Prevalence, Genetic Diversity, and Temporary Shifts of Inducible Clindamycin Resistance Staphylococcus aureus Clones in Tehran, Iran: A Molecular-Epidemiological Analysis From 2013 to 2018.
ABSTRACT: The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus as an aggressive pathogen resistant to multiple antibiotics causing nosocomial and community-acquired infections is increasing with limited therapeutic options. Macrolide-lincosamide streptogramin B (MLSB) family of antibiotics represents an important alternative therapy for staphylococcal infections. This study was conducted over a period of five years from August 2013 to July 2018 to investigate the prevalence and molecular epidemiology in Iran of inducible resistance in S. aureus. In the current study, 126 inducible methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (n = 106) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) (n = 20) isolates were characterized by in vitro susceptibility analysis, resistance and virulence encoding gene distribution, phenotypic and genotypic analysis of biofilm formation, prophage typing, S. aureus protein A locus (spa) typing, staphylocoagulase (SC) typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, and multilocus sequence typing. Of the 126 isolates, 76 (60.3%) were classified as hospital onset, and 50 (39.7%) were classified as community onset (CO). Biofilm formation was observed in 97 strains (77%). A total of 14 sequence types (STs), 26 spa types, 7 coagulase types, 9 prophage types, 3 agr types (no agr IV), and 9 clonal complexes (CCs) were identified in this study. The prevalence of the inducible MLSB (iMLSB) S. aureus increased from 7.5% (25/335) to 21.7% (38/175) during the study period. The iMLSB MRSA isolates were distributed in nine CCs, whereas the MSSA isolates were less diverse, which mainly belonged to CC22 (7.95%) and CC30 (7.95%). High-level mupirocin-resistant strains belonged to ST85-SCCmec IV/t008 (n = 4), ST5-SCCmec IV/t002 (n = 4), ST239-SCCmec III/t631 (n = 2), and ST8-SCCmec IV/t064 (n = 2) clones, whereas low-level mupirocin-resistant strains belonged to ST15-SCCmec IV/t084 (n = 5), ST239-SCCmec III/t860 (n = 3), and ST22-SCCmec IV/t790 (n = 3) clones. All the fusidic acid-resistant iMLSB isolates were MRSA and belonged to ST15-SCCmec IV/t084 (n = 2), ST239-SCCmec III/t030 (n = 2), ST1-SCCmec V/t6811 (n = 1), ST80-SCCmec IV/t044 (n = 1), and ST59-SCCmec IV/t437 (n = 1). The CC22 that was predominant in 2013-2014 (36% of the isolates) had almost disappeared in 2017-2018, being replaced by the CC8, which represented 39.5% of the 2017-2018 isolates. This is the first description of temporal shifts of iMLSB S. aureus isolates in Iran that identifies predominant clones and treatment options for iMLSB S. aureus-related infections.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>This study assessed the antimicrobial susceptibilities and the presence of inducible macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (iMLSB) resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) of Jamaica as well as the relatedness using polymerase chain reaction-based staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) and multiple-locus variable numbers of tandem repeat analyses (MLVAs).<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Antimicrobial susceptibility, the presence of MLSB resistance, and SCCmec and MLVA patterns were assessed for 61 nonduplicate isolates of MRSA from hospitalized patients.<h4>Results</h4>While no isolate was resistant to vancomycin, 53 (86.9%) isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 52 (85.3%) to erythromycin, 49 (80%) to lincomycin, and 45 (74%) to clindamycin. Of the 52 erythromycin-resistant isolates, 48% exhibited constitutive resistance and 8% showed inducible MLSB (iMLSB) resistance. Most (85%) of typable isolates were SCCmec type IV, and among these, 16 MLVA patterns were identified.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Multidrug resistance continues to characterize MRSA. Among the erythromycin-resistant isolates, constitutive resistance and iMLSB resistance are common. These facts will complicate the treatment of MRSA infections and warrant continued surveillance and judicial use of antimicrobial agents.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Emergence of vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) strains has led to great concern in global public health in both developing and developed countries. This study investigated distribution and molecular characterization of VRSA strains in Tehran's hospitals using a combination of molecular typing methods.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>A total of 1789 S. aureus isolates obtained between 2014 and 2017 and were characterized using antibiogram, SCCmec typing, spa typing, and multilocus-sequence typing. Resistance to vancomycin was determined by E-test method. After confirmation of the isolated VRSA strain, genetic analysis was performed by evaluating vanA and vanB genes presence.The presence of resistance (ermA, ermB, ermC, mupA, msrA, msrB, tetM, ant (4?)-Ia, aac (6?)-Ie/aph (2?), aph (3?)-IIIa) and toxin (etb, eta, pvl, tst) encoding genes was investigated by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique.<h4>Results</h4>Of all S. aureus tested isolates, four isolates were confirmed as VRSA isolates and two isolates confirmed as VISA isolates. ST5- SCCmec II/t002 and ST239-SCCmec III/t037 strains had MIC values of 512?g/ml, ST239-SCCmec III/t037 and ST8-SCCmecIV/t008 strains had MIC values of 64?g/ml and ST22-SCCmec IV/t790 and ST239-SCCmec III/t030 strains had MIC values ? 8 ?g/ml. pvl-encoding gene was confirmed in ST8-SCCmecIV/t008 and ST22-SCCmec IV/t790 strains. The isolates differed in the carriage of resistance and toxin encoding genes.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The study revealed the existence of VRSA strains in capital of Iran, Tehran. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ST239-SCCmec III/t037 as VRSA strain. These findings support the need for future surveillance studies on VRSA strains to keep the emergence and transmission of these isolates to a minimum.
Project description:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates recovered in Irish hospitals between 1971 and 2002 were characterized using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) (n = 130) and SCCmec typing (n = 172). Where atypical SCCmec typing results were obtained, PCR amplification of entire SCCmec elements, analysis of amplimer mobility, and nucleotide sequencing were undertaken. MLST revealed that 129/130 isolates had the same genotypes as internationally spread MRSA clones, including ST239, ST247, ST250, ST5, ST22, ST36, and ST8. A novel genotype, ST496, was identified in one isolate. Half of the isolates (86/172) had SCCmec type I, IA, II, III, or IV. The remaining 86 isolates harbored novel SCCmec variants in three distinct genetic backgrounds: (i) 74/86 had genotype ST8 and either one of five novel SCCmec II (IIA, IIB, IIC, IID, and IIE) or one of two novel SCCmec IV (IVE and IVF) variants; (ii) 3/86 had genotype ST239 and a novel SCCmec III variant; (iii) 9/86 had a novel SCCmec I variant associated with ST250. SCCmec IVE and IVF were similar to SCCmec IVc and IVb, respectively, but differed in the region downstream of mecA. The five SCCmec II variants were similar to SCCmec IVb in the region upstream of the ccr complex but otherwise were similar to SCCmec II, except for the following regions: SCCmec IIA and IID had a novel mec complex, A.4 (Delta mecI-IS1182-Delta mecI-mecR1-mecA-IS431mec); SCCmec IIC and IIE had a novel mec complex, A.3 (IS1182-Delta mecI-mecR1-mecA-IS431mec); SCCmec IID and IIE lacked pUB110; SCCmec IIC and IIE lacked a region of DNA between Tn554 and the mec complex; and SCCmec IIB lacked Tn554. This study has demonstrated a hitherto-undescribed degree of diversity within SCCmec.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) with accessory gene regulator (agr) dysfunction occurs in health care settings. This study evaluated the prevalence and the molecular and drug resistance characteristics of S. aureus with dysfunctional agr in a pediatric population in Beijing, China. RESULTS:A total of 269 nonduplicate S. aureus clinical isolates were isolated from Beijing Children's Hospital, including 211 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) from September 2010-2017 and 58 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) from February 2016-2017. Only 8 MRSA and 2 MSSA isolates were identified as agr dysfunction, and the overall prevalence rate was 3.7%. For MRSA isolates, ST59-SCCmec IV and ST239-SCCmec III were the most common clones, and the prevalence rate of agr dysfunction in ST239-SCCmec III isolates (17.39%) was significantly higher than in ST59-SCCmec IV (1.69%) and other genotype strains (P?=?0.006). Among the agr dysfunctional isolates, only one MRSA ST59 isolate and one MSSA ST22 isolate harbored pvl. No significant difference was detected between agr dysfunction and agr functional isolates regarding the biofilm formation ability (P?=?0.4972); however, 9/10 agr dysfunctional isolates could effectuate strong biofilm formation and multidrug resistance. Among MRSA, the non-susceptibility rates to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were significantly higher in agr dysfunctional isolates than in isolates with functional agr (P?<?0.05). Two isolates belonging to ST239 had no mutations in agr locus, but a synonymous mutation was found in agrA in another ST239 isolate. The inactivating mutations were detected in other seven agr dysfunctional isolates. The variants were characterized by non-synonymous changes (n?=?5) and frameshift mutations (insertions, n?=?2), which mainly occurred in agrC and agrA. CONCLUSIONS:The results showed that agr dysfunctional S. aureus was not common in Chinese children, and ST59-SCCmec IV was associated with lower prevalence of agr dysfunction as compared to ST239-SCCmec III isolates. The agr dysfunctional isolates were healthcare-associated, multidrug resistant and form strong biofilm, which suggested that agr dysfunction might offer potential advantages for S. aureus to survive in a medical environment.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is one of the most common food-borne diseases in the world. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and spa typing methods were used to characterize Staphylococcus aureus isolates from food surveillance during 2013-2015 in southwest China, and Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing was used for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Isolates were also examined for their antibiotic resistance and carriage of virulence genes.<h4>Results</h4>Isolation rate of S. aureus was 2.60% during the three years' surveillance and 29.50% of them were MRSA. All the S. aureus had hla genes (100%), 14.34% of the strains had tst, and 16.73% had PVL. 163 PFGE-SmaI patterns, 41 ST types and 36 spa types were obtained for all the S. aureus. Among them, ST6-t701 (13.15%), ST7-t091 (12.75%), ST59-t437 (9.96%) and ST5-t002 (7.57%) were the prevalent genotypes. Most of MRSA in this study belonged to SCCmec IV and V, accounted for 74.32% and 20.27% respectively. ST6-SCCmec IV-t701 (36.50%) was the most prevalent clone among isolates from food, followed by ST59-SCCmec V-t437 (20.30%), ST5-SCCmec IV-t002 (12.20%) and ST59-SCCmec IV-t437 (12.20%). Some strains had the identical PFGE patterns, ST and spa types with isolates from patients.<h4>Conclusions</h4>S. aureus isolated from food in southwest China displayed heterogeneity. Isolates had the same genotype profiles with isolates from patients, indicating high homology.
Project description:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a major cause of healthcare and community- associated infections due to their ability to express a variety of virulence factors. We investigated 209 MRSA isolates obtained from 1 January to 31 December 2016 using a combination of phenotypic and genotypic methods to understand the genetic backgrounds of MRSA strains obtained in a General hospital in Kuwait. Antibiotics susceptibility was performed with disk diffusion, and MIC was measured with Etest strips. Molecular typing was performed using SCCmec typing, spa typing, and DNA microarray for antibiotic resistance and virulence genes. The isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin, rifampicin, ceftaroline, and linezolid but were resistant to gentamicin, tetracycline, erythromycin, fusidic acid, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin. Molecular typing revealed six SCCmec types, 56 spa types and 16 clonal complexes (CC). The common SCCmec types were type IV (39.5%), type III (34.4%), type V (25.8%) and type VI (3.8%). The dominant spa types were t860 (23.9%), t945 (8.6%), t127 (6.7%), t688 (6.7%), t304 (6.2) and t044 (5.7%). The other spa types occurred sporadically. Genes for PVL was detected in 59 (28.2%) of the isolates. CC8-ST239-MRSA-III?+?SCCmer (23.3%) was the most prevalent clone, followed by CC6-MRSA-IV (8.3%), CC80-MRSA-IV [PVL+] (5.8%), CC5-MRSA-VI?+?SCCfus (5.0%), CC30-MRSA-IV[PVL+] (4.1%), CC1-MRSA-V?+?SCCfus [PVL+] (4.1%), CC5-MRSA-V?+?SCCfus (4.1%) and CC22-MRSA-IV[PVL+] (4.1%). The study revealed that despite the emergence of MRSA with diverse genetic backgrounds over the years, ST239-MRSA-III remained the dominant clone in the hospital. This warrants reassessment of infection prevention and control procedures at this hospital.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Antibiotic resistance among Staphylococcus aureus is of great concern worldwide. This resistance is further complicated by the ability of S. aureus to confer cross-resistance to other antibiotics due to the presence of resistance genes, such as erythromycin resistance methylase (erm) genes, which render the bacterium resistant to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) antibiotics. Resistance to these antibiotics can lead to therapeutic failure, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in patients with S. aureus infections. OBJECTIVES:This study was performed to examine the distribution of MLSB-resistant strains of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), which were obtained from hospitalized patients and normal healthy individuals (carriers) using phenotypic methods, such as the double-disk diffusion (D-test) and the genotypic method by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). METHODS:A total of 183 nonduplicative MSSA isolates obtained from hospitalized patients (133) and carriers (50) in our previous studies were randomly selected for the D-test. The guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) were used for the interpretation of the results of this test. The detection of ermA, ermB, ermC and msrA genes by PCR was performed for isolates that had positive D-test results and that were resistant to erythromycin. RESULTS:Of the 183 MSSA isolates, 97.2% and 98.4% were highly susceptible to erythromycin and clindamycin, respectively. MSLB resistance was detected in four isolates (2.2%). Of the 133 MSSA isolated from hospitalized patients, only 3.0% (4/133) and 2.3% (3/133) exhibited resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin, respectively. With regard to the MLSB resistance phenotypes, only 1.6% and 0.6% exhibited inducible MLSB (iMLSB) and MS phenotypes, respectively. The ermC gene was detected in all three iMLSB phenotypes, and the msrA gene was detected in the MS phenotype. Surprisingly, all MSSA isolates (100%) from carriers exhibited extremely high susceptibility to both antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence rates of iMLSB MSSA isolates vary according to geographical locations and the local antibiotic policy. The low prevalence rate of iMLSB MSSA isolates could probably be related to the judicious use of antibiotics for treating S. aureus infections in our studied population. Nonetheless, continuous antibiotic surveillance is still necessary to control any emergence of resistance isolates so that targeted therapy and effective control can be implemented accordingly.
Project description:Aim:The aim of this study was the genetic characterization of two clinical vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) isolates. Materials and methods:Resistance to vancomycin was determined by phenotypic method. PCR was used for detection of mecA, vanA, ermA, ermB, ermC, msrA/B, aph(2")-Ic, aph(3')-IIIa, pvl, Immune Evasion Cluster [sea, sep, chip, sak and scn] genes and biofilm operon icaABCD. On the other hand, multilocus sequence typing and agr typing methods were performed for the determination of clonal relationship and van operon was detected and sequenced. Results:Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain 1 (VRSA-1) was positive for vanA, ermA, ermC, aph(2")-Ic, aph(3')-IIIa, sea, sep, icaD genes, belonging to agr type I; SCCmec type III; spa type t030; and ST239. However, the genetic characterization of Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain 2 (VRSA-2) revealed the presence of various types of resistance genes vanA, ermA, ermC, aph(2")-Ic, aph(3')-IIIa, sea, icaD, relating to agr type I; SCCmec type III; spa type t459; and ST239. The presence of transposon Tn1546 was determined by PCR sequencing.The Basic Local Alignment Search Tool analysis of van operon in the VRSA isolates showed 99.6% sequence homology to Tn1546 in vancomycin-resistant enterococci, indicating the vanA operon has an enterococcal origin. Conclusion:In conclusion, the ST239 is one of the most common clones of MRSA isolates which involved the hospital-associated infections, therefore, the emergence of VRSA isolates with ST239 increased the spread of resistance to vancomycin in the hospital settings.
Project description:A total of 299 nares and 194 blood isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), each recovered from a unique patient, were collected from 23 U.S. hospitals from May 2009 to March 2010. All isolates underwent spa and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element (SCCmec) typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing; a subset of 84 isolates was typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SmaI. Seventy-six spa types were observed among the isolates. Overall, for nasal isolates, spa type t002-SCCmec type II (USA100) was the most common strain type (37% of isolates), while among blood isolates, spa type t008-SCCmec type IV (USA300) was the most common (39%). However, the proportion of all USA100 and USA300 isolates varied by United States census region. Nasal isolates were more resistant to tobramycin and clindamycin than blood isolates (55.9% and 48.8% of isolates versus 36.6% and 39.7%, respectively; for both, P < 0.05). The USA300 isolates were largely resistant to fluoroquinolones. High-level mupirocin resistance was low among all spa types (<5%). SCCmec types III and VIII, which are rare in the United States, were observed along with several unusual PFGE types, including CMRSA9, EMRSA15, and the PFGE profile associated with sequence type 239 (ST239) isolates. Typing data from this convenience sample suggest that in U.S. hospitalized patients, USA100 isolates of multiple spa types, while still common in the nares, have been replaced by USA300 isolates as the predominant MRSA strain type in positive blood cultures.
Project description:It has been shown previously that high rates of methicillin- and mupirocin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus exist in the Caribbean islands of Trinidad and Tobago, as well as a high prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive S. aureus. Beyond these studies, limited typing data have been published. In order to obtain insight into the population structure not only of MRSA but also of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, 294 clinical isolates collected in 2012/2013 were typed by microarray hybridisation. A total of 15.31% of the tested isolates were MRSA and 50.00% were PVL-positive. The most common MSSA strains were PVL-positive CC8-MSSA (20.41% of all isolates tested), PVL-positive CC152-MSSA (9.52%) and PVL-positive CC30-MSSA (8.84%) while the most common MRSA were ST239-MRSA-III&SCCmer (9.18%) and ST8-MRSA-IV, "USA300" (5.78%). 2.38% of characterised isolates belonged to distinct strains likely to be related to "Staphylococcus argenteus" lineages. The population structure of S. aureus isolates suggests an importation of strains from Africa, endemicity of PVL-positive MSSA (mainly CC8) and of ST239-MRSA-III, and a recent emergence of the PVL-positive CC8-MRSA-IV strain "USA300".