Effects of DTL electrode position on the amplitude and implicit time of the electroretinogram.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:This study sought to investigate whether there is an optimal position of the Dawson, Trick, and Litzkow (DTL) electrodes when measuring the full-field electroretinogram (ERG) for monitoring purposes. METHODS:In 200 uveitis patients, an extended light-adapted (LA) ERG protocol was measured twice, incorporating the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision standards. First, a LA ERG was measured with the DTL in the lower lid position (LLP) and thereafter in the fornix position. Differences in amplitudes and implicit times of a-waves, b-waves, and the 30 Hz peak were investigated. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) as well as coefficients of variation (CoV) were calculated, to assess both reliability and relative variability between the two DTL positions. RESULTS:Implicit times showed no statistically significant differences between the two DTL positions. As expected, amplitudes at the different stimulus strengths were 1.12-1.19 higher in the LLP, but there were no significant differences in the CoV between the two DTL positions. The ICC was high for the b-wave and 30 Hz flicker response (0.842-0.979), but lower for the a-wave, especially for amplitudes (0.584-0.716). CONCLUSIONS:For monitoring purposes in patients, we conclude that based on relative variability, no position is preferable above the other. However, because in most diseases amplitudes are decreased, the LLP may be chosen because it yields higher amplitudes. Whatever the choice, it is important to ensure that the DTL position remains stable during an ERG recording.
Project description:We evaluated the retinal function of retinal dragging (Rdrag) and radial retinal folds (Rfolds) in eyes with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) using full-field electroretinography (ERG). Seventeen eyes of nine patients with FEVR who had Rdrag or Rfolds were retrospectively studied. Eyes were classified into four groups according to the severity of the retinal alterations: Group 1, without Rdrag or Rfolds (5 eyes); Group 2, with Rdrag (4 eyes); Group 3, with Rfolds (6 eyes); and Group 4, with Rfolds in which all major retinal vessels were involved (2 eyes). The amplitudes of all ERG components and the implicit times of the photopic a- and b-waves and 30-Hz flicker responses were decreased or prolonged as the severity of the retinal alterations increased (P?<?0.01). The photopic negative response was most severely affected and nearly undetectable in all eyes in Groups 3 and 4, although the other ERG components were detectable in all eyes in Group 3 and one eye in Group 4. These results suggest the decrease of retinal functions was correlated with the degree of severity of Rdrag and Rfolds in eyes with FEVR. In addition, the function of the retinal ganglion cells appears to be more severely affected compared with the others.
Project description:To date, most studies involving in vivo electroretinography in mice are performed on steady state adapted animals. In this study, we focused on the dynamics of adaptation to high and low light levels in the mouse retina. Two flash electroretinogram (ERG) protocols and one flicker ERG protocol were employed. In the two flash ERG protocols, the animals were adapted to either 25 or 40 cd/m2 white light and ERGs were recorded for up to 15 min of adaptation. Afterwards, flash ERGs were recorded for up to 45 min of dark adaptation. Amplitudes of the flash ERG increased during light adaptation, while implicit times of the different wave components decreased. During subsequent dark adaptation, the amplitudes further increased. The increase in a-to-b-wave ratio indicated adaptational processes at the photoreceptor synapse. In the flicker ERG protocol, the responses to 12 Hz sinusoidal luminance modulation during the adaptation to 25 cd/m2 and a 1 cd/m2 mean luminances were recorded. The amplitudes of the first harmonic components in the flicker protocol decreased during light adaptation but increased during dark adaptation. This is at odds with the changes in the flash ERG, indicating that adaptation may be different in different retinal pathways.
Project description:Full-field electroretinograms (ERGs) are used to evaluate retinal function in patients with various types of hereditary and acquired retinal diseases. However, ERG recordings require relatively invasive procedures, including pupillary dilation and the use of contact lens electrodes. Thus, it would be helpful to have a simpler and noninvasive screening method. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a new, handheld, portable ERG device, RETeval™, can be used to screen patients for cone dysfunction.Thirty-five eyes of 35 patients who had reduced cone responses ascertained by a conventional ERG system using contact lens electrodes were studied. The causative diseases included achromatopsia, cone dystrophy, cone-rod dystrophy, retinitis pigmentosa, choroidal dystrophy, autoimmune retinopathy, and Stargardt disease. The flicker ERGs were recorded with the RETeval™ under undilated conditions with skin electrodes (stimulus strength, 3.0 cd·s/m(2); frequency, 28.3 Hz), and the responses were compared to that of 50 healthy eyes. The amplitudes and implicit times of the fundamental component of the flicker ERGs were analyzed in three age groups: Group A, ?20 years; Group B, 21-40 years; and Group C, ?41 years.In all of the age groups, the amplitudes of the ERGs were significantly smaller and the implicit times significantly longer in patients with cone dysfunction than in the control eyes. All but one of the patients had flicker amplitudes lower than the mean -2.0 standard deviation of control eyes.The RETeval™ has a potential of being used to screen for cone dysfunction. The entire examination takes <5 minutes and does not require pupil dilatation or a contact lens electrode. Although the flicker responses do not provide information on the scotopic functions, the RETeval™ device can be used to determine which patients require additional full-field ERG testing with dilated pupils under both scotopic and photopic conditions.
Project description:PURPOSE:To assess the physiology of the retina by electroretinography (ERG) with skin electrodes in eyes that had undergone vitrectomy with silicone oil (SO) tamponade. DESIGN:Retrospective case series. METHOD:ERGs were recorded from eleven eyes with complex vitreoretinal disorders and from the normal fellow eyes. The affected eyes underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with SO tamponade. ERGs were recorded before and after the SO was removed. The amplitudes and implicit times of the a- and b-waves of the affected eyes were compared to those of the normal fellow eyes. In addition, the ratios of the amplitudes of the b-waves of the affected eyes to those of the fellow eyes were compared before and after the SO was removed. RESULTS:ERGs were recordable from 7 eyes (63.6%) before the SO was removed and 11 eyes (100%) after the SO was removed. The a- and b-wave amplitudes were significantly smaller in the affected eyes than those of the fellow eyes at the baseline. The b-wave amplitude before the removal of the SO was significantly and positively correlated with that after the SO removal. The ratios of the b-waves of the affected/normal fellow eye significantly increased after the SO was removed. CONCLUSION:The results indicate that ERGs picked up by skin electrode can be used to assess the physiology of the retina in eyes with a SO tamponade. The amplitude of the b-waves of the ERGs in silicone-filled eyes can be used to predict the amplitude after the silicone is removed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:ZK 200775 is an antagonist at the alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor and had earned attention as a possible neuroprotective agent in cerebral ischemia. Probands receiving the agent within phase I trials reported on an alteration of visual perception. In this trial, the effects of ZK 200775 on the visual system were analyzed in detail. METHODOLOGY:In a randomised controlled trial we examined eyes and vision before and after the intravenous administration of two different doses of ZK 200775 and placebo. There were 3 groups of 6 probands each: Group 1 recieved 0.03 mg/kg/h, group 2 0.75 mg/kg/h of ZK 200775, the control group received 0.9% sodium chloride solution. Probands were healthy males aged between 57 and 69 years. The following methods were applied: clinical examination, visual acuity, ophthalmoscopy, colour vision, rod absolute threshold, central visual field, pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (pVEP), ON-OFF and full-field electroretinogram (ERG). PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:No effect of ZK 200775 was seen on eye position or motility, stereopsis, pupillary function or central visual field testing. Visual acuity and dark vision deteriorated significantly in both treated groups. Color vision was most remarkably impaired. The dark-adapted ERG revealed a reduction of oscillatory potentials (OP) and partly of the a- and b-wave, furthermore an alteration of b-wave morphology and an insignificantly elevated b/a-ratio. Cone-ERG modalities showed decreased amplitudes and delayed implicit times. In the ON-OFF ERG the ON-answer amplitudes increased whereas the peak times of the OFF-answer were reduced. The pattern VEP exhibited lower amplitudes and prolonged peak times. CONCLUSIONS:The AMPA receptor blockade led to a strong impairment of typical OFF-pathway functions like color vision and the cone ERG. On the other hand the ON-pathway as measured by dark vision and the scotopic ERG was affected as well. This further elucidates the interdependence of both pathways. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00999284.
Project description:Great variation exists in the age of onset of symptoms and the severity of disease at a given age in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). The final pathway for this disease may involve apoptotic photoreceptor cell death. Telomere length is associated with biologic aging, senescence, and apoptosis. We evaluated whether the length of telomeres in leukocytes correlated with the severity of RP in patients with the Pro23His rhodopsin mutation who have shown marked heterogeneity in disease severity.We evaluated 122 patients with the Pro23His rhodopsin mutation. The patients' retinal function was stratified according to their 30-Hz cone electroretinogram (ERG). The length of telomeres in leukocytes was measured by the quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) method in the 15 patients with the highest age-adjusted 30-Hz ERG amplitudes and in the 15 patients with the lowest amplitudes.Mean leukocyte telomere length was similar in the 15 patients with the highest cone ERG amplitudes (median: 0.40 units; interquartile range 0.36-0.56) and the 15 patients with the lowest cone amplitudes (median: 0.41 units; inter quartile range 0.34 -0.64; p=0.95).We found no evidence for an association between telomere length and the severity of RP as monitored by the cone ERG in patients with the Pro23His rhodopsin mutation.
Project description:Purpose:To compare the RETeval sensor strip and Dawson-Trick-Litzkow (DTL) electrodes for recording the photopic negative response (PhNR) using a portable electroretinogram (ERG) device in eyes with and without glaucoma. Methods:Twenty-six control and 31 glaucoma or glaucoma-suspect participants were recruited. Photopic ERGs were recorded with sensor strip and DTL electrodes in random order using the LKC RETeval device. Stimuli consisted of brief, red flashes (1.7 cd.s/m2) on a blue background (photopic 10 cd/m2). The PhNR amplitude was measured from baseline to trough and also expressed as a ratio over the b-wave amplitude. Results:The sensor strip-recorded PhNR amplitude was significantly attenuated (mean ± standard deviation [SD], 4.8 ± 2.1 vs. 12.7 ± 4.8 ?V, P < 0.0001), with lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR; 5.5 ± 2.1 vs. 8.1 ± 3.9, P < 0.0001), and a trend toward a larger PhNR/b-wave ratio compared with DTL electrodes. The PhNR amplitude, implicit time and PhNR/b-wave ratio correlated with visual field mean light sensitivity, although this fell short of significance for the sensor strip recorded PhNR amplitude. The electrodes demonstrated similar intersession repeatability with a coefficient of repeatability of ±27% and ±28% for the DTL and sensor strip, respectively. Conclusions:Sensor strip electrodes are a viable alternative for recording reproducible PhNRs, especially when values are normalized to the b-wave. However, DTL electrodes should be considered in cases of attenuated PhNR, or in elevated noise levels, due to its better signal-to-noise quality. Translational Relevance:Sensor strip electrodes can simplify PhNR recordings in the clinic, potentially eliminating the need for an experienced operator.
Project description:To determine whether retinal dysfunction in obligate carriers of X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) could be observed in local electroretinographic responses obtained with the multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG).Nine obligate carriers of XLRS (mean age, 46.2 years) were examined for the study. Examination of each carrier included an ocular examination and mfERG testing. For the mfERG, we used a 103-scaled hexagonal stimulus array that subtended a retinal area of approximately 40 degrees in diameter. The amplitudes and implicit times in each location for the mfERG were compared with the corresponding values determined for a group of 34 normally-sighted, age-similar control subjects.Mapping of 103 local electroretinographic response amplitudes and implicit times within a central 40 degrees area with the mfERG showed regions of reduced mfERG amplitudes and delayed implicit times in two of nine carriers.The mfERG demonstrated areas of retinal dysfunction in two carriers of XLRS. When present, retinal dysfunction was evident in the presence of a normal-appearing fundus. Multifocal ERG testing can be useful for identifying some carriers of XLRS.
Project description:Type 2 diabetic retinopathy is the main cause of acquired blindness in adults. The aim of this work was to examine the retinal function of the sand rat Psammomys obesus as an animal model of diet-induced type 2 diabetes when subjected to a hypercaloric regimen.Hyperglycemia was induced in Psammomys obesus by high caloric diet (4 kcal/g). The visual function of control (n = 7) and diabetic (n = 7) adult rodents were followed up during 28 consecutive weeks with full-field electroretinogram(ERG) recordings evoked to flashes of white light according to the standard protocol of the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision protocol (ISCEV).Twenty-eight weeks following the induction of diabetes, results revealed significantly reduced and delayed photopic and scotopic ERG responses in diabetic rats compared to control rats. More specifically, we noted a significant decrease in the amplitude of the dark-adapted 0.01ERG (62%), a- and b-wave amplitudes of the dark-adapted 3.0 ERG (33.6%, 55.1%) and the four major oscillatory potentials components (OP1-OP4) (39.0%, 75.2%, 54.8% and 53.7% respectively). In photopic conditions, diabetic rats showed a significant decrease in a- and b-wave (30.4%, 43.4%), photopic negative response (55.3%), 30 Hz flicker (63.7%), OP1-OP4(51.6%, 61.8%, 68.3% and 47.5% respectively) and S-cone (34.7%). Significantly delayed implicit times were observed for all ERG components in the diabetic animals. Results obtained are comparable to those characterizing the retinal function of patients affected with advanced stage of diabetic retinopathy.Psammomys obesus is a useful translational model to study the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy in order to explore new therapeutic avenues in human patients.
Project description:PURPOSE:To characterize the changes found in the electroretinography (ERG) recordings of patients with autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy and correlate with clinical stages of the disease. METHODS:Retrospective chart review. Bright- and dim-flash full-field scotopic, photopic, and 30-Hz flicker ERGs were obtained according to international standards. The scotopic ERGs were further processed to analyze the oscillatory potential. The patient described in the case report underwent full ERG testing; five patients composed the archival case series data and included scotopic ERG recordings. RESULTS:Stage I autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy is characterized by a decrease in the b-wave amplitude on scotopic flash ERG and the disappearance of late OPs; however, the a-wave amplitude is normal. In Stage II, attenuation of early OPs and the c-wave are observed in scotopic ERG recordings, but both a- and b-wave amplitudes are unchanged. For patients in Stage III, there is a continued decline of both a- and b-wave amplitudes in scotopic ERG recordings. There was a loss of recordable scotopic ERG response in patients with Stage IV disease. CONCLUSION:Electroretinography may be valuable in determining optimal timing for therapeutic intervention and response before loss of recordable retinal function in CAPN5 vitreoretinopathy.