Structure-Dependent Effects of Cinnamaldehyde Derivatives on TRPA1-Induced Serotonin Release in Human Intestinal Cell Models.
ABSTRACT: Activation of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel TRPA1 by cinnamaldehyde has been shown to stimulate serotonin release in enterochromaffin QGP-1 cells. However, the impact of cinnamaldehyde on serotonin release in enterocytes is less well understood. In addition, since the neurotransmitter serotonin plays a regulatory role in a large variety of gastrointestinal and metabolic functions, it is of interest to study which structural characteristics determine cinnamaldehyde-induced serotonin release by enterocytes. Thus, the present study analyzed serotonin release in differentiated Caco-2 cells as a model for enterocytes in comparison to enterochromaffin QGP-1 cells after stimulation with cinnamaldehyde and 17 naturally occurring structurally related compounds by means of a serotonin ELISA. Stimulation with cinnamaldehyde induced a dose-dependent increase in serotonin release starting from 0.5 mM in both cell lines, with a larger effect size in Caco-2 enterocytes compared to that in QGP-1 enterochromaffin cells. Serotonin release in Caco-2 cells induced by additional 17 structurally related compounds correlated with serotonin release in QGP-1 cells, showing the highest effects for coniferylaldehyde with a 15.84 ± 3.23-fold increase in Caco-2 cells, followed by the parent compound cinnamaldehyde (13.45 ± 2.15), cinnamyl alcohol (6.68 ± 1.08), and ?-methyl-cinnamaldehyde (6.59 ± 0.93). Analysis of structural and molecular characteristics that modulate serotonin release in Caco-2 enterocytes revealed that the ability of a compound to activate TRPA1, demonstrated by means of HEK293 cells transiently expressing hTRPA1, is a decisive factor to stimulate serotonin release in Caco-2 enterocytes, preferring small, electrophilic compounds with a lower polar surface area. In addition, blocking of TRPA1 using 30 ?M AP-18 significantly reduced the cinnamaldehyde-induced serotonin release by 30.0 ± 5.24%, confirming a TRPA1-dependent component in serotonin release by Caco-2 cells.
Project description:Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is abundantly present throughout the gastrointestinal tract and stored mostly in enterochromaffin (EC) cells, which are located on the mucosal surface. 5-HT released from EC cells stimulate both intrinsic and extrinsic nerves, which results in various physiological and pathophysiological responses, such as gastrointestinal contractions. EC cells are believed to have the ability to respond to the chemical composition of the luminal contents of the gut; however, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms have not been identified. Here, we demonstrate that the transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel TRPA1, which is activated by pungent compounds or cold temperature, is highly expressed in EC cells. We also found that TRPA1 agonists, including allyl isothiocyanate and cinnamaldehyde, stimulate EC cell functions, such as increasing intracellular Ca(2+) levels and 5-HT release, by using highly concentrated EC cell fractions and a model of EC cell function, the RIN14B cell line. Furthermore, we showed that allyl isothiocyanate promotes the contraction of isolated guinea pig ileum via the 5-HT(3) receptor. Taken together, our results indicate that TRPA1 acts as a sensor molecule for EC cells and may regulate gastrointestinal function.
Project description:The physiological process of defecation is directly controlled by colorectal motility. The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel is expressed in small intestine enterochromaffin cells and is involved in gastrointestinal motility via serotonin release. In the colorectum, however, enterochromaffin cell localization is largely distinct from that in the small intestine. Here, we investigated the role of lower gastrointestinal tract TRPA1 in modulating colorectal motility. We found that in colonic tissue, TRPA1 is predominantly expressed in mesenchymal cells of the lamina propria, which are clearly distinct from those in the small intestine. These cells coexpressed COX1 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1. Intracolonic administration of TRPA1 agonists induced colonic contraction, which was suppressed by a prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor 1 antagonist. TRPA1 activation induced calcium influx and PGE2 release from cultured human fibroblastic cells. In dextran sulfate sodium-treated animals, both TRPA1 and its endogenous agonist were dramatically increased in the colonic lamina propria, accompanied by abnormal colorectal contractions. Abnormal colorectal contractions were significantly prevented by pharmacological and genetic inhibition of TRPA1. In conclusion, in the lower gastrointestinal tract, mesenchymal TRPA1 activation results in PGE2 release and consequently promotes colorectal contraction, representing what we believe is a novel physiological and inflammatory bowel disease-associated mechanism of gastrointestinal motility.
Project description:AZ465 is a novel selective transient receptor potential cation channel, member A1 (TRPA1) antagonist identified during a focused drug discovery effort. In vitro, AZ465 fully inhibits activation by zinc, O-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS), or cinnamaldehyde of the human TRPA1 channel heterologously expressed in human embryonic kidney cells. Our data using patch-clamp recordings and mouse/human TRPA1 chimeras suggest that AZ465 binds reversibly in the pore region of the human TRPA1 channel. Finally, in an ex vivo model measuring TRPA1 agonist-stimulated release of neuropeptides from human dental pulp biopsies, AZD465 was able to block 50%-60% of CS-induced calcitonin gene-related peptide release, confirming that AZ465 inhibits the native human TRPA1 channel in neuronal tissue.
Project description:Human adenovirus 41 (HAdV-41) causes acute gastroenteritis in young children. The main characteristics of HAdV-41 infection are diarrhea and vomiting. Nevertheless, the precise mechanism of HAdV-41-induced diarrhea is unknown, as a suitable small-animal model has not been described. In this study, we used the human midgut carcinoid cell line GOT1 to investigate the effect of HAdV-41 infection and the individual HAdV-41 capsid proteins on serotonin release by enterochromaffin cells and on enteric glia cell (EGC) activation. We first determined that HAdV-41 could infect the enterochromaffin cells. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that the cells expressed HAdV-41-specific coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR); flow cytometry analysis supported these findings. HAdV-41 infection of the enterochromaffin cells induced serotonin secretion dose dependently. In contrast, control infection with HAdV-5 did not induce serotonin secretion in the cells. Confocal microscopy studies of enterochromaffin cells infected with HAdV-41 revealed decreased serotonin immunofluorescence compared to that in uninfected cells. Incubation of the enterochromaffin cells with purified HAdV-41 short fiber knob and hexon proteins increased the serotonin levels in the harvested cell supernatant significantly. HAdV-41 infection could also activate EGCs, as shown in the significantly altered expression of glia fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in EGCs incubated with HAdV-41. The EGCs were also activated by serotonin alone, as shown in the significantly increased GFAP staining intensity. Likewise, EGCs were activated by the cell supernatant of HAdV-41-infected enterochromaffin cells.IMPORTANCE The nonenveloped human adenovirus 41 causes diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, and low-grade fever mainly in children under 2 years of age. Even though acute gastroenteritis is well described, how human adenovirus 41 causes diarrhea is unknown. In our study, we analyzed the effect of human adenovirus 41 infection on human enterochromaffin cells and found it stimulates serotonin secretion in the cells, which is involved in regulation of intestinal secretion and gut motility and can also activate enteric glia cells, which are found in close proximity to enterochromaffin cells in vivo This disruption of gut barrier homeostasis as maintained by these cells following human adenovirus 41 infection might be a mechanism in enteric adenovirus pathogenesis in humans and could indicate a possible serotonin-dependent cross talk between human adenovirus 41, enterochromaffin cells, and enteric glia cells.
Project description:Cinnamon extract is associated to different health benefits but the active ingredients or pathways are unknown. Cinnamaldehyde (CIN) imparts the characteristic flavor to cinnamon and is known to be the main agonist of transient receptor potential-ankyrin receptor 1 (TRPA1). Here, expression of TRPA1 in epithelial mouse stomach cells is described. After receiving a single-dose of CIN, mice significantly reduce cumulative food intake and gastric emptying rates. Co-localization of TRPA1 and ghrelin in enteroendocrine cells of the duodenum is observed both in vivo and in the MGN3-1 cell line, a ghrelin secreting cell model, where incubation with CIN up-regulates expression of TRPA1 and Insulin receptor genes. Ghrelin secreted in the culture medium was quantified following CIN stimulation and we observe that octanoyl and total ghrelin are significantly lower than in control conditions. Additionally, obese mice fed for five weeks with CIN-containing diet significantly reduce their cumulative body weight gain and improve glucose tolerance without detectable modification of insulin secretion. Finally, in adipose tissue up-regulation of genes related to fatty acid oxidation was observed. Taken together, the results confirm anti-hyperglycemic and anti-obesity effects of CIN opening a new approach to investigate how certain spice derived compounds regulate endogenous ghrelin release for therapeutic intervention.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) activation is known to mediate neurogenic vasodilatation. We investigated the mechanisms involved in TRPA1-mediated peripheral vasodilatation in vivo using the TRPA1 agonist cinnamaldehyde. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:Changes in vascular ear blood flow were measured in anaesthetized mice using laser Doppler flowmetry. KEY RESULTS:Topical application of cinnamaldehyde to the mouse ear caused a significant increase in blood flow in the skin of anaesthetized wild-type (WT) mice but not in TRPA1 knockout (KO) mice. Cinnamaldehyde-induced vasodilatation was inhibited by the pharmacological blockade of the potent microvascular vasodilator neuropeptide CGRP and neuronal NOS-derived NO pathways. Cinnamaldehyde-mediated vasodilatation was significantly reduced by treatment with reactive oxygen nitrogen species (RONS) scavenger such as catalase and the SOD mimetic TEMPOL, supporting a role of RONS in the downstream vasodilator TRPA1-mediated response. Co-treatment with a non-selective NOS inhibitor L-NAME and antioxidant apocynin further inhibited the TRPA1-mediated vasodilatation. Cinnamaldehyde treatment induced the generation of peroxynitrite that was blocked by the peroxynitrite scavenger FeTPPS and shown to be dependent on TRPA1, as reflected by an increase in protein tyrosine nitration in the skin of WT, but not in TRPA1 KO mice. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS:This study provides in vivo evidence that TRPA1-induced vasodilatation mediated by cinnamaldehyde requires neuronal NOS-derived NO, in addition to the traditional neuropeptide component. A novel role of peroxynitrite is revealed, which is generated downstream of TRPA1 activation by cinnamaldehyde. This mechanistic pathway underlying TRPA1-mediated vasodilatation may be important in understanding the role of TRPA1 in pathophysiological situations.
Project description:The TRPA1 channel has been proposed to be a molecular transducer of cold and inflammatory nociceptive signals. It is expressed on a subset of small primary afferent neurons both in the peripheral terminals, where it serves as a sensor, and on the central nerve endings in the dorsal horn. The substantia gelatinosa (SG) of the spinal cord is a key site for integration of noxious inputs. The SG neurons are morphologically and functionally heterogeneous and the precise synaptic circuits of the SG are poorly understood. We examined how activation of TRPA1 channels affects synaptic transmission onto SG neurons using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and morphological analyses in adult rat spinal cord slices. Cinnamaldehyde (TRPA1 agonist) elicited a barrage of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in a subset of the SG neurons that responded to allyl isothiocyanate (less specific TRPA1 agonist) and capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist). Cinnamaldehyde evoked EPSCs in vertical and radial but not islet or central SG cells. Notably, cinnamaldehyde produced no change in inhibitory postsynaptic currents and nor did it produce direct postsynaptic effects. In the presence of tetrodotoxin, cinnamaldehyde increased the frequency but not amplitude of miniature EPSCs. Intriguingly, cinnamaldehyde had a selective inhibitory action on monosynaptic C- (but not Adelta-) fiber-evoked EPSCs. These results indicate that activation of spinal TRPA1 presynaptically facilitates miniature excitatory synaptic transmission from primary afferents onto vertical and radial cells to initiate action potentials. The presence of TRPA1 channels on the central terminals raises the possibility of bidirectional modulatory action in morphologically identified subclasses of SG neurons.
Project description:The mechanism of pain in dentine hypersensitivity is poorly understood but proposed to result from the activation of dental sensory neurons in response to dentinal fluid movements. Odontoblasts have been suggested to contribute to thermal and mechanosensation in the tooth via expression of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. However, a mechanism by which odontoblasts could modulate neuronal activity has not been demonstrated. In this study, we investigated functional TRP channel expression in human odontoblast-like cells and measured ATP release in response to TRP channel activation. Human immortalized dental pulp cells were driven toward an odontoblast phenotype by culture in conditioned media. Functional expression of TRP channels was determined with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and ratiometric calcium imaging with Fura-2. ATP release was measured using a luciferin-luciferase assay. Expression of mRNA for TRPA1, TRPV1, and TRPV4 but not TRPM8 was detected in odontoblasts by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Expression of TRPV4 protein was detected by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. The TRPA1 agonists allyl isothiocyanate and cinnamaldehyde and the TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790A caused a concentration-dependent increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration that was inhibited by the selective antagonists HC030031, AP18, and HC067047, respectively. In contrast, exposure to the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin or the TRPM8 agonist icilin had no effect on intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Treatment with allyl isothiocyanate, cinnamaldehyde, or GSK1016790A caused an increase in ATP concentration in culture medium that was abolished by preincubation with TRP channel antagonists. These data demonstrate that activation of TRPA1 and TRPV4 channels in human odontoblast-like cells can stimulate ATP release. We were unable to confirm the presence of thermosensitive TRPV1 and TRPM8 that has previously been reported in odontoblasts.
Project description:The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) nonselective cation channel has a conserved function as a noxious chemical sensor throughout much of Metazoa. Electrophilic chemicals activate both insect and vertebrate TRPA1 via covalent modification of cysteine residues in the amino-terminal region. Although naturally occurring electrophilic plant compounds, such as mustard oil and cinnamaldehyde, are TRPA1 agonists, it is unknown whether arthropod-produced electrophiles activate mammalian TRPA1. We characterized the effects of the electrophilic arthropod defensive compound para-benzoquinone (pBQN) on the human TRPA1 channel. We used whole-cell recordings of human embryonic kidney cells heterologously expressing either wild-type TRPA1 or TRPA1 with three serine-substituted cysteines crucial for electrophile activation (C621S, C641S, C665S). We found that pBQN activates TRPA1 starting at 10 nM and peaking at 300 nM; higher concentrations caused rapid activation followed by a fast decline. Activation by pBQN required reactivity with cysteine residues, but ones that are distinct from those previously reported to be the key targets of electrophiles. The current reduction we found at higher pBQN concentrations was a cysteine-dependent desensitization of TRPA1, and did not require prior activation. The cysteines required for desensitization are not accessible to all electrophiles as iodoacetamide and internally applied 2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl methanesulfonate failed to cause desensitization (despite large activation). Interestingly, following pBQN desensitization, wild-type TRPA1 had dramatically reduced response to the nonelectrophile agonist carvacrol, whereas the triple cysteine mutant TRPA1 retained its full response. Our results suggest that modification of multiple cysteine residues by electrophilic compounds can generate both activation and desensitization of the TRPA1 channel.
Project description:Hypoxia and ischemia are linked to oxidative stress, which can activate the oxidant-sensitive transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel in cerebral artery endothelial cells, leading to vasodilation. We hypothesized that TRPA1 channels in endothelial cells are activated by hypoxia-derived reactive oxygen species, leading to cerebral artery dilation and reduced ischemic damage. Using isolated cerebral arteries expressing a Ca2+ biosensor in endothelial cells, we show that 4-hydroxynonenal and hypoxia increased TRPA1 activity, detected as TRPA1 sparklets. TRPA1 activity during hypoxia was blocked by antioxidants and by TRPA1 antagonism. Hypoxia caused dilation of cerebral arteries, which was disrupted by antioxidants, TRPA1 blockade and by endothelial cell-specific Trpa1 deletion (Trpa1 ecKO mice). Loss of TRPA1 channels in endothelial cells increased cerebral infarcts, whereas TRPA1 activation with cinnamaldehyde reduced infarct in wildtype, but not Trpa1 ecKO, mice. These data suggest that endothelial TRPA1 channels are sensors of hypoxia leading to vasodilation, thereby reducing ischemic damage.