Characterisation of antibiotic resistance, virulence, clonality and mortality in MRSA and MSSA bloodstream infections at a tertiary-level hospital in Hungary: a 6-year retrospective study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections (BSI) cause significant morbidity and mortality due to the frequent antibiotic resistance, toxin and adhesin production of the bacterium. These characteristics differ significantly in methicillin resistant (MRSA) and methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and also among isolates of different MRSA clones, contributing to the outcome of S. aureus bacteraemia. METHODS:In this study, all MRSA BSI isolates from Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary, isolated between 2011-2016 and the same number of matched MSSA (overall 306 isolates) were characterised in terms of antibiotic susceptibility, virulence genes, clonality and their association with all-cause 30-day mortality. Effect of patient related variables, such as age, gender and comorbidities were also investigated. RESULTS:ST22-MRSA-IV and ST5-MRSA-II were the most prevalent clones in our study. SCCmec I isolates showed the highest resistance rates and SCCmec II carried most virulence genes. Infections caused by SCCmec IV isolates were associated with the highest mortality rate (42.2%), despite the similar comorbidity rates of the different patient groups. All-cause 30-day mortality was 39.9% in the MRSA and 30.7% in the MSSA group. Increased teicoplanin MIC was associated with high mortality rate. Resistance to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and clindamycin was common in MRSA, whereas MSSA isolates were more sensitive to all antibiotics with the exception of doxycycline. All MRSA isolates were sensitive to glycopeptides and linezolid; resistance to rifampicin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was low. MRSA isolates carried more adhesion genes, superantigens were more frequent in MSSA. Panton-Valentine leukocidin was found in 2.3% of the isolates. CONCLUSION:This study provides insight into the clonal composition and associated mortality of BSI S. aureus isolates in Hungary. The results suggest that the outcome of the infection is determined by the antibiotic resistance, genotype of the bacterium, and patient-related factors; rather than the virulence factors carried by the bacteria.
Project description:<i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> is known as an invasive human pathogen, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide; however, information on community-associated <i>S. aureus</i> (CA-SA) from bloodstream infections (BSI) in children in China remains scarce. This study aimed to investigate the molecular characteristics of 78 CA-SA isolates recovered from pediatric patients with BSI between 2012 and 2017 in Shanghai. All isolates including 51 (65.4%) methicillin-susceptible <i>S. aureus</i> (MSSA) and 27 (34.6%) methicillin-resistant <i>S. aureus</i> (MRSA) isolates were characterized based on antimicrobial resistance, virulence genes, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), <i>spa</i>, and SCC<i>mec</i> typing. A total of 18 distinct sequence types (STs) and 44 <i>spa</i> types were identified. ST188 and ST7 were the predominant MSSA clones and ST59-MRSA-SCC<i>mec</i>IV/V was the most common MRSA clone. <i>Spa</i> t189 (9.0%, 7/78) was the most common <i>spa</i> type. SCC<i>mec</i> types IV and V were observed at frequencies of 59.3 and 40.7%, respectively. Notably, 40 (51.3%) <i>S. aureus</i> BSI strains were multidrug resistant (MDR), and these were mostly resistant to penicillin, erythromycin, and clindamycin. MRSA strains were associated with substantially higher rates of resistance to multiple antibiotics than MSSA strains. Fifty (64.1%, 50/78) isolates, including 19 (70.3%) MRSA isolates, harbored ≥ 10 tested virulence genes, as evaluated in this study. Ten (37.0%) MRSA isolates and four (7.8%) MSSA isolates harbored the gene encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). Virulence genes analysis showed diversity in different clones; the <i>seb</i>-<i>sek</i>-<i>seq</i> genes were present in all ST59 strains, whereas the <i>seg</i>-<i>sei</i>-<i>sem</i>-<i>sen</i>-<i>seo</i> genes were present in different clones including ST5, ST20, ST22, ST25, ST26, ST30, ST121, and ST487 strains. In conclusion, this study revealed that community-associated <i>S. aureus</i> strains from BSI in children demonstrated considerable genetic diversity, and identified major genotypes of CA-MRSA and CA-MSSA, with a high prevalence of CA-MRSA. Furthermore, major genotypes were frequently associated with specific antimicrobial resistance and toxin gene profiles. Understanding the molecular characteristics of those strains might provide further insights regarding the spread of BSI <i>S. aureus</i> among children between communities in China.
Project description:Since the late 1990s, changes in the epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were recognized with the emergence of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). CA-MRSA belonging to clonal complex 152 (CC152), carrying the small staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type V and encoding the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), has been observed in Europe. The aim of this study was to investigate its origin, evolution, and dissemination. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on a global collection of 149 CC152 isolates spanning 20?years (93 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus [MSSA] and 56 MRSA isolates). Core genome phylogeny, Bayesian inference, in silico resistance analyses, and genomic characterization were applied. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two major distinct clades, one dominated by MSSA and the other populated only by MRSA. The MSSA isolates were predominately from sub-Saharan Africa, whereas MRSA was almost exclusively from Europe. The European MRSA isolates all harbored an SCCmec type V (5C2&5) element, whereas other SCCmec elements were sporadically detected in MRSA from the otherwise MSSA-dominated clade, including SCCmec types IV (2B), V (5C2), and XIII (9A). In total, 93% of the studied CC152 isolates were PVL positive. Bayesian coalescent inference suggests an emergence of the European CC152-MRSA in the 1990s, while the CC152 lineage dates back to the 1970s. The CA-MRSA CC152 clone mimics the European CC80 CA-MRSA lineage by its emergence from a PVL-positive MSSA ancestor from North Africa or Europe. The CC152 lineage has acquired SCCmec several times, but acquisition of SCCmec type V (5C2&5) seems associated with expansion of MRSA CC152 in Europe.IMPORTANCE Understanding the evolution of CA-MRSA is important in light of the increasing importance of this reservoir in the dissemination of MRSA. Here, we highlight the story of the CA-MRSA CC152 lineage using whole-genome sequencing on an international collection of CC152. We show that the evolution of this lineage is novel and that antibiotic usage may have the potential to select for the phage-encoded Panton-Valentine leukocidin. The diversity of the strains correlated highly to geography, with higher level of resistance observed among the European MRSA isolates. The mobility of the SCCmec element is mandatory for the emergence of novel MRSA lineages, and we show here distinct acquisitions, one of which is linked to the successful clone found throughout Europe today.
Project description:Several studies have shown that patients with bacteremia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have worse outcomes than those with bacteremia caused by methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). However, only a limited number of studies have stratified the MRSA isolates into healthcare-associated (HA-) and community-associated (CA-) MRSA strains in such a comparison. This three-year retrospective cohort study, enrolling adult patients with nosocomial S. aureus bacteremia (SAB), was designed to investigate whether CA-MRSA and/or HA-MRSA strains were associated with different outcomes in comparison to MSSA in such a setting. The drug susceptibilities and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types were determined for all of the causative isolates available. The MRSA bacteremia was further categorized into those caused by CA-MRSA strains (CA-MRSA-S bacteremia) when the causative isolates carried the type IV or V SCCmec element, those caused by HA-MRSA strains (HA-MRSA-S bacteremia) when the isolates carried the type I, II, or III SCCmec element, or unclassified MRSA bacteremia when the isolates were not available. The relevant demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected by reviewing the patients' charts. The primary outcome was all-cause in-hospital mortality. A total of 353 patients were studied. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 32.6%, with 23.3% in MSSA, 30.5% in CA-MRSA-S, 47.5% in HA-MRSA-S, and 35.3% in unclassified MRSA bacteremia, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed that HA-MRSA-S, but not CA-MRSA-S, bacteremia was associated with a significantly worse outcome compared with MSSA. The other risk factors independently associated with all-cause in-hospital mortality included the Charlson co-morbidity index, septic shock, thrombocytopenia, and persistent bacteremia. Resistance to linezolid and daptomycin was found among the MRSA isolates. The present study showed that bacteremia caused by HA-MRSA-S, but not CA-MRSA-S, was an independent risk factor for all-cause in-hospital mortality in patients with nosocomial SAB. Continuous monitoring regarding the susceptibilities of MRSA to linezolid and daptomycin is necessary.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-bloodstream infections (BSI) are predominantly seen in the hospital or healthcare-associated host. Nevertheless, the interactions of virulence factor (VFs) regulators and β-lactam resistance in MRSA-BSI are unclear. This study aims to characterize the molecular relationship of two-component systems of VFs and the expression of the β-lactamase gene in MRSA-BSI isolates. In this study, 639 samples were collected from BSI and identified by phenotypic methods. We performed extensive molecular characterization, including SCCmec type, agr type, VFs gene profiles determinations, and MLST on isolates. Also, a quantitative real-time PCR (q-RT PCR) assay was developed for identifying the gene expressions.<h4>Results</h4>Ninety-one (91) S. aureus and 61 MRSA (67.0%) strains were detected in BSI samples. The presence of VFs and SCCmec genes in MRSA isolates were as follows: tst (31.4%), etA (18.0%), etB (8.19%), lukS-PVL (31.4%), lukF-PV (18.0%), lukE-lukD (16.3%), edin (3.2%), hla (16.3%), hlb (18.0%), hld (14.7%), hlg (22.9%), SCCmecI (16.3%), SCCmecII (22.9%), SCCmecIII (36.0%), SCCmecIV (21.3%), and SCCmecV (16.3%). Quantitative real-time PCR showed overexpression of mecRI and mecI in the toxigenic isolates. Moreover, RNAIII and sarA genes were the highest expressions of MRSA strains. The multi-locus sequence typing data confirmed a high prevalence of CC5, CC8, and CC30. However, ST30, ST22, and ST5 were the most prevalent in the resistant and toxigenic strains.<h4>Conclusion</h4>We demonstrated that although regulation of β-lactamase gene expressions is a significant contributor to resistance development, two-component systems also influence antibiotic resistance development in MRSA-BSI isolates. This indicates that resistant strains might have pathogenic potential. We also confirmed that some MLST types are more successful colonizers with a potential for MRSA-BSI.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The mecA gene, encoding methicillin resistance in staphylococci, is located on a mobile genetic element called Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec). Horizontal, interspecies transfer of this element could be an important factor in the dissemination of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Previously, we reported the isolation of a closely related methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), MRSA and potential SCCmec donor Staphylococcus epidermidis isolate from the same patient. Based on fingerprint techniques we hypothesized that the S. epidermidis had transferred SCCmec to the MSSA to become MRSA. The aim of this study was to show that these isolates form an isogenic pair and that interspecies horizontal SCCmec transfer occurred. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: Whole genome sequencing of both isolates was performed and for the MSSA gaps were closed by conventional sequencing. The SCCmec of the S. epidermidis was also sequenced by conventional methods. The results show no difference in nucleotide sequence between the two isolates except for the presence of SCCmec in the MRSA. The SCCmec of the S. epidermidis and the MRSA are identical except for a single nucleotide in the ccrB gene, which results in a valine to alanine substitution. The main difference with the closely related EMRSA-16 is the presence of SaPI2 encoding toxic shock syndrome toxin and exfoliative toxin A in the MSSA-MRSA pair. No transfer of SCCmec from the S. epidermidis to the MSSA could be demonstrated in vitro. CONCLUSION: The MSSA and MRSA form an isogenic pair except for SCCmec. This strongly supports our hypothesis that the MRSA was derived from the MSSA by interspecies horizontal transfer of SCCmec from S. epidermidis O7.1.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important issue associated with significant morbidity and mortality and well known as a predominant pathogen causing bloodstream infection (BSIs) globally. To estimate the antibiotic resistance and molecular characteristics of S. aureus causing BSIs in Shanghai, 120 S. aureus isolates (20 isolates each year) from the patients with S. aureus BSIs from 2013 to 2018 were randomly selected and enrolled in this study. Fifty-three (44.2%) MRSA isolates were determined, and no isolate was found resistant to vancomycin, daptomycin, synercid, linezolid and ceftaroline. The toxin genes tst, sec, seg and sei were found more frequently among MRSA isolates compared with MSSA isolates (all P?<?0.0001). Twenty-nine sequence types (STs) were identified, and ST5 (23.3%) was the most common ST, followed by ST398 (11.7%) and ST764 (10.0%). SCCmec II (73.6%) was the most frequent SCCmec type among MRSA isolates. The dominant clonal complexes (CCs) were CC5 (ST5, ST764, ST965 and ST3066; 36.7%) and the livestock-associated clone CC398 (ST398, 11.7%). MRSA-CC5 was the predominant CC among MRSA isolates (37/53, 69.8%), and CC5-II MRSA was found in 34 isolates accounting for 91.9% (34/37) among CC5 MRSA isolates. In addition, all 29 tst-positive MRSA isolates were CC5-MRSA as well. Our study provided the properties and genotypes of S. aureus causing BSIs at Ruijin Hospital in Shanghai from 2013 to 2018, and might suggest of value clues for the further study insights into pathogenic mechanisms intrinsically referring to the development of human-adapted S. aureus clones and their diffusions.
Project description:Pandemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 97 (CC97) lineages originated from livestock-to-human host jumps. In recent years, CC97 has become one of the major MRSA lineages detected in Italian farmed animals. The aim of this study was to characterize and analyze differences in MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) mainly of swine and bovine origins. Forty-seven CC97 isolates, 35 MRSA isolates, and 6 MSSA isolates from different Italian pig and cattle holdings; 5 pig MRSA isolates from Germany; and 1 human MSSA isolate from Spain were characterized by macrorestriction pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, and antimicrobial resistance pattern analysis. Virulence and resistance genes were investigated by PCR and microarray analysis. Most of the isolates were of SCCmec type V (SCCmec V), except for two German MRSA isolates (SCCmec III). Five main clusters were identified by PFGE, with the German isolates (clusters I and II) showing 60.5% similarity with the Italian isolates, most of which (68.1%) grouped into cluster V. All CC97 isolates were Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) negative, and a few (n = 7) tested positive for sak or scn. All MRSA isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR), and the main features were erm(B)- or erm(C)-mediated (n = 18) macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance, vga(A)-mediated (n = 37) pleuromutilin resistance, fluoroquinolone resistance (n = 33), tet(K) in 32/37 tet(M)-positive isolates, and blaZ in almost all MRSA isolates. Few host-associated differences were detected among CC97 MRSA isolates: their extensive MDR nature in both pigs and dairy cattle may be a consequence of a spillback from pigs of a MRSA lineage that originated in cattle as MSSA and needs further investigation. Measures should be implemented at the farm level to prevent spillover to humans in intensive farming areas.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), especially methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is considered a common zoonotic pathogen, causing severe infections. The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility, resistance genes and molecular epidemiology among MRSA and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) isolated from food animals in Sichuan Province, China.<h4>Methods</h4>This study was conducted on 236 S. aureus isolates. All isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing by using a standard microbroth dilution method. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was performed to identify genes encoding the β-lactams resistance (blaZ, mecA), macrolides (ermA, ermB, ermC) and aminoglycosides (aacA-aphD). The molecular structures and genomic relatedness of MRSA isolates were determined by staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), respectively.<h4>Results</h4>Among 236 isolates, 24 (10.17 %) were recognized as MRSA. MRSA isolates showed different resistance rates to 11 antimicrobials ranging from 33.33 to 100 %, while for MSSA isolates the rates varied from 8.02 to 91.51 %. Multi-drug resistance phenotype was found in all MRSA isolates. The ermC gene encoding macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramin B was the most prevalent gene detected in 87.29 % of the S. aureus isolates, followed by ermB (83.05 %), blaZ (63.98 %), aacA-aphD (44.07 %), ermA (11.44 %) and mecA (11.02 %) genes. The prevalence of resistance genes in MRSA isolates was significantly higher than that of MSSA. Regarding the molecular morphology, SCCmec III (12/24, 50 %) was the most common SCCmec type. Furthermore, the PFGE typing showed that 24 MRSA were divided into 15 cluster groups (A to O), the major pulsotype J encompassed 25 % of MRSA isolates.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The S. aureus isolates from food animals in Sichuan province of China have severe antimicrobials resistance with various resistance genes, especially MRSA isolates. Additionally, the genetic pool of MRSA isolates is diverse and complex, and further investigation is necessary.
Project description:Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) can arise from methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) following partial or complete excision of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec). This study investigated whether multiresistant MSSA isolates from Irish hospitals, where MRSA has been endemic for decades, harbor SCCmec DNA. Twenty-five multiresistant MSSA isolates recovered between 2002 and 2006 were tested for SCCmec DNA by PCR and were genotyped by multilocus sequence typing and spa typing. All isolates lacked mecA. Three isolates (12%) harbored SCCmec DNA; two of these (genotype ST8/t190) harbored a 26-kb SCCmec IID (II.3.1.2) remnant that lacked part of mecI and all of mecR1, mecA, and IS431; the third isolate (ST8/t3209) harbored the SCCmec region from dcs to orfX. All three isolates were detected as MRSA using the BD GeneOhm and Cepheid's Xpert MRSA real-time PCR assays. Six isolates (ST8/t190, n = 4; ST5/t088, n = 2), including both isolates with the SCCmec IID remnant, harbored ccrAB4 with 100% identity to ccrAB4 from the Staphylococcus epidermidis composite island SCC-CI. This ccrAB4 gene was also identified in 23 MRSA isolates representative of ST8/t190-MRSA with variant SCCmec II subtypes IIA to IIE, which predominated previously in Irish hospitals. ccrAB4 was located 5,549 bp upstream of the left SCCmec junction in both the MRSA and MSSA isolates with SCCmec elements and remnants and 5,549 bp upstream of orfX in the four MSSA isolates with ccrAB4 only on an SCC-CI homologous region. This is the first description of a large SCCmec remnant with ccr and partial mec genes in MSSA and of the S. epidermidis SCC-CI and ccrAB4 genes in S. aureus.
Project description:Molecular diagnostic tests can be used to provide rapid identification of staphylococcal species in blood culture bottles to help improve antimicrobial stewardship. However, alterations in the target nucleic acid sequences of the microorganisms or their antimicrobial resistance genes can lead to false-negative results. We determined the whole-genome sequences of 4 blood culture isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and 2 control organisms to understand the genetic basis of genotype-phenotype discrepancies when using the Xpert MRSA/SA BC test (in vitro diagnostic medical device [IVD]). Three methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates each had a different insertion of a genetic element in the staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCCmec)-orfX junction region that led to a misclassification as methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). One strain contained a deletion in spa, which produced a false S. aureus-negative result. A control strain of S. aureus that harbored an SCCmec element but no mecA (an empty cassette) was correctly called MSSA by the Xpert test. The second control contained an SCCM1 insertion. The updated Xpert MRSA/SA BC test successfully detected both spa and SCCmec variants of MRSA and correctly identified empty-cassette strains of S. aureus as MSSA. Among a sample of 252 MSSA isolates from the United States and Europe, 3.9% contained empty SCCmec cassettes, 1.6% carried SCCM1, <1% had spa deletions, and <1% contained SCCmec variants other than those with SCCM1 These data suggest that genetic variations that may interfere with Xpert MRSA/SA BC test results remain rare. Results for all the isolates were correct when tested with the updated assay.