Guaiacol suppresses osteoclastogenesis by blocking interactions of RANK with TRAF6 and C-Src and inhibiting NF-?B, MAPK and AKT pathways.
ABSTRACT: Angelica sinensis (AS; Dang Gui), a traditional Chinese herb, has for centuries been used for the treatment of bone diseases, including osteoporosis and osteonecrosis. However, the effective ingredient and underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we identified guaiacol as the active component of AS by two-dimensional cell membrane chromatography/C18 column/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (2D CMC/C18 column/TOFMS). Guaiacol suppressed osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast function in bone marrow monocytes (BMMCs) and RAW264.7 cells in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Co-immunoprecipitation indicated that guaiacol blocked RANK-TRAF6 association and RANK-C-Src association. Moreover, guaiacol prevented phosphorylation of p65, p50, I?B (NF-?B pathway), ERK, JNK, c-fos, p38 (MAPK pathway) and Akt (AKT pathway), and reduced the expression levels of Cathepsin K, CTR, MMP-9 and TRAP. Guaiacol also suppressed the expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1(NFATc1) and the RANKL-induced Ca2+ oscillation. In vivo, it ameliorated ovariectomy-induced bone loss by suppressing excessive osteoclastogenesis. Taken together, our findings suggest that guaiacol inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by blocking the interactions of RANK with TRAF6 and C-Src, and by suppressing the NF-?B, MAPK and AKT signalling pathways. Therefore, this compound shows therapeutic potential for osteoclastogenesis-related bone diseases, including postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Project description:Postmenopausal Osteoporosis (PMOP) is oestrogen withdrawal characterized of much production and activation by osteoclast in the elderly female. Cytisine is a quinolizidine alkaloid that comes from seeds or other plants of the Leguminosae (Fabaceae) family. Cytisine has been shown several potential pharmacological functions. However, its effects on PMOP remain unknown. This study designed to explore whether Cytisine is able to suppress RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and prevent the bone loss induced by oestrogen deficiency in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. In this study, we investigated the effect of Cytisine on RAW 264.7 cells and bone marrow monocytes (BMMs) derived osteoclast culture system in vitro and observed the effect of Cytisine on ovariectomized (OVX) mice model to imitate postmenopausal osteoporosis in vivo. We found that Cytisine inhibited F-actin ring formation and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining in dose-dependent ways, as well as bone resorption by pit formation assays. For molecular mechanism, Cytisine suppressed RANK-related trigger RANKL by phosphorylation JNK/ERK/p38-MAPK, I?B?/p65-NF-?B, and PI3K/AKT axis and significantly inhibited these signalling pathways. However, the suppression of PI3K-AKT-NFATc1 axis was rescued by AKT activator SC79. Meanwhile, Cytisine inhibited RANKL-induced RANK-TRAF6 association and RANKL-related gene and protein markers such as NFATc1, Cathepsin K, MMP-9 and TRAP. Our study indicated that Cytisine could suppress bone loss in OVX mouse through inhibited osteoclastogenesis. All data provide the evidence that Cytisine may be a promising agent in the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases such as osteoporosis.
Project description:Excessive RANKL signaling leads to superfluous osteoclast formation and bone resorption, is widespread in the pathologic bone loss and destruction. Therefore, targeting RANKL or its signaling pathway has been a promising and successful strategy for this osteoclast-related diseases. In this study, we examined the effects of xanthohumol (XN), an abundant prenylflavonoid from hops plant, on osteoclastogenesis, osteoclast resorption, and RANKL-induced signaling pathway using both in vitro and in vivo assay systems. In mouse and human, XN inhibited osteoclast differentiation and osteoclast formation at the early stage. Furthermore, XN inhibited osteoclast actin-ring formation and bone resorption in a dose-dependent manner. In ovariectomized-induced bone loss mouse model and RANKL-injection-induced bone resorption model, we found that administration of XN markedly inhibited bone loss and resorption by suppressing osteoclast activity. At the molecular level, XN disrupted the association of RANK and TRAF6, resulted in the inhibition of NF-κB and Ca(2+)/NFATc1 signaling pathway during osteoclastogenesis. As a results, XN suppressed the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related marker genes, including CtsK, Nfatc1, Trap, Ctr. Therefore, our data demonstrated that XN inhibits osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption through RANK/TRAF6 signaling pathways. XN could be a promising drug candidate in the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases such as postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Project description:Osteoclastogenesis is a tightly regulated biological process, and deregulation can lead to severe bone disorders such as osteoporosis. The regulation of osteoclastic signaling is incompletely understood, but ubiquitination of TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) has recently been shown to be important in mediating this process. We therefore investigated the role of the recently identified deubiquitinating enzyme CYLD in osteoclastogenesis and found that mice with a genetic deficiency of CYLD had aberrant osteoclast differentiation and developed severe osteoporosis. Cultured osteoclast precursors derived from CYLD-deficient mice were hyperresponsive to RANKL-induced differentiation and produced more and larger osteoclasts than did controls upon stimulation. We assessed the expression pattern of CYLD and found that it was drastically upregulated during RANKL-induced differentiation of preosteoclasts. Furthermore, CYLD negatively regulated RANK signaling by inhibiting TRAF6 ubiquitination and activation of downstream signaling events. Interestingly, we found that CYLD interacted physically with the signaling adaptor p62 and thereby was recruited to TRAF6. These findings establish CYLD as a crucial negative regulator of osteoclastogenesis and suggest its involvement in the p62/TRAF6 signaling axis.
Project description:Bone metabolism is determined by a delicate balance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts. The imbalance due to over-activated osteoclasts plays an important role in various diseases. Activation of NF-?B and MAPK signaling pathways by receptor activator of nuclear factor -?B ligand (RANKL) is vital for osteoclastogenesis. Here, we for the first time explored the effects of 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid (18?-GA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid found in the Glycyrrhiza glabra L roots, on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, osteoclast functions and signaling pathways in vitro and in vivo. In bone marrow monocytes (BMMs) and RAW264.7 cells, 18?-GA inhibited osteoclastogenesis, decreased expression of TRAP, cathepsin K, CTR and MMP-9, blocked actin ring formation and compromised osteoclasts functions in a dose-dependent manner at an early stage with minimal effects on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). For underlying molecular mechanisms, 18?-GA inhibited RANKL-induced phosphorylation of p65, p50, and I?B, blocked p65 nuclear translocation and decreased the DNA-binding activity of NF-?B. Besides, 18?-GA inhibited the activation of the MAPK pathways. Co-immunoprecipitation showed that 18?-GA treatment blocked RANK-TRAF6 association at an upstream site. In vivo, 18?-GA treatment inhibited ovariectomy-induced osteoclastogenesis and reduced bone loss in mice. Overall, our results demonstrated that 18?-GA inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by inhibiting RANK expression in preosteoclasts and blocking the binding of RANK and TRAF6 which lead to the inhibition of NF-?B and MAPK signaling pathways. 18?-GA is a promising novel candidate in the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases such as postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Project description:Bone loss (osteopenia) is a common complication in human solid tumour. In addition, after surgical treatment of gynaecological tumour, osteoporosis often occurs due to the withdrawal of oestrogen. The major characteristic of osteoporosis is the low bone mass with micro-architectural deteriorated bone tissue. And the main cause is the overactivation of osteoclastogenesis, which is one of the most important therapeutic targets. Inflammation could induce the interaction of RANKL/RANK, which is the promoter of osteoclastogenesis. Triptolide is derived from the traditional Chinese herb lei gong teng, presented multiple biological effects, including anti-cancer, anti-inflammation and immunosuppression. We hypothesized that triptolide could inhibits osteoclastogenesis by suppressing inflammation activation. In this study, we confirmed that triptolide could suppress RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs) and RAW264.7 cells and inhibited the osteoclast bone resorption functions. PI3K-AKT-NFATc1 pathway is one of the most important downstream pathways of RANKL-induced osteogenesis. The experiments in vitro indicated that triptolide suppresses the activation of PI3K-AKT-NFATc1 pathway and the target point located at the upstream of AKT because both NFATc1 overexpression and AKT phosphorylation could ameliorate the triptolide suppression effects. The expression of MDM2 was elevated, which demonstrated the MDM-p53-induced cell death might contribute to the osteoclastogenesis suppression. Ovariectomy-induced bone loss and inflammation activation were also found to be ameliorated in the experiments in vivo. In summary, the new effect of anti-cancer drug triptolide was demonstrated to be anti-osteoclastogenesis, and we demonstrated triptolide might be a promising therapy for bone loss caused by tumour.
Project description:Bone homeostasis is delicately orchestrated by osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Various pathological bone loss situations result from the overactivated osteoclastogenesis. Receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand (RANKL)-activated NF-?B and MAPK pathways is vital for osteoclastogenesis. Here, we for the first time explored the effects of l-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP), an active alkaloid derived from corydalis, on the formation and function of osteoclasts in vitro and in vivo. In RAW264.7 cells and bone marrow monocytes cells (BMMCs), l-THP inhibited osteoclastic differentiation at the early stage, down-regulated transcription level of osteoclastogenesis-related genes and impaired osteoclasts functions. Mechanically, Western blot showed that l-THP inhibited the phosphorylation of P50, P65, I?B, ERK, JNK and P38, and the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) revealed that DNA binding activity of NF-?B was suppressed, ultimately inhibiting the expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATc1). Besides, Co-immunoprecipitation indicated that l-THP blocked the interactions of RANK and TNF receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) at an upstream site. In vivo, l-THP significantly inhibited ovariectomy-induced bone loss and osteoclastogenesis in mice. Collectively, our study demonstrated that l-THP suppressed osteoclastogenesis by blocking RANK-TRAF6 interactions and inhibiting NF-?B and MAPK pathways. l-THP is a promising agent for treating osteoclastogenesis-related diseases such as post-menopausal osteoporosis.
Project description:Receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) is essential for osteoclastogenesis. Targeting RANKL signaling pathways has been an encouraging strategy for treating lytic bone diseases such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Sinomenine (SIN), derived from Chinese medicinal plant Sinomenioumacutum, is an active compound to treat RA, but its effect on osteoclasts has been hitherto unknown. In the present study, SIN was found to ameliorate M. tuberculosis H37Ra (Mt)-induced bone loss in rats with a decreased serum level of TRACP5b and RANKL, and an increased level of osteoprotegerin (OPG). In vitro study also showed that SIN could inhibit RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption. The osteoclastic specific marker genes induced by RANKL including c-Src, MMP-9, TRACP were inhibited by SIN in a dose dependent manner. Signal transduction studies showed that SIN could obviously reduce the expression of RANK adaptor molecule TRAF6 and down-regulate RANKL-induced NF-?B activation. It decreased the RANKL-induced p38, JNK posphorylation but not ERK1/2 posphorylation. SIN could also reduce RANKL-mediated calcium influx which is associated with TRAF6/c-Src complex. Finally, SIN suppressed RANKL induced AP-1 and NFAT transcription, as well as the gene expression of NFATc1 and AP-1 components (Fra-1, Fra-2, c-Fos). The protein expression of c-Fos and TRAF6 were also inhibited by SIN after RANKL stimulation. Taken together, SIN could attenuate osteoclast formation and Mt-induced bone loss by mediating RANKL signaling pathways.
Project description:Postmenopausal osteoporosis is caused by the deficiency of estrogen, which breaks bone homeostasis and induces levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Muscone is a potent anti-inflammatory agent and is used to treat bone fracture in traditional Chinese medicine. However, its anti-osteoclastogenic effects remain unclear. For in vitro study, morphology tests of osteoclastogenesis were firstly performed. And then, factors in RANK-induced NF-?B and MAPK pathways were examined by RT-PCR and Western blot, and the binding of TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF)6 to RANK was inspected by coimmunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence staining. For in vivo experiments, C57BL/6 ovariectomized (OVX) mice were used for detection, including H&E staining, TRAP staining, and micro CT. As a result, muscone reduced OVX-induced bone loss in mice and osteoclast differentiation in vitro, by inhibiting TRAF6 binding to RANK, and then suppressed NF-?B and MAPK signaling pathways. The expression of the downstream biomarkers was finally inhibited, including NFATc1, CTR, TRAP, cathepsin K, and MMP-9. The inflammatory factors, TNF-a and IL-6, were also reduced by muscone. Taken together, muscone inhibited the binding of TRAF6 to RANK induced by RANKL, thus blocking NF-kB and MAPK pathways, and down-regulating related gene expression. Finally, muscone inhibited osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast function by blocking RANK-TRAF6 binding, as well as downstream signaling pathways in vitro. Muscone also reduced ovariectomy-induced bone loss in vivo.
Project description:Human osteoclast formation from mononuclear phagocyte precursors involves interactions between members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand superfamily and their receptors. Recent evidence indicated that TNF-?-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces osteoclast differentiation via a TRAF6-dependent signaling pathway; but paradoxically, it inhibits RANK ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation. Although a number of signaling pathways were linked to the RANK and osteoclastogenesis, it is not known how TRAIL regulates RANK signaling. In this study, we demonstrate that TRAIL regulates RANK-induced osteoclastogenesis in terms of the assembly of lipid raft-associated signaling complexes. RANKL stimulation induced recruitment of TRAF6, c-Src, and DAP-12 into lipid rafts. However, the RANKL-induced assembly of lipid raft-associated signaling complexes and TRAF6 recruitment was abolished in the presence of TRAIL. TRAIL-induced dissociation of RANKL-induced lipid raft signaling complexes was reversed by treatment with TRAIL receptor (TRAIL-R) siRNA or an anti-TRAIL-R blocking antibody, indicating that TRAIL mediates suppression of RANKL-induced lipid raft signaling via interactions with TRAIL-R. Finally, we demonstrated that TRAIL suppressed inflammation-induced bone resorption and osteoclastogenesis in a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat animal model. Our results provide a novel apoptosis-independent role of TRAIL in regulating RANK signaling and suppresses osteoclast activation via inhibiting lipid raft assembly and TRAF6 recruitment.
Project description:In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which puerarin alleviates osteoclast-related loss of bone mass in ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporosis model mice. Puerarin-treated OVX mice exhibited higher bone density, fewer tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAcP)-positive osteoclasts, and levels of lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) within bone tissues than vehicle-treated OVX mice. Puerarin suppressed in vitro osteoclast differentiation, hydroxyapatite resorption activity, and expression of osteoclastogenesis-related genes, such as NFATc1, MMP9, CTSK, Acp5 and c-Fos, in RANKL-induced bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) and RAW264.7 cells. It also reduced intracellular ROS levels by suppressing expression of TRAF6 and NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1) and increasing expression of antioxidant enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Puerarin inhibited TRAF6/ROS-dependent activation of the MAPK and NF-?B signaling pathways in RANKL-induced RAW264.7 cells, and these effects were partially reversed by HO-1 silencing or TRAF6 overexpression. These findings suggest puerarin alleviates loss of bone mass in the OVX-model mice by suppressing osteoclastogenesis via inhibition of the TRAF6/ROS-dependent MAPK/NF-?B signaling pathway.