Per-6-Thiolated Cyclodextrins: A Novel Type of Permeation Enhancing Excipients for BCS Class IV Drugs.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to develop a per-6-thiolated ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) by substituting all primary hydroxyl groups of ?-CD with thiol groups and to assess its solubility-improving and permeation-enhancing properties for a BCS Class IV drug in vitro as well as in vivo. The primary hydroxyl groups of ?-CD were replaced by iodine, followed by substitution with -SH groups. The structure of per-6-thiolated ?-CD was approved by FT-IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The per-6-thiolated was characterized for thiol content, -SH stability, cytotoxicity, and solubility-improving properties by using the model BCS Class IV drug furosemide (FUR). The mucoadhesive properties of the thiolated oligomer were investigated via viscoelastic measurements with porcine mucus, whereas permeation-enhancing features were evaluated on the Caco-2 cell monolayer and rat gut mucosa. Furthermore, oral bioavailability studies were performed in rats. The per-6-thiolated ?-CD oligomer displayed 4244 ± 402 ?mol/g thiol groups. These -SH groups were stable at pH ? 4, exhibiting a pKa value of 8.1, but subject to oxidation at higher pH. Per-6-thiolated ?-CD was not cytotoxic to Caco-2 cells in 0.5% (m/v) concentration within 24 h. It improved the solubility of FUR in the same manner as unmodified ?-CD. The addition of per-6-thiolated ?-CD (0.5% m/v) increased the mucus viscosity up to 5.8-fold at 37 °C within 4 h. Because of the incorporation in per-6-thiolated ?-CD, the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of FUR was 6.87-fold improved on the Caco-2 cell monolayer and 6.55-fold on the intestinal mucosa. Moreover, in vivo studies showed a 4.9-fold improved oral bioavailability of FUR due to the incorporation in per-6-thiolated ?-CD. These results indicate that per-6-thiolated ?-CD would be a promising auxiliary agent for the mucosal delivery of, in particular, BCS Class IV drugs.
Project description:We report that poly(L-lysine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG) copolymers that bear multiple thiol groups on the polymer backbone are exceptional ligands for gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). In general, these graft copolymer ligands stabilize AuNPs against environments that would ordinarily lead to particle aggregation. To characterize the effect of copolymer structure on AuNP stability, we synthesized thiolated PLL-g-PEGs (PLL-g-[PEG:SH]) with different backbone lengths, PEG grafting densities, and number of thiols per polymer chain. AuNPs were then combined with these polymer ligands, and the stabilities of the resulting AuNP@PLL-g-[PEG:SH] particles against high temperature, oxidants, and competing thiol ligands were characterized using dynamic light scattering, visible absorption spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectrophotometry. Our observations indicate that thiolated PLL-g-PEG ligands combine thermodynamic stabilization via multiple Au-S bonds and steric stabilization by PEG grafts, and the best graft copolymer ligands balance these two effects. We hope that this new ligand system enables AuNPs to be applied to biotechnological applications that require harsh experimental conditions.
Project description:The number and the reactivity of accessible thiol groups of the Folch-Pi apoprotein and proteolipid (50% of myelin proteins) were studied, by using a specific thiol-disulphide interchange reaction, in connection with the known solubility of this protein in organic and aqueous solvents. The high reactivity of 2,2'-dipyridyl disulphide towards thiol groups leads to the titration of 4.8 mol of SH groups/mol of protein (Mr 30000) in alkaline and acidic chloroform/methanol (2:1, v/v). Unlike previous findings, this value was consistently found from batch to batch and remained stable with time. In the proteolipid 1 mol of SH groups/mol was not accessible as compared with the apoprotein. In aqueous solvents, a similar number of 4.4 mol of SH groups/mol was also found. For the first time, kinetic studies carried out in chloroform/methanol discriminated between two classes of thiol groups. The reaction of 2 mol of SH groups/mol was characterized by apparent second-order rate constants whose values were 5-10-fold higher than those of the other class. Kinetic studies and cyanylation experiments in aqueous solvents also indicated the high reactivity of these thiol groups with Ellman's reagent. Together with kinetic results, studies on the stoichiometry of the interchange reaction of equimolar solutions of protein and disulphide indicate that these highly reactive thiol groups are near to each other in the amino acid sequence. The location of the thiol groups at the boundary between hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains of the Folch-Pi protein is suggested in connection with their possible structural and biological significance.
Project description:Polymers or hydrogels containing modified cyclodextrin (CD) are highly useful in drug delivery applications, as CD is a cytocompatible amphiphilic molecule that can complex with a variety of hydrophobic drugs. Here, we designed modular photoclick thiol-ene hydrogels from derivatives of ?CD and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), including ?CD-allylether (?CD-AE), ?CD-thiol (?CD-SH), PEG-thiol (PEGSH), and PEG-norbornene (PEGNB). Two types of CD-PEG hybrid hydrogels were prepared using radical-mediated thiol-ene photoclick reactions. Specifically, thiol-allylether hydrogels were formed by reacting multiarm PEGSH and ?CD-AE, and thiol-norbornene hydrogels were formed by cross-linking ?CD-SH and multiarm PEGNB. We characterized the properties of these two types of thiol-ene hydrogels, including gelation kinetics, gel fractions, hydrolytic stability, and cytocompatibility. Compared with thiol-allylether hydrogels, thiol-norbornene photoclick reaction formed hydrogels with faster gelation kinetics at equivalent macromer contents. Using curcumin, an anti-inflammatory and anticancer hydrophobic molecule, we demonstrated that CD-cross-linked PEG-based hydrogels, when compared with pure PEG-based hydrogels, afforded higher drug loading efficiency and prolonged delivery in vitro. Cytocompatibility of these CD-cross-linked hydrogels were evaluated by in situ encapsulation of radical sensitive pancreatic MIN6 ?-cells. All formulations and cross-linking conditions tested were cytocompatible for cell encapsulation. Furthermore, hydrogels cross-linked by ?CD-SH showed enhanced cell proliferation and insulin secretion as compared to gels cross-linked by either dithiothreitol (DTT) or ?CD-AE, suggesting the profound impact of both macromer compositions and gelation chemistry on cell fate in chemically cross-linked hydrogels.
Project description:We have developed a thiol-modified nanoporous silica material (SH-SAMMS) as an oral therapy for the prevention and treatment of heavy metal poisoning. SH-SAMMS has been reported to be highly efficient at capturing heavy metals in biological fluids and water. Herein, SH-SAMMS was examined for efficacy and safety in both in vitro and in vivo animal models for the oral detoxification of heavy metals. In simulated gastrointestinal fluids, SH-SAMMS had a very high affinity (Kd) for methyl mercury (MeHg(I)), inorganic mercury (Hg(II)), lead (Pb(II)), and cadmium (Cd(II)) and was superior to other SAMMS with carboxylic acid or phosphonic acid ligands or commercially available metal chelating sorbents. SH-SAMMS also effectively removed Hg from biologically digested fish tissue with no effect on most nutritional minerals found in fish. SH-SAMMS could hold Hg(II) and MeHg(I) tightly inside the nanosize pores, thus preventing bacteria from converting them to more absorbable forms. Rats fed a diet containing MeHg(I), Cd(II), and Pb(II) and SH-SAMMS for 2 weeks had blood Hg levels significantly lower than rats fed the metal-rich diet only. Upon cessation of the metal-rich diet, continued administration of SH-SAMMS for 2 weeks facilitated faster and more extensive clearance of Hg than in animals not continued on oral SH-SAMMS. Rats receiving SH-SAMMS also suffered less weight loss as a result of the metal exposure. Retention of Hg and Cd in major organs was lowest in rats fed with SH-SAMMS throughout the entire four weeks. The reduction of blood Pb by SH-SAMMS was significant. SH-SAMMS was safe to intestinal epithelium model (Caco-2) and common intestinal bacteria (Escherichia coli). Altogether, it has great potential as a new oral drug for the treatment of heavy metal poisoning. This new application is enabled by the installation of tailored interfacial chemistry upon nontoxic nanoporous materials.
Project description:Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) or vorinostat (VOR) is a potent inhibitor of class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) that is approved for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. However, it has the intrinsic limitations of low water solubility and low permeability which reduces its clinical potential especially when given orally. Packaging of drugs within ordered mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) is an emerging strategy for increasing drug solubility and permeability of BCS (Biopharmaceutical Classification System) class II and IV drugs. In this study, we encapsulated vorinostat within MSNs modified with different functional groups, and assessed its solubility, permeability and anti-cancer efficacy in vitro. Compared to free drug, the solubility of vorinostat was enhanced 2.6-fold upon encapsulation in pristine MSNs (MCM-41-VOR). Solubility was further enhanced when MSNs were modified with silanes having amino (3.9 fold) or phosphonate (4.3 fold) terminal functional groups. Moreover, permeability of vorinostat into Caco-2 human colon cancer cells was significantly enhanced for MSN-based formulations, particularly MSNs modified with amino functional group (MCM-41-NH?-VOR) where it was enhanced ~4 fold. Compared to free drug, vorinostat encapsulated within amino-modified MSNs robustly induced histone hyperacetylation and expression of established histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi)-target genes, and induced extensive apoptosis in HCT116 colon cancer cells. Similar effects were observed on apoptosis induction in HH cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cells. Thus, encapsulation of the BCS class IV molecule vorinostat within MSNs represents an effective strategy for improving its solubility, permeability and anti-tumour activity.
Project description:Introducing sulfhydryl groups to biomolecules to functionalize gold nanorods (GNRs) is an attractive method that involves the creation of a strong Au-S bond. Previously, we developed a facile method to functionalize GNR surfaces by thiolating antibodies using Traut's reagent. In the current study, we evaluated several methods for the introduction of thiol groups onto the surface of GNRs by using Traut's reagent, dithiotreitol (DTT), dithiolaromatic PEG6-CONHNH2, and thiol-polyethylene glycolamine (SH-PEG-NH2) combined with EDC reaction. We showed that the four above-mentioned thiolation methods can efficiently functionalize GNRs and simplify the functionalization procedures. The formed GNR-bioconjugates showed superior stability without compromising the biological activity. The GNR nanochip prepared with these four thiolated antibodies can detect human IgG targets with specificity. However, SH-PEG-NH2 combined with EDC reaction may affect the amount of functionalized GNRs because of the efficiency of thiol moiety linkage to antibodies, thereby affecting the sensitivity of the GNR sensor. The introduction of a thiol group to antibodies by using Traut's reagent, DTT, and PEG6-CONHNH2 allowed for direct immobilization onto the GNR surface, improved the efficacy of functionalized GNRs, and increased the sensitivity in response to target detection as a biosensor. Given that PEG6-CONHNH2 modification requires glycosylated biomolecules, Traut's reagent and DTT thiolation are recommended as universal applications of GNR biofunctionalization and can be easily extended to other sensing applications based on other gold nanostructures or new biomolecules.
Project description:Styrene-butadiene styrene graphene oxide nanoplatelets (SBS-g-GOs)-modified asphalt was prepared by reacting thiolated GOs (GOs-SH) with SBS in asphalt using a thiol-ene click reaction. The temperature resistance and mechanical properties of asphalts were analyzed by dynamic shear rheology (DSR) and multiple-stress creep-recovery (MSCR) tests, which revealed that an optimum amount of GOs-SH (0.02%) can effectively improve the low temperature and anti-rutting performance of SBS asphalt. Segregation experiments showed that SBS-g-GOs possessed good stability and dispersion in base asphalt. Fluorescence microscopy results revealed that the addition of GOs-SH promoted the formation of SBS network structure. Textural and morphological characterization of GOs-SH and SBS were achieved by Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), atomic-force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while surface chemical composition was tested by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Based on textural characterization data, a suitable reaction mechanism was proposed that involved the preferential reaction between GOs-SH and 1,2 C=C of SBS. The currently designed GOs-SH incorporated asphalt via thiol-ene click reaction provides new ideas for the preparation of modified asphalt with enhanced mechanical properties for target-oriented applications.
Project description:A potential new photosensitizer based on a dissymmetric porphyrin derivative bearing a thiol group was synthesized. 5-[4-(11-Mercaptoundecyloxy)-phenyl-10,15,20-triphenylporphyrin (PR-SH) was used to functionalize gold nanoparticles in order to obtain a potential drug delivery system. Water-soluble multifunctional gold nanoparticles GNP-PR/PEG were prepared using the Brust-Schiffrin methodology, by immobilization of both a thiolated polyethylene glycol (PEG) and the porphyrin thiol compound (PR-SH). The nanoparticles were fully characterized by transmission electron microscopy and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Furthermore, the ability of GNP-PR/PEGs to induce singlet oxygen production was analyzed to demonstrate the activity of the photosensitizer. Cytotoxicity experiments showed the nanoparticles are nontoxic. Finally, cellular uptake experiments demonstrated that the functionalized gold nanoparticles are internalized. Therefore, this colloid can be considered to be a novel nanosystem that could potentially be suitable as an intracellular drug delivery system of photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy.
Project description:The 2-iminothiolane reaction with protein amino groups adds a spacer arm ending with a thiol group, which can be further treated with molecules carrying a maleimido ring. This approach is currently used for the preparation of a candidate 'blood substitute' in which human Hb (haemoglobin) is conjugated with long chains of PEG [poly(ethylene glycol)]. To identify the thiolation sites by MS, we have carried out the reaction using deoxyHb bound to inositol hexaphosphate to protect some of the residues crucial for function and NEM (N-ethylmaleimide) to block and stabilize the thiol groups prior to enzymatic digestion by trypsin and pepsin. Under the conditions for the attachment of 5-8 PEG chains per tetramer, the thiolated residues were Lys7, Lys11, Lys16, Lys56 and Lys139 and, with lower accessibility, Lys90, Lys99 and Lys60 of the a-chain and Lys8, Lys17, Lys59, Lys61 and Lys66 and, with lower accessibility, Lys65, Lys95 and Lys144 of the b-chain. The a-amino groups of a- and b-chains were not modified and the reaction of the Cysb93 residues with NEM was minor or absent. After the modification with thiolane and NEM of up to five to eight lysine residues per tetramer, the products retained a large proportion of the properties of native Hb, such as low oxygen affinity, co-operativity, effect of the modulators and stability to autoxidation. Under identical anaerobic conditions, the conjugation of the thiolated Hb tetramer with five or six chains of the maleimido derivative of 6 kDa PEG yielded products with diminished co-operativity, Hill coefficient h=1.3-1.5, still retaining a significant proportion of the effects of the modulators of oxygen affinity and stability to autoxidation. Co-operativity was apparently independent of the topological distribution of the PEGylated sites as obtained by treating partly the thiolated protein with NEM prior to PEGylation [poly(ethylene glycol)ation].
Project description:The BALB/c IgA (immunoglobulin A) myeloma protein M167 contained on average 5.7 free SH groups per IgA dimer. These groups were preponderantly on the heavy chains and comprised two distinct populations: 3.3 exposed SH groups per dimer in the Fc region, and 2.4 buried SH groups per dimer in the Fd region, detectable o only after denaturation. To locate the cysteine residues involved, labelled peptides were purified from thermolysin digests of radioalkylated IgA by high-performance liquid chromatography. From the amino acid compositions of the peptides, the exposed thiol groups were assigned to Cys-307 in the C alpha 2 domain, which thus existed in the reduced form to an extent exceeding 80%. This residue may allow attachment of secretory component to dimer IgA in the mouse to proceed via thiol-disulphide exchange. The buried thiol groups were assigned to Cys-150 and Cys-208, in the C alpha 1 domain, each being in the reduced form to the extent of approx. 30%. This pair of residues would normally give rise to the characteristic intradomain disulphide bridge. It appears that disulphide formation is not a crucial event during folding of the C alpha 1 domain in IgA biosynthesis. The sequence in the region 140-151 was re-investigated, and residue 142 was shown to be serine, not cysteine, helping explain the lack of heavy-chain-light chain bonding in BALB/c mouse IgA. A disulphide-bond model for mouse IgA is proposed on the basis of these assignments and other features of the mouse alpha-chain sequence.