Therapeutic Molecular Phenotype of ?-Blocker-Associated Reverse-Remodeling in Nonischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:When ?-blockers produce reverse-remodeling in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, they partially reverse changes in fetal-adult/contractile protein, natriuretic peptide, SR-Ca(2+)-ATPase gene program constituents. The objective of the current study was to further test the hypothesis that reverse-remodeling is associated with favorable changes in myocardial gene expression by measuring additional contractile, signaling, and metabolic genes that exhibit a fetal/adult expression predominance, are thyroid hormone-responsive, and are regulated by ?1-adrenergic receptor signaling. A secondary objective was to identify which of these putative regulatory networks is most closely associated with observed changes. METHODS AND RESULTS:Forty-seven patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (left ventricular ejection fraction, 0.24±0.09) were randomized to the adrenergic-receptor blockers metoprolol (?1-selective), metoprolol+doxazosin (?1/?1), or carvedilol (?1/?2/?1). Serial radionuclide ventriculography and endomyocardial biopsies were performed at baseline, 3, and 12 months. Expression of 50 mRNA gene products was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Thirty-one patients achieved left ventricular ejection fraction reverse-remodeling response defined as improvement by ?0.08 at 12 months or by ?0.05 at 3 months (? left ventricular ejection fraction, 0.21±0.10). Changes in gene expression in responders versus nonresponders were decreases in NPPA and NPPB and increases in MYH6, ATP2A2, PLN, RYR2, ADRA1A, ADRB1, MYL3, PDFKM, PDHX, and CPT1B. All except PDHX involved increase in adult or decrease in fetal cardiac genes, but 100% were concordant with changes predicted by inhibition of ?1-adrenergic signaling. CONCLUSIONS:In addition to known gene expression changes, additional calcium-handling, sarcomeric, adrenergic signaling, and metabolic genes were associated with reverse-remodeling. The pattern suggests a fetal-adult paradigm but may be because of reversal of gene expression controlled by a ?1-adrenergic receptor gene network. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique Identifier: NCT01798992.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To investigate the biologic relevance of cross-platform concordant changes in gene expression in intact human failing/hypertrophied ventricular myocardium undergoing reverse remodeling. BACKGROUND:Information is lacking on genes and networks involved in remodeled human LVs, and in the associated investigative best practices. METHODS:We measured mRNA expression in ventricular septal endomyocardial biopsies from 47 idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy patients, at baseline and after 3-12 months of ?-blocker treatment to effect left ventricular (LV) reverse remodeling as measured by ejection fraction (LVEF). Cross-platform gene expression change concordance was investigated in reverse remodeling Responders (R) and Nonresponders (NR) using 3 platforms (RT-qPCR, microarray, and RNA-Seq) and two cohorts (All 47 subjects (A-S) and a 12 patient "Super-Responder" (S-R) subset of A-S). RESULTS:For 50 prespecified candidate genes, in A-S mRNA expression 2 platform concordance (CcpT), but not single platform change, was directly related to reverse remodeling, indicating CcpT has biologic significance. Candidate genes yielded a CcpT (PCR/microarray) of 62% for Responder vs. Nonresponder (R/NR) change from baseline analysis in A-S, and ranged from 38% to 100% in S-R for PCR/microarray/RNA-Seq 2 platform comparisons. Global gene CcpT measured by microarray/RNA-Seq was less than for candidate genes, in S-R R/NR 17.5% vs. 38% (P = 0.036). For S-R global gene expression changes, both cross-cohort concordance (CccT) and CcpT yielded markedly greater values for an R/NR vs. an R-only analysis (by 22 fold for CccT and 7 fold for CcpT). Pathway analysis of concordant global changes for R/NR in S-R revealed signals for downregulation of multiple phosphoinositide canonical pathways, plus expected evidence of a ?1-adrenergic receptor gene network including enhanced Ca2+ signaling. CONCLUSIONS:Two-platform concordant change in candidate gene expression is associated with LV biologic effects, and global expression concordant changes are best identified in an R/NR design that can yield novel information.
Project description:There is strong evidence for the use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers to reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with myocardial infarction (MI), whereas the effect of angiotensin receptor blockers is less clear. We evaluated the effects of an angiotensin receptor blocker losartan and a beta-blocker metoprolol on left ventricular (LV) remodeling, c-kit+ cells, proliferation, fibrosis, apoptosis, and angiogenesis using a model of coronary ligation in rats. Metoprolol treatment for 2 weeks improved LV systolic function. In contrast, losartan triggered deleterious structural remodeling and functional deterioration of LV systolic function, ejection fraction being 41% and fractional shortening 47% lower in losartan group than in controls 2 weeks after MI. The number of c-kit+ cells as well as expression of Ki-67 was increased by metoprolol. Losartan-induced thinning of the anterior wall and ventricular dilation were associated with increased apoptosis and fibrosis, while losartan had no effect on the expression of c-kit or Ki-67. Metoprolol or losartan had no effect on microvessel density. These results demonstrate that beta-blocker treatment attenuated adverse remodeling via c-kit+ cells and proliferation, whereas angiotensin receptor blocker-induced worsening of LV systolic function was associated with increased apoptosis and fibrosis in the peri-infarct region.
Project description:Background: Following myocardial infarction (MI), the myocardium is prone to calcium-driven alternans, which typically precedes ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. MI is also associated with remodeling of the sympathetic innervation in the infarct border zone, although how this influences arrhythmogenesis is controversial. We hypothesize that the border zone is most vulnerable to alternans, that β-adrenergic receptor stimulation can suppresses this, and investigate the consequences in terms of arrhythmogenic mechanisms. Methods and Results: Anterior MI was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 8) and allowed to heal over 2 months. This resulted in scar formation, significant (p < 0.05) dilation of the left ventricle, and reduction in ejection fraction compared to sham operated rats (n = 4) on 7 T cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Dual voltage/calcium optical mapping of post-MI Langendorff perfused hearts (using RH-237 and Rhod2) demonstrated that the border zone was significantly more prone to alternans than the surrounding myocardium at longer cycle lengths, predisposing to spatially heterogeneous alternans. β-Adrenergic receptor stimulation with norepinephrine (1 μmol/L) attenuated alternans by 60 [52-65]% [interquartile range] and this was reversed with metoprolol (10 μmol/L, p = 0.008). These results could be reproduced by computer modeling of the border zone based on our knowledge of β-adrenergic receptor signaling pathways and their influence on intracellular calcium handling and ion channels. Simulations also demonstrated that β-adrenergic receptor stimulation in this specific region reduced the formation of conduction block and the probability of premature ventricular activation propagation. Conclusion: While high levels of overall cardiac sympathetic drive are a negative prognostic indicator of mortality following MI and during heart failure, β-adrenergic receptor stimulation in the infarct border zone reduced spatially heterogeneous alternans, and prevented conduction block and propagation of extrasystoles. This may help explain recent clinical imaging studies using meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and 11C-meta-hydroxyephedrine positron emission tomography (PET) which demonstrate that border zone denervation is strongly associated with a high risk of future arrhythmia.
Project description:The upregulation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 in failing myocardium appears to contribute to dysfunctional beta-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) signaling and cardiac function. The peptide betaARKct, which can inhibit the activation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 and improve betaAR signaling, has been shown in transgenic models and short-term gene transfer experiments to rescue heart failure (HF). This study was designed to evaluate long-term betaARKct expression in HF with the use of stable myocardial gene delivery with adeno-associated virus serotype 6 (AAV6).In HF rats, we delivered betaARKct or green fluorescent protein as a control via AAV6-mediated direct intramyocardial injection. We also treated groups with concurrent administration of the beta-blocker metoprolol. We found robust and long-term transgene expression in the left ventricle at least 12 weeks after delivery. betaARKct significantly improved cardiac contractility and reversed left ventricular remodeling, which was accompanied by a normalization of the neurohormonal (catecholamines and aldosterone) status of the chronic HF animals, including normalization of cardiac betaAR signaling. Addition of metoprolol neither enhanced nor decreased betaARKct-mediated beneficial effects, although metoprolol alone, despite not improving contractility, prevented further deterioration of the left ventricle.Long-term cardiac AAV6-betaARKct gene therapy in HF results in sustained improvement of global cardiac function and reversal of remodeling at least in part as a result of a normalization of the neurohormonal signaling axis. In addition, betaARKct alone improves outcomes more than a beta-blocker alone, whereas both treatments are compatible. These findings show that betaARKct gene therapy can be of long-term therapeutic value in HF.
Project description:Adult zebrafish is an emerging vertebrate model for studying genetic basis of cardiomyopathies; but whether the simple fish heart can model essential features of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) remained unknown. Here, we report a comprehensive phenotyping of a lamp2 knockout (KO) mutant. LAMP2 encodes a lysosomal protein and is a causative gene of Danon disease that is characterized by HCM and massive autophagic vacuoles accumulation in the tissues. There is no effective therapy yet to treat this most lethal cardiomyopathy in the young. First, we did find the autophagic vacuoles accumulation in cardiac tissues from lamp2 KO. Next, through employing a set of emerging phenotyping tools, we revealed heart failure phenotypes in the lamp2 KO mutants, including decreased ventricular ejection fraction, reduced physical exercise capacity, blunted ?-adrenergic contractile response, and enlarged atrium. We also noted changes of the following indices suggesting cardiac hypertrophic remodeling in lamp2 KO: a rounded heart shape, increased end-systolic ventricular volume and density of ventricular myocardium, elevated actomyosin activation kinetics together with increased maximal isometric tension at the level of cardiac myofibrils. Lastly, we assessed the function of lysosomal-localized mTOR on the lamp2-associated Danon disease. We found that haploinsufficiency of mtor was able to normalize some characteristics of the lamp2 KO, including ejection fraction, ?-adrenergic response, and the actomyosin activation kinetics. In summary, we demonstrate the feasibility of modeling the inherited HCM in the adult zebrafish, which can be used to develop potential therapies.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of bucindolol with that of metoprolol succinate for the maintenance of sinus rhythm in a genetically defined heart failure (HF) population with atrial fibrillation (AF). BACKGROUND:Bucindolol is a beta-blocker whose unique pharmacologic properties provide greater benefit in HF patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) who have the beta1-adrenergic receptor (ADRB1) Arg389Arg genotype. METHODS:A total of 267 HFrEF patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <0.50, symptomatic AF, and the ADRB1 Arg389Arg genotype were randomized 1:1 to receive bucindolol or metoprolol therapy and were up-titrated to target doses. The primary endpoint of AF or atrial flutter (AFL) or all-cause mortality (ACM) was evaluated by electrocardiogram (ECG) during a 24-week period. RESULTS:The hazard ratio (HR) for the primary endpoint was 1.01 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71 to 1.42), but trends for bucindolol benefit were observed in several subgroups. Precision therapeutic phenotyping revealed that a differential response to bucindolol was associated with the interval of time from the initial diagnoses of AF and HF to randomization and with the onset of AF relative to that of the initial HF diagnosis. In a cohort whose first AF and HF diagnoses were <12 years prior to randomization, in which AF onset did not precede HF by more than 2 years (n = 196), the HR was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.33 to 0.87; p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS:Pharmacogenetically guided bucindolol therapy did not reduce the recurrence of AF/AFL or ACM compared to that of metoprolol therapy in HFrEF patients, but populations were identified who merited further investigation in future phase 3 trials.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Among patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction ?40%), sacubitril/valsartan (S/V) treatment is associated with improved health status and reverse cardiac remodeling. Data regarding racial and ethnic differences in response to S/V are lacking.<h4>Methods</h4>This was an analysis from the PROVE-HF study (Prospective Study of Biomarkers, Symptom Improvement and Ventricular Remodeling During Entresto Therapy for Heart Failure). Longitudinal changes in NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), cardiac reverse remodeling, and health status scores were compared between groups using multivariate latent growth curve modeling.<h4>Results</h4>Among the 782 patients included in this study, 22.7% were non-Hispanic Black (from here referred to as Black), 14.9% were Hispanic, and 62.4% were non-Hispanic White (from here referred to as White). At baseline, compared with White patients, Black and Hispanic patients had lower NT-proBNP (<i>g</i>=0.34) and differences between groups in baseline values for LV end-diastolic volume index and LV end-systolic volume index were negligible (<i>g</i><0.10). Following S/V initiation, NT-proBNP decreased in all 3 groups (<i>P</i><0.0001) associated with improvements in LV ejection fraction, LV end-diastolic volume index, and LV end-systolic volume index. Although total improvement in LV measures was similar between groups, Black patients averaged larger gains in the first half of the trial while White patients averaged larger gains in the second half. Improvements in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire-23 Total Symptom scores were seen in all 3 groups. Treatment with S/V was well-tolerated.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Among Black, Hispanic, and White patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, treatment with S/V was associated with similar reduction in NT-proBNP, improvement in health status, and reverse remodeling. More data regarding racial and ethnic responses to heart failure and reduced ejection fraction treatment are needed. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02887183.
Project description:In heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF), adrenergic activation is a key compensatory mechanism that is a major contributor to progressive ventricular remodeling and worsening of heart failure. Targeting the increased adrenergic activation with ?-adrenergic receptor blocking agents has led to the development of arguably the single most effective drug therapy for HFrEF. The pressure-overloaded and ultimately remodeled/failing right ventricle (RV) in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is also adrenergically activated, which raises the issue of whether an antiadrenergic strategy could be effectively employed in this setting. Anecdotal experience suggests that it will be challenging to administer an antiadrenergic treatment such as a ?-blocking agent to patients with established moderate-severe PAH. However, the same types of data and commentary were prevalent early in the development of ?-blockade for HFrEF treatment. In addition, in HFrEF approaches have been developed for delivering ?-blocker therapy to patients who have extremely advanced heart failure, and these general principles could be applied to RV failure in PAH. This review examines the role played by adrenergic activation in the RV faced with PAH, contrasts PAH-RV remodeling with left ventricle remodeling in settings of sustained increases in afterload, and suggests a possible approach for safely delivering an antiadrenergic treatment to patients with RV dysfunction due to moderate-severe PAH.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Dilated cardiomyopathy is characterized by left ventricular dilatation and dysfunction. Inflammation and adverse remodeling of the extracellular matrix may be involved in the pathogenesis. Statins reduce levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol, but may also attenuate inflammation and affect matrix remodeling. We hypothesized that treatment with rosuvastatin would reduce or even reverse left ventricular remodeling in dilated cardiomyopathy.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>In this multicenter, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study, 71 patients were randomized to 10 mg of rosuvastatin or matching placebo. Physical examination, blood sampling, echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging were performed at baseline and at six months' follow-up. The pre-specified primary end point was the change in left ventricular ejection fraction from baseline to six months.<h4>Results</h4>Over all, left ventricular ejection fraction improved 5 percentage points over the duration of the study, but there was no difference in the change in left ventricular ejection fraction between patients allocated to rosuvastatin and those allocated to placebo. Whereas serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration fell significantly in the treatment arm, rosuvastatin did not affect plasma or serum levels of a wide range of inflammatory variables, including C-reactive protein. The effect on markers of extracellular matrix remodeling was modest.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Treatment with rosuvastatin does not improve left ventricular ejection fraction in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00505154.
Project description:AIMS:The optimal dosing strategies for blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM) are poorly known. We sought to determine the long-term efficacy and safety of supramaximal titration of benazepril and valsartan in patients with IDCM. METHODS AND RESULTS:480 patients with IDCM in New York Heart Association functional class II-IV and with left ventricular ejection fraction ?35% were randomly assigned to extended-release metoprolol (mean 152?mg/day, range 23.75-190), low-dose benazepril (20?mg/day), low-dose valsartan (160?mg/day), high-dose benazepril (mean 69?mg/day, range 40-80), and high-dose valsartan (mean 526?mg/day, range 320-640). After a median follow-up of 4.2?years, high-dose benazepril and valsartan, compared with their respective low dosages, resulted in 41% and 52% risk reduction in the primary endpoint of all-cause death or admission for heart failure (P?=?0.042 and 0.002), promoted functional improvement, and reversed remodelling as assessed by New York Heart Association classes, quality-of-life scores, and echocardiographic recording of left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular end-diastolic volume, mitral regurgitation, and wall motion score index. Compared with metoprolol, high-dose valsartan reduced risk for the primary endpoint by 46% (P?=?0.006), whereas high-dose benazepril and both low-dose groups showed no significant difference. Major adverse events involved hypotension and renal impairment but were largely tolerated. CONCLUSIONS:Supramaximal doses of benazepril and valsartan were well tolerated and produced extra benefit than their low dosages in clinical outcome and cardiac reverse remodelling in patients with IDCM and modest-severe heart failure. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01917149.