAV) creates fractures at the level of calcified leaflets, thereby facilitating delivery of the transcatheter valve system across the diseased aortic valve and, enhances prosthesis implantation and expansion within the calcified aortic valve annulus. New device designs, lower profile delivery systems and increasing operator experience have enabled direct-TAVI (without pBAV), and its appeal amongst TAVI operators enhanced the dissemination of a direct TAVI approach across many centres. In this review, we discuss contemporary evidence that inform the debate on the need for routine pBAV for TAVI candidates and present a framework that may assist operators in selecting patients for pBAV.
Project description:Background:Valve-in-valve transcatheter aortic valve implantation (ViV-TAVI) in degenerated surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) is an alternative to redo-SAVR. However, reports on leaflet thrombosis following ViV-TAVI are emerging and subclinical thrombosis has gained recent attention. Although the incidence of transcatheter heart valve (THV) thrombosis after TAVI for native aortic valve disease is low, current imaging studies suggest the incidence of subclinical THV thrombosis may be significantly higher. While anticoagulation strategies for THV patients for native aortic stenosis presenting with symptomatic obstructive thrombosis has been described, the optimal management and anticoagulation therapy of patients with THV thrombosis following ViV-TAVI are less evident. Case summary:We report a case series of three patients presenting with early and late THV thrombosis after ViV-TAVI. Two patients presented clinically on single antiplatelet therapy and one patient presented with subclinical valve thrombosis whilst taking a non-vitamin K oral anticoagulation agent. Discussion:Leaflet thrombosis after ViV-TAVI is an important cause of THV degeneration and may present subclinically. Imaging modalities such as serial transthoracic echocardiograms and multidetector computerized tomography aid diagnosis and guide management. Patient-individualized risk- vs. -benefit prophylactic post-procedural oral anticoagulation may be indicated.
Project description:The development of transcatheter aortic valve implantation has represented one of the greatest advances in the cardiology field in recent years and has changed clinical practice for patients with aortic stenosis. Despite the continuous improvement in operators' experience and techniques, and the development of new generation devices, thromboembolic and bleeding complications after transcatheter aortic valve implantation remain frequent, and are a major concern due to their negative impact on prognosis in this vulnerable population. In addition, the optimal antithrombotic regimen in this scenario is not known, and current recommendations are mostly empirical and not evidence based. The present review aims to provide an overview of the current status of knowledge, including relevant on-going randomised trials, on antithrombotic treatment strategies after transcatheter aortic valve implantation.
Project description:An 80-year-old male underwent a transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) for severe senile aortic stenosis. Six weeks after the surgery, he was readmitted to our institution because of a high-grade fever. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed thickening of all three leaflets of the aortic prosthesis and mobile mass on the leaflet, and Streptococcus sanguis was identified from his blood culture. Therefore, he was diagnosed with prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) and received intensive intravenous antibiotic therapy. Because he did not respond to the pharmacological therapy, surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR) was indicated although it was considered a relatively high-risk procedure. Herein, we report on the successful surgical AVR in this patient using a pericardial valve after removal of the infected prosthetic valve, and discuss some issues related to this rare complication after TAVI. <Learning objective: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a highly effective procedure for patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis who are at high risk or deemed inoperable. Because it only requires limited surgical invasiveness, the risk of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) after TAVI is thought to be low. However, PVE can occur even early after TAVI. We present our recent such case and discuss some issues related to this rare complication.>.
Project description:The use of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) to treat severe symptomatic aortic valve stenosis has increased exponentially in the last decade. This rapid expansion was seen predominantly in Western developed nations and has been fuelled by favorable results reported from a plethora of well-publicized randomized controlled trials, large retrospective series and national registries. Now, TAVI has become the standard of care for inoperable patients and an alternative to open surgery in patients who are at intermediate to high risk for open surgery. Notwithstanding these positive results, Asia has been relatively slow to adopt this technology despite a potentially large patient pool. Unique features of Asian medical environments and differences in Asian anatomy affecting TAVI uptake in Asia will be discussed. This article serves to outline the various challenging aspects of disseminating TAVI in Asian countries.
Project description:An 82-year-old patient presented with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis, a high surgical risk profile, and a history of abdominal aortic replacement. Arterial access vessel conditions precluded transarterial transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Transcaval access through the aortic graft was achieved; however, tortuosity and resistance at the graft entry site hampered insertion of the introducer sheath and delivery system. Transcaval TAVI without a sheath was contemplated with the expectation of aortocaval fistulous decompression of blood around the TAVI catheter. Hemodynamic measures remained stable, and the valve was successfully implanted. This case illustrates the feasibility of sheathless transcaval TAVI without relevant hemodynamic compromise.
Project description:The rapid expansion of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been based upon robust clinical evidence derived from randomized controlled trials and large-scale international and national registries. Over the past decade, TAVI has evolved into a safe and effective procedure with predictable and reproducible outcomes. As a consequence, the TAVI technology is increasingly used to treat patients with a lower risk profile and the volume of TAVI now exceeds surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in some countries. It may be anticipated that, in the near future, the majority of patients with severe symptomatic aortic valve stenosis will undergo TAVI as first line therapy, regardless of their age and risk profile. This article identifies some of the specific challenges that lie ahead when considering expansion of TAVI to younger patients.
Project description:Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has emerged as an alternative technique to treating aortic stenosis in patients with high surgical risk. We present a case of a successful transfemoral TAVI in a high-risk patient with an extremely tortuous iliofemoral system and a significant S-type bend in the descending aorta. With careful preprocedure planning and using all the techniques available, TAVI can be performed in the most challenging patients.