Overnight pulse wave analysis to assess autonomic changes during sleep in insomnia patients and healthy sleepers.
ABSTRACT: Insomnia has been associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) risk, which may be linked to sympathetic activation. Non-invasive overnight pulse wave analysis may be a useful tool to detect early signs of autonomic changes during sleep in insomniacs. Fifty-two participants (26 men, 37±13 years, BMI: 24±5 kg/m2, 26 insomniacs/ 26 controls) underwent overnight polysomnography with pulse oximetry and pulse wave analysis including pulse rate, vascular stiffness (pulse propagation time, PPT), and a composite cardiac risk index based on autonomic function and overnight hypoxia. We identified two subgroups of insomniacs, with and without objectively disturbed sleep (sleep efficiency SE?80%, n = 14 vs. SE>80%, n = 12), and observed increased pulse rate and vascular stiffness in insomnia cases when diagnosis was based on both, subjective and objective criteria. Both insomnia groups were associated with higher overnight pulse rate than controls (median/ IQR: low-SE (low sleep efficiency): 67/ 58-70bpm; high-SE: 66/ 63-69bpm; controls: 58/ 52-63bpm; p = 0.01). Vascular stiffness was higher (reduction of PPT) in low-SE insomniacs compared with high-SE insomniacs and controls (169/ 147-232ms; 237/ 215-254ms; 244/ 180-284ms; p = 0.01). The cardiac risk index was increased in low-SE insomniacs (0.2/ 0.0-0.7; 0.0/ 0.0-0.4; 0.0/ 0.0-0.3; p = 0.05). Our results suggest a hyperarousal state in young and otherwise healthy insomniacs during sleep. The increased pulse rate and vascular stiffness in insomniacs with low SE suggest early signs of rigid vessels and potentially, an elevated CV risk. Overnight pulse wave analysis may be feasible for CV risk assessment in insomniacs and may provide a useful tool for phenotyping insomnia in order to provide individualized therapy.
Project description:We estimated rates of cardiometabolic disease, pain conditions, and psychiatric illness associated with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) insomnia disorder (current and in remission) and habitual short sleep (fewer than 6 h), and examined the roles of insomnia and short sleep in racial disparities in disease burden between black and non-Hispanic white Americans.This epidemiological survey study was cross-sectional. The community-based sample consisted of 3,911 subjects (46.0 y ± 13.3; 65.4% female; 25.0% black) across six sleep groups based on DSM-5 insomnia classification (never vs. remitted vs. current) and self-reported habitual sleep duration (normal vs. short). Vascular events, cardiometabolic disease, pain conditions, and psychiatric symptoms were self-reported.Short sleeping insomniacs were at elevated risk for myocardial infarction, stroke, treated hypertension, diabetes, chronic pain, back pain, depression, and anxiety, independent of sex, age, and obesity. Morbidity profiles for insomniacs with normal sleep duration and former insomniacs, irrespective of sleep duration, were similar with elevations in treated hypertension, chronic pain, depression, and anxiety. Regarding racial disparities, cardiometabolic and psychiatric illness burden was greater for blacks, who were more likely to have short sleep and the short sleep insomnia phenotype. Evidence suggested that health disparities may be attributable in part to race-related differences in sleep.Insomnia disorder with short sleep is the most severe phenotype of insomnia and comorbid with many cardiometabolic and psychiatric illnesses, whereas morbidity profiles are highly similar between insomniacs with normal sleep duration and former insomniacs. Short sleep endemic to black Americans increases risk for the short sleep insomnia phenotype and likely contributes to racial disparities in cardiometabolic disease and psychiatric illness.
Project description:Backgroud:COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected the sleep health of local medical and nursing staff. Aim:We used wearable pulse oximeters to monitor and screen the medical and nursing staff working in hospitals designated for COVID-19 in the Wuhan area. This study aimed to establish a reliable basis to provide sleep intervention for the medical and nursing staff. Methods:Thirty medical and nursing staff members with symptoms of insomnia were instructed to wear medical ring-shaped pulse oximeters to monitor their sleep overnight. We also used the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and the Chinese version of the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) to evaluate the severity of insomnia and mental health status, respectively, for each participant. Results:Among the 30 participants, only 26 completed the screening. Ten cases (38.5%) demonstrated moderate to severe sleep apnoea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) when using an oxygen desaturation index ?15 times/hour as the cut-off value. Participants with comorbid moderate to severe SAHS had significantly higher ISI and SRQ scores (p values 0.034 and 0.016, respectively) than those in the insomnia group. Correlation analysis revealed that ISI was positively correlated with total sleep time (TST) (r=0.435, p=0.026), and negatively correlated with deep sleep (r=-0.495, p=0.010); furthermore, patient SRQ scores were positively correlated with TST, sleep efficiency (SE) and REM (rapid eyes movement) sleep % (r=0.454 and 0.389, 0.512; p=0.020, 0.050 and 0.008, respectively). Stepwise logistic regression indicated that SRQ-20 and sex were risk factors for insomnia with comorbid SAHS, and their OR values were 1.516 and 11.56 (95% CI 1.053 to 2.180 and 1.037 to 128.9), respectively. Conclusion:Medical and nursing staff with insomnia showed clear signs of comorbid sleep apnoea attributable to stress. The wearable pulse oximeters accurately monitored the participants' breathing when asleep.
Project description:Insomnia is among the most prevalent and costly of all sleep-related disorders. To characterize the neural mechanisms underlying subjective dysfunction in insomnia, we examined brain activity in 17 female insomniacs and 17 female healthy controls using simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) while they were resting and while they were trying to fall asleep. In examining the dynamic regional activity within intrinsic brain networks, we found that, compared with controls, insomniacs had greater involvement of the anterior insula with salience networks, as well as insula BOLD correlation with EEG gamma frequency power during rest in insomniacs. This increased involvement of the anterior insula was associated with negative affect in insomniacs. Aberrant activation of the insula, which integrates temporal and bodily states, in arousal networks may underlie the misperception of sleep quality and subjective distress in insomnia.
Project description:Objective:The aim of this study is to predict the risk and protective factors for the differential effects of the environment on travelers' sleep health. Methods:A sample of 505 travelers who stayed overnight in one of 28 hotels completed a sleep quality scale (SQS), a reduced scale of the Morningness/Eveningness questionnaire (rMEQ), and a hotel customer satisfaction questionnaire (H-SCI). Results:Individuals who are of morning type (p = 0.002), have reduced sleep duration (p = 0.010), and have high sensitivity to the sleep environment (p = 0.000) are most affected by environmental change. Interestingly, business travelers are more affected by sleep disturbances than leisure travelers, travelers who are more satisfied with hotels are less likely to experience insomnia in a new sleep environment (p = 0.000), and insomniacs are more likely to recover from insomnia during a trip (p = 0.000). Conclusion:Environmental change has an inconsistent impact on the sleep health of different individuals. In a new sleep environment, the possible risk factors for sleep health include (1) being of morning type, (2) reduced sleep duration during trip, (3) sensitivity to the sleep environment, and (4) business stress, while a possible protective factor is satisfaction with the hotel. Possible factors aiding in recovery from home insomnia include (1) being of evening type and (2) higher satisfaction with the hotel.
Project description:Actigraphy is increasingly used in the assessment and treatment of various clinical conditions, being a convenient and cost-effective method of capturing bodily movements over long periods of time. This study examined the use of actigraphy in the measurement of sleep of patients with depression and insomnia. Fifty-four patients diagnosed with a current major depressive episode and chronic insomnia underwent a baseline overnight study with concurrent actigraphic and polysomnography (PSG) monitoring, as well as subjective sleep diaries. Agreement between PSG, actigraphy and sleep diary measurements was evaluated using two-tailed t-tests, Pearson's correlations and the Bland-Altman concordance technique. The only significant difference found between actigraphy and PSG was in latency to persistent sleep, in which actigraphy underestimated sleep latency relative to PSG (P?<?0.05). There were moderate positive correlations between actigraphy and PSG for all variables. In contrast, significant differences were observed between sleep diaries and PSG for all sleep variables. Bland-Altman concordance diagrams also demonstrated that, while bias was limited between PSG and the other two measurement types, there were somewhat broad 95% limits of agreement for all sleep variables with both sleep diaries and actigraphy. In summary, actigraphic measurements of sleep more closely approximated those of PSG than did sleep diaries in this sample of depressed insomniacs.
Project description:<h4>Study objectives</h4>To examine whether insomnia is associated with spectral electroencephalographic (EEG) dynamics in the beta (15-35Hz) range during sleep in an adolescent general population sample.<h4>Methods</h4>A case-control sample of 44 adolescents from the Penn State Child Cohort underwent a 9-h polysomnography, clinical history and physical examination. We examined low-beta (15-25 Hz) and high-beta (25-35 Hz) relative power at central EEG derivations during sleep onset latency (SOL), sleep onset (SO), non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and wake after sleep onset (WASO).<h4>Results</h4>Compared to controls (n = 21), individuals with insomnia (n = 23) showed increased SOL and WASO and decreased sleep duration and efficiency, while no differences in sleep architecture were found. Insomniacs showed increased low-beta and high-beta relative power during SOL, SO, and NREM sleep as compared to controls. High-beta relative power was greater during all sleep and wake states in insomniacs with short sleep duration as compared to individuals with insomnia with normal sleep duration.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Adolescent insomnia is associated with increased beta EEG power during sleep, which suggests that cortical hyperarousal is present in individuals with insomnia as early as adolescence. Interestingly, cortical hyperarousal is greatest in individuals with insomnia with short sleep duration and may explain the sleep complaints of those with normal sleep duration. Disturbed cortical networks may be a shared mechanism putting individuals with insomnia at risk of psychiatric disorders.
Project description:Insomnia disorder is a widespread sleep disorder with a prevalence of approximately 10%. Even though the link between insomnia and cardiovascular activity is not exactly clear, it is generally assumed that cardiovascular autonomic modifications could occur as a result of sleeplessness, or, alternatively, that autonomic alterations could be an expression of a hyper-arousal state. This review investigates whether cardiovascular measures are different between insomniacs and controls.Electronic databases were systematically searched, and 34 studies were identified. Heart rate variability features, the association of cardiac and EEG activity, physiologic complexity measures, and cardiovascular activity, assessed by measures such as pre-ejection time, blood pressure, and heart rate dynamics were studied. Given the heterogeneity of the studies, a narrative synthesis of the findings was performed.This review study found overall differences in cardiovascular activity between insomniacs and controls in most of the observational studies (21/26), while the expression of cardiovascular regulation varied between the examined insomniac groups. All the studies that investigated the association of cardiac activity and EEG power reported an altered relation between autonomic activity and EEG parameters in insomniacs.Autonomic regulation tends to be consistent between insomniacs, as long as they are grouped according to their respective phenotype, as shown in the insomnia subgroup with objectively short sleep duration. Our hypothesis is that these differences in the expression of cardiovascular activity could be explained by the heterogeneity of the disorder. Therefore, the determination of insomnia phenotypes, and the study of cardiovascular measures, rather than heart rate variability alone, will give more insight into the link between insomnia and cardiovascular regulation. This study suggests that cardiovascular activity differs between insomniacs and controls. These new findings are of interest to clinicians and researchers for a more accurate insomnia assessment, and the development of personalized technological solutions in insomnia.
Project description:The menopausal transition is marked by increased prevalence in disturbed sleep and insomnia, present in 40-60% of women, but evidence for a physiological basis for their sleep complaints is lacking. We aimed to quantify sleep disturbance and the underlying contribution of objective hot flashes in 72 women (age range: 43-57 years) who had (38 women), compared to those who had not (34 women), developed clinical insomnia in association with the menopausal transition. Sleep quality was assessed with two weeks of sleep diaries and one laboratory polysomnographic (PSG) recording. In multiple regression models controlling for menopausal transition stage, menstrual cycle phase, depression symptoms, and presence of objective hot flashes, a diagnosis of insomnia predicted PSG-measured total sleep time (p < 0.01), sleep efficiency (p = 0.01) and wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO) (p = 0.01). Women with insomnia had, on average, 43.5 min less PSG-measured sleep time (p < 0.001). There was little evidence of cortical EEG hyperarousal in insomniacs apart from elevated beta EEG power during REM sleep. Estradiol and follicle stimulating hormone levels were unrelated to beta EEG power but were associated with the frequency of hot flashes. Insomniacs were more likely to have physiological hot flashes, and the presence of hot flashes predicted the number of PSG-awakenings per hour of sleep (p = 0.03). From diaries, women with insomnia reported more WASO (p = 0.002), more night-to-night variability in WASO (p < 0.002) and more hot flashes (p = 0.012) compared with controls. Women who develop insomnia in the approach to menopause have a measurable sleep deficit, with almost 50% of the sample having less than 6h of sleep. Compromised sleep that develops in the context of the menopausal transition should be addressed, taking into account unique aspects of menopause like hot flashes, to avoid the known negative health consequences associated with insufficient sleep and insomnia in midlife women.
Project description:Although sleep symptoms of insomnia can be quantified, none of the current diagnostic systems stipulate quantitative cutoffs for sleep-onset latency (SOL) or wake time after sleep onset (WASO). Diagnoses are based instead on idiographic patient reports of "difficulty" falling/staying asleep. Therefore, we examined whether remission of insomnia as per the diagnostic criteria results from a normalization of quantitative sleep disturbance, or if it is simply reflective of tolerance to sleep symptoms.This study involved a yearlong prospective investigation of 649 adults (48.1?±?11.6 years; 69.3% female) with DSM-5-based insomnia. Participants completed measures of sleep disturbance, perceived sleep-related distress, daytime sleepiness, functional impairment, and workplace productivity at baseline and follow-up one year later.A total of 271 participants no longer met the DSM-5-based insomnia criteria at follow-up. However, 66% of these remitters reported ?31?min of SOL and/or WASO. Daytime impairment in this subgroup of remitters was no different from that among individuals who met the diagnostic criteria at both baseline and follow-up (ie, chronic insomniacs). By contrast, follow-up impairment was significantly lower (F?=?12.3; P?<?0.01) among remitters whose sleep disturbance returned below empirically derived quantitative cutoffs (both SOL and WASO <31?min) than in chronic insomniacs.This is the first study on the long-term course of insomnia based on the newly established DSM-5 criteria. A troubling implication of findings is that a majority of insomniacs stop meeting the diagnostic criteria despite continued sleep disturbance and impairment. "Remission" in these cases is attributable instead to tolerance of sleep symptoms. Incorporating quantitative criteria into current diagnoses may offer a more sensitive assay of treatment needs.
Project description:STUDY OBJECTIVES:The safety profile of the dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) are currently unknown with regard to nocturnal responsivity among people with insomnia. We compared the auditory awakening thresholds (AATs) of the DORA suvorexant (10 and 20 mg) versus placebo in 12 individuals with DSM-5 insomnia. METHODS:The study used a double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way crossover design. Participants were randomly assigned to a treatment sequence that included placebo, suvorexant 10 mg, and suvorexant 20 mg. At the time of maximum drug concentration, auditory tones were played during stable stage N2 sleep. Tones increased by 5-decibel (db) increments until the participant awakened. The db at awakening was recorded as the AAT and compared between conditions. The proportion of awakenings higher than 85 db was also compared between conditions. Finally, sensitivity analyses were also conducted using surrounding thresholds (80 db and 90 db). RESULTS:The mean AAT did not differ significantly between either dose of suvorexant compared to placebo. Moreover, the proportions of individuals who remained asleep at the AAT 85 db cutoff did not differ across conditions. In addition, wake after sleep onset decreased and total sleep time increased in the suvorexant 20 mg condition compared to placebo. CONCLUSIONS:Suvorexant (10 and 20 mg) preserved the ability to respond to nocturnal stimuli, whereas the 20-mg dose improved the sleep of people with insomnia. This suggests that DORAs such as suvorexant can effectively treat insomnia while allowing patients to awaken to nocturnal stimuli in the environment. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; Title: A Phase IV 3-Way Double-blind, Randomized, Crossover Study to Compare the Awakening Threshold Effects (Responsivity) of Belsomra 10 mg and 20 mg to Placebo in Non-elderly Insomniacs; Identifier NCT03312517; URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03312517. CITATION:Drake CL, Kalmbach DA, Cheng P, Roth T, Tran KM, Cuamatzi-Castelan A, Atkinson R, SinghM, Tonnu CV, Fellman-Couture C. Can the orexin antagonist suvorexant preserve the ability to awaken to auditory stimuli while improving sleep? J Clin Sleep Med. 2019;15(9):1285-1291.