One-item susceptibility measure predicts waterpipe and little cigar/cigarillo uptake in a national sample of adolescents and young adults in the United States.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Adolescents and young adults in the United States (US) are increasingly using non-cigarette tobacco products such as waterpipe (WP) and little cigars/cigarillos (LCC). One way to predict which non-user adolescents and young adults are most likely to use these products is through measuring their susceptibility or openness to using the products. METHODS:We conducted a national phone survey (baseline) and an internet survey (follow-up) of adolescents and young adults (ages 13-25 years), who, at baseline, had never used WP (N=1002) or LCC (N=990). At baseline, we measured susceptibility using a single item, asking participants whether they would try WP or LCC if their best friend offered it to them, and subsequently measured uptake at follow-up. We conducted multivariate regression analyses to determine whether product-specific susceptibility was a significant predictor of uptake at follow-up. RESULTS:Participants who were susceptible and participants who had ever used another tobacco product had higher odds of using WP (AOR=3.5, AOR=4.2) and LCC (AOR=3.2, AOR=5.3) at follow-up than those who were not susceptible to those products, and had not ever used tobacco products respectively, controlling for sociodemographic factors. The one-item measure had adequate sensitivity (WP=51.4%, LCC=40.2%) and specificity (WP=84.9%, LCC=87.9%). CONCLUSIONS:Our national study of US adolescents and young adults shows that a one-item susceptibility measure at baseline was a significant predictor of WP and LCC uptake at follow-up, even after controlling for other predictors. Future research should assess the predictive validity of the one-item compared to the multi-item scale.
Project description:Importance:Cigarette marketing contributes to initiation of cigarette smoking among young people, which has led to restrictions on use of cigarette advertising. However, little is known about other tobacco advertising and progression to tobacco use in youth and young adults. Objective:To investigate whether receptivity to tobacco advertising among youth and young adults is associated with progression (being a susceptible never user or ever user) to use of the product advertised, as well as conventional cigarette smoking. Design, Setting, and Participants:The Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study at wave 1 (2013-2014) and 1-year follow-up at wave 2 (2014-2015) was conducted in a US population-based sample of never tobacco users aged 12 to 24 years from wave 1 of the PATH Study (N = 10 989). Household interviews using audio computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted. Exposures:Advertising for conventional cigarettes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), cigars, and smokeless tobacco products at wave 1. Main Outcomes and Measures:Progression to susceptibility or ever tobacco use at 1-year follow-up in wave 2. Results:Of the 10 989 participants (5410 male [weighted percentage, 48.3%]; 5579 female [weighted percentage, 51.7%]), receptivity to any tobacco advertising at wave 1 was high for those aged 12 to 14 years (44.0%; 95% confidence limit [CL], 42.6%-45.4%) but highest for those aged 18 to 21 years (68.7%; 95% CL, 64.9%-72.2%). e-Cigarette advertising had the highest receptivity among all age groups. For those aged 12 to 17 years, susceptibility to use a product at wave 1 was significantly associated with product use at wave 2 for conventional cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco products. Among committed never users aged 12 to 17 years at wave 1, any receptivity was associated with progression toward use of the product at wave 2 (conventional cigarettes: adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.43; 95% CL, 1.23-1.65; e-cigarettes: AOR, 1.62; 95% CL, 1.41-1.85; cigars: AOR, 2.01; 95% CL, 1.62-2.49; and smokeless [males only]: AOR, 1.42; 95% CL, 1.07-1.89) and with use of the product (conventional cigarettes: AOR, 1.54; 95% CL, 1.03-2.32; e-cigarettes: AOR, 1.45; 95% CL, 1.19-1.75; cigars: AOR, 2.07; 95% CL, 1.26-3.40). Compared with those not receptive to any product advertising, receptivity to e-cigarette advertising, but not to cigarette advertising, was independently associated with those aged 12 to 21 years having used a cigarette at wave 2 (AOR, 1.60; 95% CL, 1.08-2.38). Conclusions and Relevance:Receptivity to tobacco advertising was significantly associated with progression toward use in adolescents. Receptivity was highest for e-cigarette advertising and was associated with trying a cigarette.
Project description:In 2016, the Food and Drug Administration announced that it would regulate little cigars and cigarillos (LCCs) and expressed concern about the concomitant use of combustible tobacco products. To understand LCC use among socially-disadvantaged cigarette smokers, we assessed (1) the prevalence of concomitant use of subtypes of LCCs: LCC-tobacco, LCC-blunt, and LCC- poly use, which includes use of both LCC-tobacco and LCC-blunt and (2) and its association with sociodemographic factors and substance use behaviors using race/ethnicity and gender stratified models.In 2015, a web-based survey was administered to a national probability sample of black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, and white cigarette smokers aged 18-44 (n = 1018). Weighted estimates were used to assess current LCC-tobacco, LCC-blunt, and LCC-poly use. Multinomial regression models assessed sociodemographic, other tobacco and substance use correlates associated with LCC user subtypes.Of cigarette smokers, 63% did not smoke LCCs; 15.1% were LCC-tobacco users; 11.1% were LCC-blunt users; and 10.5% were LCC-poly users. Black/African American and Hispanic/Latino cigarette smokers had higher odds of LCC-tobacco, LCC-blunt, and LCC-poly use compared to white cigarette smokers. Blacks/African Americans who initiated cigarette smoking before age 18 and smoked other tobacco products had greater odds of LCC-tobacco use than whites. Male cigarette smokers who smoked other tobacco products and females who had early onset of cigarette use also had greater odds of LCC-tobacco use.Over 30% of cigarette smokers concomitantly used LCCs, which may prolong smoking. Accurate estimates of diverse LCC use behaviors may increase our understanding of the potential harms of concomitant use.Aggregate measures of LCC smoking do not distinguish subtypes of use among socially-disadvantaged cigarette smokers (ie, young adults, blacks/African Americans, Hispanics/Latinos), who may engage in these unique smoking behaviors. We document the prevalence of young adult cigarette smokers who dual use LCC-tobacco and LCC-blunts and are poly users of LCC-tobacco + LCC-blunts, and identify sociodemographic groups at risk for use. The Food and Drug Administration is concerned about concomitant behavior, which may increase chronic disease risk and addiction. Accurate estimates of LCC smoking behaviors may increase our understanding of the harms of concomitant use; which can inform prevention programs that specifically target LCC subtypes.
Project description:Understanding which tobacco products adolescents use first can lead to insights for tobacco prevention interventions and policies. We used cross-sectional data from high school students who reported ever using a tobacco product from the 2017 North Carolina Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 1,053). In multivariable regressions, we examined how demographic and psychosocial factors were associated with adolescents' first product tried and how first product tried was associated with current tobacco use (i.e., no use, use of a single product, use of multiple products) and frequency of tobacco use. Cigarettes (34.8%) and e-cigarettes (33.7%) were the most frequently reported first products tried, followed by cigars (15.6%), smokeless tobacco (10.7%), waterpipe (4.0%), and other tobacco products (i.e., pipe tobacco or some other tobacco product) (1.2%). Demographic differences in adolescents' first product tried existed, with Black adolescents having higher odds of initiating tobacco use via cigars (aOR: 6.17, 95% CI: 3.75, 10.14). Adolescents who initiated tobacco use via cigars (aOR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.31, 4.13) or smokeless tobacco (aOR: 2.45, 95% CI: 1.18, 5.04) had higher odds of being a multiple current tobacco product user, whereas adolescents who initiated tobacco use via e-cigarettes (aOR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.93) had lower odds of being a multiple current tobacco product user. Additionally, adolescents who initiated tobacco use via smokeless tobacco had higher odds of currently using at least one tobacco product frequently (aOR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.04, 3.48), while adolescents who initiated tobacco use via e-cigarettes had lower odds of currently using at least one tobacco product frequently (aOR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.70). These findings suggest that most adolescents reported initiating tobacco use via cigarettes or e-cigarettes and that trying certain products first (e.g., cigars, smokeless tobacco) was associated with higher odds of multiple current tobacco product use.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Engagement with online tobacco marketing among US adolescents increased from nearly 9% (2013-2014) to 21% (2014-2015). Such engagement increases the risk of tobacco use initiation. Despite the increase in the prevalence of and risks associated with engagement, the reasons why adolescents and young adults engage are not known. METHODS:A sample of 2619 adolescents (13-17 years) and 2625 young adults (18-24 years) living in the US participated in an online survey in July-August 2017. Engagement with online tobacco marketing was assessed through five forms of engagement (e.g. watched a video online promoting tobacco products). Reasons for engagement were assessed through an open-ended survey question. Prevalence of reasons for engagement was calculated overall, by tobacco use status, and by age group (adolescents and young adults). Multivariable logistic regression models were fit with engagement as the outcome (overall and specific reasons) and sociodemographics (including age, gender, and race/ethnicity) and tobacco use status (non-susceptible and susceptible never tobacco users; ever, but not past 30-day tobacco users; and past 30-day tobacco users) as covariates. RESULTS:Across all tobacco use statuses, the leading reasons for engagement were curiosity or desire for general knowledge about tobacco products (3.9%); incidental, unintended or forced exposure to tobacco ad (3.8%); and seeking discounts, coupons, incentives, or contests (2.9%). Susceptible never tobacco users were more likely to engage because of curiosity or general knowledge than non-susceptible never tobacco users (adjusted odds ratio, AOR=6.81; p<0.01). Past 30-day tobacco users were more likely to engage because of discounts, coupons, incentives, or contests and product appeal than ever, but not past 30-day tobacco users (AOR=7.10; p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS:Stricter state and federal regulation of tobacco marketing, specifically tobacco ads and coupons, and stronger self-regulation by social networking sites could reduce youth engagement with online tobacco marketing.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to investigate susceptibility and ever use of tobacco products among adolescents and young adults in the US. Cross-sectional analysis of Wave 1(2013-2014) adolescent (12-17year-olds; n=13,651) and young adult (18-24year-olds; n=9112) data from the nationally-representative Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study was conducted. At 12years, 5% were ever tobacco users and 36% were susceptible to use. Seventy percent were susceptible at age 17years, and the same proportion were ever users at age 22years. Susceptibility levels were comparable for cigarettes and e-cigarette (28.6% and 27.4%, respectively), followed by hookah (22.0%), pipes (17.5%), cigars (15.2%), and smokeless tobacco (9.7%). Non-Hispanic (NH) Black (Adjusted Odds Ratio [ORadj]=1.36; 95% Confidence Limit [CL], 1.18-1.56) and Hispanic (ORadj=1.34: 95% CL,1.19-1.49) adolescent never- users were more likely to be susceptible to future use of a tobacco product than NH Whites. Susceptibility was higher with age (15-17yrs. vs 12-14yrs.: ORadj=1.69; 95% CL, 1.55-1.85) and parental education (college graduates vs less than HS education: ORadj=1.22, 95% CL, 1.08-1.39). Compared to exclusive users of hookah, cigars, or smokeless products, larger proportions of exclusive e-cigarette ever users were also susceptible to cigarette use. Among adolescents, lower levels of ever use of tobacco products are often counterbalanced by higher levels of susceptibility for future use, which may suggest delayed initiation in some groups. Ever users of a given tobacco product were more susceptible to use other tobacco products, putting them at risk for future multiple tobacco product use.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Previous research suggests that some adolescents are using e-cigarette devices to vaporise ('vaping') cannabis in the form of hash oil, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) wax or oil, or dried cannabis buds or leaves. However, it is unclear how adolescents who vape cannabis use other tobacco products. This study examined the extent to which adolescents reported ever vaping cannabis and investigated how demographic variables and tobacco behaviours were associated with use. DESIGN:We used cross-sectional data from adolescents (total response rate 64.5%) who participated in the 2017 North Carolina Youth Tobacco Survey. SAS logistic regression survey procedures were used to account for the complex survey design and sampling weights. SETTING:North Carolina, USA. PARTICIPANTS:Adolescents in high school (n=2835). PRIMARY OUTCOME AND MEASURE:Adolescents were asked to indicate whether they had ever used an e-cigarette device with marijuana, THC or hash oil, or THC wax. RESULTS:Approximately 1 in 10 high school students reported ever vaping cannabis in the overall sample (9.6%). In multivariable models, adolescents who reported using cigars (adjusted OR (aOR) 3.76, 95% CI 2.33 to 6.07), waterpipe (aOR 2.32, 95% CI 1.37 to 3.93) or e-cigarettes (aOR 3.18, 95% CI 2.38 to 4.25) in the past 30 days had higher odds of reporting ever vaping cannabis compared with their counterparts. There was no significant association between use of smokeless tobacco (aOR 0.89, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.91) or use of cigarettes (aOR 1.27, 95% CI 0.71 to 2.29) in the past 30 days and odds of reporting ever vaping cannabis. CONCLUSIONS:These findings provide evidence that large numbers of high school students who use tobacco products have vaped cannabis. As tobacco control policies-such as communication campaigns or smoke-free laws-increasingly focus on e-cigarettes, attention to understanding how adolescents use e-cigarettes to vape substances other than nicotine is essential.
Project description:While flavoured cigarettes were prohibited in the USA in 2009, flavoured little cigars and cigarillos (LCCs) remain on the market. We describe the evolving strategies used by tobacco companies to encourage uptake of flavoured LCCs and industry research findings on consumer perceptions of flavoured LCC products.Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents was triangulated with data from tobacco advertisement archives, national newspapers, trade press and the internet.Flavoured LCC products were associated with young and inexperienced tobacco users, women and African-Americans. Internal industry studies confirmed that menthol and candy-like flavours (eg, vanilla and cherry) increased LCC appeal to starters by masking the heavy cigar taste, reducing throat irritation and making LCC smoke easier to inhale. To appeal to new users, manufacturers also reduced the size of cigars to make them more cigarette-like, introduced filters and flavoured filter tips, emphasised mildness and ease of draw in advertising, and featured actors using little cigars in television commercials. RJ Reynolds tried to capitalise on the popularity of menthol cigarettes among African-Americans and marketed a menthol little cigar to African-Americans.Tobacco companies engaged in a calculated effort to blur the line between LCCs to increase the appeal to cigarette smokers, and the use of flavours facilitated these efforts. Bans on flavoured cigarettes should be expanded to include flavoured LCCs, and tobacco use prevention initiatives should include LCCs.
Project description:Exposure to tobacco smoke has been associated with harmful effects on child health. The association between tobacco smoke exposure and childhood rhinitis has not been established in developed or developing countries. We investigated the association between serum cotinine levels and rhinitis in a population sample of 1,315 Asian children. Serum cotinine levels were positively associated with rhinitis ever (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]?=?2.95; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15-7.60) and current rhinitis (AOR?=?2.71; 95% CI: 1.07-6.89), while the association for physician-diagnosed rhinitis approaching borderline significance (AOR?=?2.26; 95% CI: 0.88-5.83). Stratified analyses demonstrated significant association of serum cotinine levels with current rhinitis among children without allergic sensitization (AOR?=?6.76; 95% CI: 1.21-37.74), but not among those with allergic sensitization. Serum cotinine levels were positively associated with rhinitis ever (AOR?=?3.34; 95% CI: 1.05-10.61) and current rhinitis (AOR?=?4.23; 95% CI: 1.28-13.97) among adolescents but not in children aged less than 10 years. This population-based study demonstrates supportive evidence for positive association of tobacco smoke exposure with rhinitis, while the effect is mainly confined to non-allergic rhinitis and more pronounced in adolescents than in young children, highlighting the need for raising public health awareness about the detrimental effects of tobacco smoke exposure on children's respiratory health.
Project description:The objective of this study was to measure the correlates, including normative beliefs, associated with waterpipe (WP) and cigarette smoking prevalence and dependence.A cross-sectional study was carried out using a proportionate cluster sample of Lebanese students in 17 public and private universities.Of the 4900 distributed questionnaires, 3384 (69.1%) were returned to the field worker. All available students during break times were approached, with no exclusion criteria.sociodemographic variables, detailed active and passive smoking, in addition to items of the tobacco dependence scales were all evaluated.Correlates to WP smoking were studying in a private university (adjusted OR, aOR=1.50 (1.26 to 1.79); p<0.001) and ever smoking cigarettes (aOR=1.80(1.44 to 2.26); p<0.001); friends' and societal influence were found on smoking behaviour and dependence. Although the role of parents was not visible in decreasing the risk of smoking WP, their protective influence seemed more important on WP dependence (?=-1.09(-1.79 to -0.28); p<0.001), a behaviour that is considered more deleterious for health. Parents' and friends' disagreement with smoking had a protective effect on cigarette smoking and dependence (aOR<1; p<0.01), while thinking that idols and successful people smoke increased the risk of both cigarette smoking and dependence (aOR>1; p<0.01).In conclusion, WP smoking and dependence are influenced by parents' and friends' opinions, and idols' smoking status. Future research is necessary to further improve our understanding of motives for WP smoking and dependence.
Project description:Prevalent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in schools may undermine tobacco denormalisation, and thus increase tobacco use in students. We investigated the associations of school-level e-cigarette use prevalence with student-level intention and behaviours related to e-cigarettes, cigarettes, and other tobacco products. In a 2014-15 school-based cross-sectional survey of 41035 secondary school students (grade 7-12; age 11-18 years) in Hong Kong, information was collected on the use of e-cigarettes, cigarettes, and non-cigarette tobacco products (NCTPs), susceptibility to e-cigarette and cigarette use, intention to quit cigarette smoking, and sociodemographic characteristics. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of e-cigarette use susceptibility in relation to high (vs low) school-level e-cigarette use prevalence was 1.40 (95% CI 1.05-1.87) in never e-cigarette users. The AORs of cigarette smoking susceptibility in relation to medium and high (vs low) school-level e-cigarette use prevalence were 1.24 (1.01-1.52) and 1.34 (1.02-1.75), respectively, in never cigarette smokers. School-level e-cigarette use prevalence was associated with ever and past 30-day cigarette smoking, but not with intention to quit (in past 30-day cigarette smokers) or past 30-day NCTP use. The findings highlight the importance of strictly banning e-cigarettes in schools, and add to the evidence that prevalent e-cigarette use in adolescents may increase cigarette smoking prevalence.