Role and mechanisms of callose priming in mycorrhiza-induced resistance.
ABSTRACT: Mycorrhizal plants display enhanced resistance to several pathogens. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating mycorrhiza-induced resistance (MIR) are still elusive. We aim to study the mechanisms underlying MIR against Botrytis cinerea and the role of callose accumulation during this process. Mycorrhizal tomato plants inoculated with Rhizoglomus irregularis displayed callose priming upon B. cinerea infection. The callose inhibitor 2-deoxy-d-glucose abolished MIR, confirming the relevance of callose in the bioprotection phenomena. While studying the mechanisms underlying mycorrhiza-induced callose priming, we found that mycorrhizal plants display an enhanced starch degradation rate that is correlated with increased levels of ?-amylase1 transcripts following pathogen infection. Starch mobilization in mycorrhizal plants seems coordinated with the increased transcription of sugar transporter and invertase genes. Moreover, the expression levels of genes encoding the vesicular trafficking proteins ATL31 and SYP121 and callose synthase PMR4 were higher in the mycorrhizal plants and further boosted by subsequent pathogen infection. All these proteins play a key role in the priming of callose accumulation in Arabidopsis, suggesting that callose priming is an induced resistance mechanism conserved in different plant species. This evidence highlights the importance of sugar mobilization and vesicular trafficking in the priming of callose as a defence mechanism in mycorrhiza-induced resistance.
Project description:Mycorrhizal plants are generally quite efficient in coping with environmental challenges. It has been shown that the symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can confer resistance against root and foliar pathogens, although the molecular mechanisms underlying such mycorrhiza-induced resistance (MIR) are poorly understood. Tomato plants colonized with the AMF <i>Rhizophagus irregularis</i> display enhanced resistance against the necrotrophic foliar pathogen <i>Botrytis cinerea</i>. Leaves from arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) plants develop smaller necrotic lesions, mirrored also by a reduced levels of fungal biomass. A plethora of metabolic changes takes place in AMF colonized plants upon infection. Certain changes located in the oxylipin pathway indicate that several intermediaries are over-accumulated in the AM upon infection. AM plants react by accumulating higher levels of the vitamins folic acid and riboflavin, indolic derivatives and phenolic compounds such as ferulic acid and chlorogenic acid. Transcriptional analysis support the key role played by the LOX pathway in the shoots associated with MIR against <i>B. cinerea</i>. Interestingly, plants that have suffered a short period of nitrogen starvation appear to react by reprogramming their metabolic and genetic responses by prioritizing abiotic stress tolerance. Consequently, plants subjected to a transient nitrogen depletion become more susceptible to <i>B. cinerea</i>. Under these experimental conditions, MIR is severely affected although still functional. Many metabolic and transcriptional responses which are accumulated or activated by MIR such NRT2 transcript induction and OPDA and most Trp and indolic derivatives accumulation during MIR were repressed or reduced when tomato plants were depleted of N for 48 h prior infection. These results highlight the beneficial roles of AMF in crop protection by promoting induced resistance not only under optimal nutritional conditions but also buffering the susceptibility triggered by transient N depletion.
Project description:Roots of most terrestrial plants form symbiotic associations (mycorrhiza) with soil- borne arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Many studies show that mycorrhizal colonization enhances plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. However, the mechanism of mycorrhiza-induced disease resistance remains equivocal. In this study, we found that mycorrhizal inoculation with AMF Funneliformis mosseae significantly alleviated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) early blight disease caused by Alternaria solani Sorauer. AMF pre-inoculation led to significant increases in activities of ?-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX) in tomato leaves upon pathogen inoculation. Mycorrhizal inoculation alone did not influence the transcripts of most genes tested. However, pathogen attack on AMF-inoculated plants provoked strong defense responses of three genes encoding pathogenesis-related proteins, PR1, PR2, and PR3, as well as defense-related genes LOX, AOC, and PAL, in tomato leaves. The induction of defense responses in AMF pre-inoculated plants was much higher and more rapid than that in un-inoculated plants in present of pathogen infection. Three tomato genotypes: a Castlemart wild-type (WT) plant, a jasmonate (JA) biosynthesis mutant (spr2), and a prosystemin-overexpressing 35S::PS plant were used to examine the role of the JA signaling pathway in AMF-primed disease defense. Pathogen infection on mycorrhizal 35S::PS plants led to higher induction of defense-related genes and enzymes relative to WT plants. However, pathogen infection did not induce these genes and enzymes in mycorrhizal spr2 mutant plants. Bioassays showed that 35S::PS plants were more resistant and spr2 plants were more susceptible to early blight compared with WT plants. Our finding indicates that mycorrhizal colonization enhances tomato resistance to early blight by priming systemic defense response, and the JA signaling pathway is essential for mycorrhiza-primed disease resistance.
Project description:Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses are mutualistic associations between soil fungi and most vascular plants. Their association benefits the host plant by improving nutrition, mainly phosphorus nutrition, and by providing increased capability to cope with adverse conditions. In this study, we investigated the transcriptional changes triggered in rice leaves as a result of AM symbiosis, focusing on the relevance of the plant defence response. We showed that root colonization by the AM fungus Glomus intraradices is accompanied by the systemic induction of genes that play a regulatory role in the host defence response, such as OsNPR1, OsAP2, OsEREBP and OsJAmyb. Genes involved in signal transduction processes (OsDUF26 and OsMPK6) and genes that function in calcium-mediated signalling processes (OsCBP, OsCaM and OsCML4) are also up-regulated in leaves of mycorrhizal rice plants in the absence of pathogen infection. In addition, the mycorrhizal rice plants exhibit a stronger induction of defence marker genes [i.e. pathogenesis-related (PR) genes] in their leaves in response to infection by the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Evidence indicates that mycorrhizal rice plants show enhanced resistance to the rice blast fungus. Overall, these results suggest that the protective effect of the AM symbiosis in rice plants relies on both the systemic activation of defence regulatory genes in the absence of pathogen challenge and the priming for stronger expression of defence effector genes during pathogen infection. The possible mechanisms involved in the mycorrhiza-induced resistance to M.?oryzae infection are discussed.
Project description:Terfezia claveryi Chatin is a mycorrhizal fungus that forms ectendomycorrhizal associations with plants of Helianthemum genus. Its appreciated edibility and drought resistance make this fungus a potential alternative crop in arid and semiarid areas of the Mediterranean region. In order to increase the knowledge about the biology of this fungus in terms of mycorrhiza formation and response to drought stress, a catalase from T. claveryi (TcCAT-1) has been purified to apparent homogeneity and biochemically characterized; in addition, the expression pattern of this enzyme during different stages of T. claveryi biological cycle and under drought stress conditions are reported. The results obtained, together with the phylogenetic analysis and homology modeling, indicate that TcCAT-1 is a homotetramer large subunit size monofunctional-heme catalase belonging to Clade 2. The highest expression of this enzyme occurs in mature mycorrhiza, revealing a possible role in mycorrhiza colonization, but it is not upregulated under drought stress. However, the H2O2 content of mycorrhizal plants submitted to drought stress is lower than in well watered treatments, suggesting that mycorrhization improves the plant's oxidative stress response, although not via TcCAT-1 upregulation.
Project description:Mycorrhizal symbiosis between soil fungi and land plants is one of the most widespread and ecologically important mutualisms on earth. It has long been hypothesized that the Glomeromycotina, the mycorrhizal symbionts of the majority of plants, facilitated colonization of land by plants in the Ordovician. This view was recently challenged by the discovery of mycorrhiza-like associations with Mucoromycotina in several early diverging lineages of land plants. Utilizing a large, species-level database of plants' mycorrhiza-like associations and a Bayesian approach to state transition dynamics we here show that the recruitment of Mucoromycotina is the best supported transition from a non-mycorrhizal state. We further found that transitions between different combinations of either or both of Mucoromycotina and Glomeromycotina occur at high rates, and found similar promiscuity among combinations that include either or both of Glomeromycotina and Ascomycota with a nearly fixed association with Basidiomycota. Our results portray an evolutionary scenario of evolution of mycorrhizal symbiosis with a prominent role for Mucoromycotina in the early stages of land plant diversification.
Project description:Small RNAs function to regulate plant defense responses to pathogens. We previously showed that miR825 and miR825* downregulate Bacillus cereus AR156 (AR156)-triggered systemic resistance to Pseudomonassyringae pv. tomato DC3000 in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). Here, Northern blotting revealed that miR825 and miR825* were more strongly downregulated in wild type Arabidopsis Col-0 (Col-0) plants pretreated with AR156 than in nontreated plants upon Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea) B1301 infection. Furthermore, compared with Col-0, transgenic plants with attenuated miR825 and miR825* expression were more resistant to B. cinerea B1301, yet miR825- and miR825*-overexpressing (OE) plants were more susceptible to the pathogen. With AR156 pretreatment, the transcription of four defense-related genes (PR1, PR2, PR5, and PDF1.2) and cellular defense responses (hydrogen peroxide production and callose deposition) were faster and stronger in miR825 and miR825* knockdown lines but weaker in their OE plants than in Col-0 plants upon pathogen attack. Also, AR156 pretreatment caused stronger phosphorylation of MPK3 and MPK6 and expression of FRK1 and WRKY53 genes upon B. cinerea B1301 inoculation in miR825 and miR825* knockdown plants than in Col-0 plants. Additionally, the assay of agrobacterium-mediated transient co-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana confirmed that AT5G40910, AT5G38850, AT3G04220, and AT5G44940 are target genes of miR825 or miR825*. Compared with Col-0, the target mutant lines showed higher susceptibility to B. cinerea B1301, while still expressing AR156-triggered induced systemic resistance (ISR). The two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant (P < 0.01) interactive effect of treatment and genotype on the defense responses. Hence, miR825 and miR825*act as negative regulators of AR156-mediated systemic resistance to B. cinerea B1301 in Arabidopsis.
Project description:Current protection strategies against the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea rely on a combination of conventional fungicides and host genetic resistance. Defence elicitors can stimulate plant defence mechanisms through a phenomenon known as priming. Priming results on a faster and/or stronger expression of resistance upon pathogen attack. This work aims to study priming of a commercial formulation of the elicitor Chitosan. Treatments with Chitosan result in induced resistance in solanaceous and brassicaceous plants. Large-scale transcriptomic analysis in this study revealed that Chitosan primes gene expression at early time-points after infection. Four conditions were analysed using microarrays: (i) water-treated and non-infected plants (Water + Mock); (ii) Chitosan-treated and non-infected plants (Chitosan + Mock); (iii) water-treated and B. cinerea-infected plants (Water + B. cinerea); (iv) Chitosan-treated and B. cinerea-infected plants (Chitosan + B. cinerea). Inoculations were performed four days after treatment with Chitosan, and leaf discs from four independent plants (biological replicates) per treatment were sampled at 6 h, 9 h and 12 h post-inoculation (hpi) with water mock or B. cinerea spores.
Project description:Arbutoid mycorrhizal plants are commonly found as understory vegetation in forests worldwide where ectomycorrhiza-forming trees occur. Comarostaphylis arbutoides (Ericaceae) is a tropical woody plant and common in tropical Central America. This plant forms arbutoid mycorrhiza, whereas only associations with Leccinum monticola as well as Sebacina sp. are described so far. We collected arbutoid mycorrhizas of C. arbutoides from the Cerro de la Muerte (Cordillera de Talamanca), Costa Rica, where this plant species grows together with Quercus costaricensis. We provide here the first evidence of mycorrhizal status for the Ascomycete Leotia cf. lubrica (Helotiales) that was so far under discussion as saprophyte or mycorrhizal. This fungus formed arbutoid mycorrhiza with C. arbutoides. The morphotype was described morphologically and anatomically. Leotia cf. lubrica was identified using molecular methods, such as sequencing the internal-transcribed spacer (ITS) and the large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA regions, as well as phylogenetic analyses. Specific plant primers were used to confirm C. arbutoides as the host plant of the leotioid mycorrhiza.
Project description:Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form a mutually beneficial symbiosis with plant roots providing predominantly phosphorus in the form of orthophosphate (Pi) in exchange for plant carbohydrates on low P soils. The goal of this work was to generate molecular-genetic evidence in support of a major impact of the mycorrhizal Pi uptake (MPU) pathway on the productivity of the major crop plant maize under field and controlled conditions. Here we show, that a loss-of-function mutation in the mycorrhiza-specific Pi transporter gene Pht1;6 correlates with a dramatic reduction of above-ground biomass and cob production in agro-ecosystems with low P soils. In parallel mutant pht1;6 plants exhibited an altered fingerprint of chemical elements in shoots dependent on soil P availability. In controlled environments mycorrhiza development was impaired in mutant plants when grown alone. The presence of neighboring mycorrhizal nurse plants enhanced the reduced mycorrhiza formation in pht1;6 roots. Uptake of (33)P-labeled orthophosphate via the MPU pathway was strongly impaired in colonized mutant plants. Moreover, repression of the MPU pathway resulted in a redirection of Pi to neighboring plants. In line with previous results, our data highlight the relevance of the MPU pathway in Pi allocation within plant communities and in particular the role of Pht1;6 for the establishment of symbiotic Pi uptake and for maize productivity and nutritional value in low-input agricultural systems. In a first attempt to identify cellular pathways which are affected by Pht1;6 activity, gene expression profiling via RNA-Seq was performed and revealed a set of maize genes involved in cellular signaling which exhibited differential regulation in mycorrhizal pht1;6 and control plants. The RNA data provided support for the hypothesis that fungal supply of Pi and/or Pi transport across Pht1;6 affects cell wall biosynthesis and hormone metabolism in colonized root cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Similarly to the legume-rhizobia symbiosis, the arbuscular mycorrhiza interaction is controlled by autoregulation representing a feedback inhibition involving the CLAVATA1-like receptor kinase NARK in shoots. However, little is known about signals and targets down-stream of NARK. To find NARK-related transcriptional changes in mycorrhizal soybean (Glycine max) plants, we analyzed wild-type and two nark mutant lines interacting with the arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. RESULTS: Affymetrix GeneChip analysis of non-inoculated and partially inoculated plants in a split-root system identified genes with potential regulation by arbuscular mycorrhiza or NARK. Most transcriptional changes occur locally during arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis and independently of NARK. RT-qPCR analysis verified nine genes as NARK-dependently regulated. Most of them have lower expression in roots or shoots of wild type compared to nark mutants, including genes encoding the receptor kinase GmSIK1, proteins with putative function as ornithine acetyl transferase, and a DEAD box RNA helicase. A predicted annexin named GmAnnx1a is differentially regulated by NARK and arbuscular mycorrhiza in distinct plant organs. Two putative CCAAT-binding transcription factor genes named GmNF-YA1a and GmNF-YA1b are down-regulated NARK-dependently in non-infected roots of mycorrhizal wild-type plants and functional gene analysis confirmed a positive role for these genes in the development of an arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate GmNF-YA1a/b as positive regulators in arbuscular mycorrhiza establishment, whose expression is down-regulated by NARK in the autoregulated root tissue thereby diminishing subsequent infections. Genes regulated independently of arbuscular mycorrhization by NARK support an additional function of NARK in symbioses-independent mechanisms.