Chemical Mediation of Oviposition by Anopheles Mosquitoes: a Push-Pull System Driven by Volatiles Associated with Larval Stages.
ABSTRACT: The oviposition behavior of mosquitoes is mediated by chemical cues. In the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, conspecific larvae produce infochemicals that affect this behavior. Emanations from first instar larvae proved strongly attractive to gravid females, while those from fourth instars caused oviposition deterrence, suggesting that larval developmental stage affected the oviposition choice of the female mosquito.We examined the nature of these chemicals by headspace collection of emanations of water in which larvae of different stages were developing. Four chemicals with putative effects on oviposition behavior were identified: dimethyldisulfide (DMDS) and dimethyltrisulfide (DMTS) were identified in emanations from water containing fourth instars; nonane and 2,4-pentanedione (2,4-PD) were identified in emanations from water containing both first and fourth instars. Dual-choice oviposition studies with these compounds were done in the laboratory and in semi-field experiments in Tanzania.In the laboratory, DMDS and DMTS were associated with oviposition-deterrent effects, while results with nonane and 2,4-PD were inconclusive. In further studies DMDS and DMTS evoked egg retention, while with nonane and 2,4-PD 88% and 100% of female mosquitoes, respectively, laid eggs. In dual-choice semi-field trials DMDS and DMTS caused oviposition deterrence, while nonane and 2,4-PD evoked attraction, inducing females to lay more eggs in bowls containing these compounds compared to the controls. We conclude that oviposition of An. gambiae is mediated by these four infochemicals associated with conspecific larvae, eliciting either attraction or deterrence. High levels of egg retention occurred when females were exposed to chemicals associated with fourth instar larvae.
Project description:Selection of oviposition sites by gravid females is a critical behavioral step in the reproductive cycle of Anopheles coluzzii, which is one of the principal Afrotropical malaria vector mosquitoes. Several studies suggest this decision is mediated by semiochemicals associated with potential oviposition sites. To better understand the chemosensory basis of this behavior and identify compounds that can modulate oviposition, we examined the generally held hypothesis that suboptimal larval habitats give rise to semiochemicals that negatively influence the oviposition preference of gravid females. Dual-choice bioassays indicated that oviposition sites conditioned in this manner do indeed foster significant and concentration dependent aversive effects on the oviposition site selection of gravid females. Headspace analyses derived from aversive habitats consistently noted the presence of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (sulcatone) each of which unitarily affected An. coluzzii oviposition preference. Electrophysiological assays across the antennae, maxillary palp, and labellum of gravid An. coluzzii revealed differential responses to these semiochemicals. Taken together, these findings validate the hypothesis in question and suggest that suboptimal environments for An. coluzzii larval development results in the release of DMDS, DMTS and sulcatone that impact the response valence of gravid females.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Gravid females assess the conditions of oviposition sites to secure the growth and survival of their offspring. Conspecific-occupied sites may signal suitable oviposition sites but may also impose risk due to competition or cannibalism at high population density or heterogeneous larval stage structure, respectively. Chemicals in the habitat, including chemicals emitted from other organisms, serve as cues for females to assess habitat conditions. Here, we investigated the attraction and oviposition preference of the Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis vector, Phlebotomus papatasi, to young and old conspecific stages, including eggs and evaluated the effect of a semiochemical associated with eggs and neonate larvae. METHODS:Attraction and oviposition preference of Ph. papatasi to each of various life stages (eggs, first-, second-, third-, fourth-instar larvae, pupae and male and female adults) was investigated using cage and oviposition jar behavioral assays. Identification of organic chemical compounds extracted from eggs was performed using GC-MS and chemicals were tested in the same behavioral assays in a dose-response manner. Behavioral responses were statistically analyzed using logistic models. RESULTS:Gravid Ph. papatasi females were significantly attracted to and preferred to oviposit on medium containing young life stages (eggs and first instars). This preference decreased towards older life stages. Dose effect of eggs indicated a hump-shaped response with respect to attraction but a concave-up pattern with respect to oviposition. Chemical analysis of semiochemicals from eggs and first-instar larvae revealed the presence of dodecanoic acid (DA) and isovaleric acid. Sand flies were attracted to and laid more eggs at the lowest DA dose tested followed by a negative dose-response. CONCLUSIONS:Findings corroborated our hypothesis that gravid sand flies should prefer early colonized oviposition sites as indicators of site suitability but avoid sites containing older stages as indicators of potential competition. Findings also supported the predictions of our hump-shaped oviposition regulation (HSR) model, with attraction to conspecific eggs at low-medium densities and switching to repellence at high egg densities. This oviposition behavior is mediated by DA that was identified from surface extracts of both eggs and first-instar larvae. Isovaleric acid was also found in extracts of both stages.
Project description:Population control of the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is difficult due to many reasons, one being the development of resistance to neurotoxic insecticides employed. The biosynthesis of chitin, a major constituent of insect cuticle, is a novel target for population control. Novaluron is a benzoylphenylurea (BPU) that acts as a chitin synthesis inhibitor, already used against mosquitoes. However, information regarding BPU effects on immature mosquito stages and physiological parameters related with mosquito larval development are scarce. A set of physiological parameters were recorded in control developing larvae and novaluron was administered continuously to Ae. aegypti larvae, since early third instar. Larval instar period duration was recorded from third instar until pupation. Chitin content was measured during third and fourth instars. Fourth instars were processed histochemically at the mesothorax region, stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) for assessment of internal tissues, and labeled with WGA-FITC to reveal chitinized structures. In control larvae: i) there is a chitin content increase during both third and fourth instars where late third instars contain more chitin than early fourth instars; ii) thoracic organs and a continuous cuticle, closely associated with the underlying epidermis were observed; iii) chitin was continuously present throughout integument cuticle. Novaluron treatment inhibited adult emergence, induced immature mortality, altered adult sex ratio and caused delay in larval development. Moreover, novaluron: i) significantly affected chitin content during larval development; ii) induced a discontinuous and altered cuticle in some regions while epidermis was often thinner or missing; iii) rendered chitin cuticle presence discontinuous and less evident. In both control and novaluron larvae, chitin was present in the peritrophic matrix. This study showed quantitatively and qualitatively evidences of novaluron effects on Ae. aegypti larval development. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing histological alterations produced by a BPU in immature vector mosquitoes.
Project description:The objective of this study was to determine the number of instars of Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) larvae by comparing their head capsule widths (HCW) published in previous studies, as well as additional laboratory experiments. Larvae of M. alternatus showed repeated molting in the laboratory. Most larvae ceased their development at the 10th instar stage. Frequency distributions of HCW for the first, second, and third instar larvae were clearly separated while those of the fourth through 11th instar larvae largely overlapped between successive instars in our results. The HCW values for the first, second, and third instar larvae directly measured for each instar in our study indicated that they were more precise than those of previous reports based on field-collected HCW which might have missed HCW of the first instar larvae or wrongly determined HCW for some instars. Unlike the reports of four instars of previous studies, M. alternatus larvae passed five instars in the field, which was confirmed by the discovery of five pairs of mandibles in the feeding gallery and pupal chamber. Also, the comparative study for the frequency distributions of HCW revealed that most M. alternatus larvae passed five instars. Consequently, the average sizes of HCW for their first, second, and third instar larvae are newly suggested to be 0.896 ± 0.069, 1.291 ± 0.131, and 1.707 ± 0.165 mm (mean ± SD) .
Project description:Abstract We investigated the influence of larval instar on the structure of the gut bacterial community in the Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus (Hope; Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). The diversity of the gut bacterial community in early, phloem-feeding larvae is significantly higher than in later, wood-feeding larvae. Many of these associates were assigned into a few taxonomic groups, of which Enterobacteriaceae was the most abundant order. The predominant bacterial genus varied during the five instars of larval development. Erwinia was the most abundant genus in the first and fifth instars, Enterobacter was predominant in the third and fourth instars, and the predominant genus in the second instars was in the Enterobacteriaceae (genus unclassified). Actinobacteria were reported in association with M. alternatus for the first time in this study. Cellulomonadaceae (Actinobacteria) was the second most abundant family in the first instar larvae (10.6%). These data contribute to our understanding of the relationships among gut bacteria and M. alternatus, and could aid the development of new pest control strategies.
Project description:A previous report has shown that mosquito sterol carrier protein-2 inhibitors (SCPIs) are larvicidal to larvae of the yellowfever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.) (J. Lipid Res. 46: 650-657, 2005). In the current study, we tested SCPI-1 in an additional four mosquito species for larvicidal activities: Culex pipiens pipiens, Anopheles gambiae, Culex restuans, and Aedes vexans. Cholesterol accumulation in SCPI-treated Ae. aegypti fourth instars was examined. SCPI-1 is lethal to all tested mosquito species, with the LC50 value ranging from 5.2 to 15 microM when treatments started at the first to third instar. However, LC50 values increase to from 5.2 to 38.7 microM in treatments started at first and fourth instar, respectively. The results indicate that the lethal effect of SCPI-1 decreases with the growth of larvae, which suggests that SCPI-1 is more effective before the larvae reach final growth period (the last instar). SCPI-1 suppressed cholesterol uptake in Ae. aegypti fourth instars, suggesting that one of the modes of action of SCPI-1 is via reduction in cholesterol absorption.
Project description:The nutritional condition of fourth instar larvae of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, governs female longevity and egg production, both are key determinants of pathogen transmission. As well, nutrition provisions larval growth and development and attains its greatest pace in the last larval instar in preparation for metamorphosis to an adult. These developmental processes are regulated by a complex endocrine interplay of juvenile hormone, neuropeptides, and ecdysteroids that is nutrition sensitive. We previously determined that feeding for only 24h post-ecdysis was sufficient for fourth instar Ae. aegypti larvae to reach critical weight and accumulate sufficient nutritional stores to commit to metamorphosis. To understand the genetic basis of metamorphic commitment in Ae. aegypti, we profiled the expression of 16 genes known to be involved in the endocrine and nutritional regulation of insect metamorphosis in two ways. The first set is a developmental profile from the beginning of the fourth instar to early pupae, and the second set is for fourth instars starved or fed for up to 36 h. By comparing the two sets, we found that seven of the genes (AaegCYP302, AaegJHE43357, AaegBrCZ4, AaegCPF1-2, AaegCPR-7, AaegPpl, and AaegSlif) were expressed during metamorphic commitment in fourth instars and in fed but not starved larvae. Based on these results, the seven genes alone or in combination may serve as molecular indicators of nutritional and metamorphic status of fourth instar Ae. aegypti larvae and possibly other mosquito species in field and laboratory studies to gauge sub-lethal effects of novel and traditional cultural or chemical controls.
Project description:Rhodojaponin-III is a nonvolatile botanical grayanoid diterpene compound, which has antifeedant and oviposition deterrence effects against many kinds of insects. However, the molecular mechanism of the chemoreception process remains unknown. In this study, the important role of BdorCSP2 in the recognition of Rhodojaponin-III was identified. The full length cDNA encoding BdorCSP2 was cloned from legs of Bactrocera dorsalis. The results of expression pattern revealed that BdorCSP2 was abundantly expressed in the legs of adult B. dorsalis. Moreover, the expression of BdorCSP2 could be up-regulated by Rhodojaponin-III. In order to gain comprehensive understanding of the recognition process, the binding affinity between BdorCSP2 and Rhodojaponin-III was measured by fluorescence binding assay. Silencing the expression of BdorCSP2 through the ingestion of dsRNA could weaken the effect of oviposition deterrence and antifeedant of Rhodojaponin-III. These results suggested that BdorCSP2 of B. dorsalis could be involved in chemoreception of Rhodojaponin-III and played a critical role in antifeedant and oviposition behaviors induced by Rhodojaponin-III.
Project description:Open defecation remains a common practice in developing countries and leads to high incidence and prevalence of acute gastroenteritis, which is most often caused by human noroviruses (human NoV). Encouraging the use of toilets and pit latrines is one method of improving sanitation; however, it is often hindered by not only cultural traditions but also from a reluctance to use latrines and toilets due to their odor and impression of uncleanliness. In an effort to establish new means to encourage toilet and latrine use, laboratory experiments tested the ability of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) to modify the malodorous compounds identified in the air in latrines in developing countries (indole, p-cresol, dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), and butyric acid) and inactivate MS2 bacteriophage, a surrogate for human NoV. After 5 minutes, > 94% of indole, p-cresol, DMDS, and DMTS was modified as determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography in the presence of 100 ppm HOCl. A log<sub>10</sub> reduction value (LRV) greater than 6 was seen for MS2 bacteriophage after 5 minutes of exposure to 100 ppm HOCl in solution. Sensory studies indicated that there was a significant difference (<i>P</i> ? 0.05) between the untreated and HOCl-treated samples for all five malodorous compounds tested. The findings suggest that introduction of HOCl into the headspace air could encourage latrine and toilet use. Optimization of HOCl dosing in air to accomplish both odor control and reduction of infectious hazards is worthy of further study.
Project description:The Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), transfers the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner and Buhrer) that causes pine wilt disease (PWD), especially in Asian countries. The key for the control of PWD is primarily focused on vector management. Thus, understanding the exact life history of M. alternatus is required. Since the late 1980s, the life cycle of M. alternatus has been accepted under the assumption that the final larvae pass four instars in the field. This study is revising the previous error for the life cycle hypothesis of M. alternatus by finding various instar pathways, which pathway is defined as the number of instars that larvae pass through prior to pupation. We confirm experimentally that the overwintered fourth or fifth instar larvae directly pupate to emerge as adults, indicating the presence of four and five instar pathways, respectively. The selection of instar pathway might be determined primarily by habitat temperature. This information will be useful to explain the variation of life history in M. alternatus populations worldwide based on the thermal environments, and also can be served to predict the northern distribution limit by applying the threshold degree-days for the completion of four instar pathway.