COVID-19: clinical course and outcomes of 36 hemodialysis patients in Spain.
ABSTRACT: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019. Unfortunately, there is a lack of evidence about the optimal management of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and even less is available in patients on maintenance hemodialysis therapy than in the general population. In this retrospective, observational, single-center study, we analyzed the clinical course and outcomes of all maintenance hemodialysis patients hospitalized with COVID-19 from March 12th to April 10th, 2020 as confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Baseline features, clinical course, laboratory data, and different therapies were compared between survivors and nonsurvivors to identify risk factors associated with mortality. Among the 36 patients, 11 (30.5%) died, and 7 were able to be discharged within the observation period. Clinical and radiological evolution during the first week of admission were predictive of mortality. Among the 36 patients, 18 had worsening of their clinical status, as defined by severe hypoxia with oxygen therapy requirements greater than 4 L/min and radiological worsening. Significantly, 11 of those 18 patients (61.1%) died. None of the classical cardiovascular risk factors in the general population were associated with higher mortality. Compared to survivors, nonsurvivors had significantly longer dialysis vintage, increased lactate dehydrogenase (490 U/l ± 120 U/l vs. 281 U/l ± 151 U/l, P = 0.008) and C-reactive protein levels (18.3 mg/dl ± 13.7 mg/dl vs. 8.1 mg/dl ± 8.1 mg/dl, P = 0.021), and a lower lymphocyte count (0.38 ×103/µl ± 0.14 ×103/µl vs. 0.76 ×103/µl ± 0.48 ×103/µl, P = 0.04) 1 week after clinical onset. Thus, the mortality among hospitalized hemodialysis patients diagnosed with COVID-19 is high. Certain laboratory tests can be used to predict a worsening clinical course.
Project description:Markers of better nutritional status including both higher levels of serum albumin (as a measure of visceral proteins) and creatinine (as a measure of the muscle mass) are associated with lower mortality in conventional (thrice weekly) hemodialysis patients. However, data for these associations in twice-weekly hemodialysis patients, in whom less frequent hemodialysis may confound nutritional predictors, are lacking.We identified 1,113 twice-weekly and matched 4,448 thrice-weekly hemodialysis patients from a large national dialysis cohort of incident hemodialysis patients over 5 years (2007-2011). Mortality risk, adjusted for potential confounders, was examined across two-by-two combinations of serum creatinine (<6 vs. ?6 mg/dL) and albumin (<3.5 g/dL vs. ?3.5 g/dL) for each treatment frequency yielding a total of 8 groups.Patients were aged 70 ± 14 years and included 48% women and 55% diabetics. Using the thrice-weekly hemodialysis patients with creatinine ? 6 mg/dL and albumin ? 3.5 g/dL as reference, patients with creatinine <6 mg/dL and albumin <3.5 g/dL had a 1.8-fold higher risk of mortality (hazard ratio: 1.75, 95% confidence interval: 1.33-2.30) in twice-weekly and 2.2-fold increased risk of mortality (hazard ratio: 2.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.81-2.70) in thrice-weekly hemodialysis patients, respectively in fully adjusted models adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, and markers of malnutrition and inflammation. A test for interaction showed that there was no significant difference in albumin creatinine mortality associations between twice-weekly and thrice-weekly hemodialysis patients (P-for-interaction = .7667).Surrogate markers of higher visceral protein and muscle mass combined may confer greatest survival in both twice-weekly and thrice-weekly hemodialysis patients.
Project description:Rationale: To retrospectively analyze serial chest CT and clinical features in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) for the assessment of temporal changes and to investigate how the changes differ in survivors and nonsurvivors. Methods: The consecutive records of 93 patients with confirmed COVID-19 who were admitted to Wuhan Union Hospital from January 10, 2020, to February 22, 2020, were retrospectively reviewed. A series of chest CT findings and clinical data were collected and analyzed. The serial chest CT scans were scored on a semiquantitative basis according to the extent of pulmonary abnormalities. Chest CT scores in different periods (0 - 5 days, 6 - 10 days, 11 - 15 days, 16 - 20 days, and > 20 days) since symptom onset were compared between survivors and nonsurvivors, and the temporal trend of the radiographic-clinical features was analyzed. Results: The final cohort consisted of 93 patients: 68 survivors and 25 nonsurvivors. Nonsurvivors were significantly older than survivors. For both survivors and nonsurvivors, the chest CT scores were not different in the first period (0 - 5 days) but diverged afterwards. The mortality rate of COVID-19 monotonously increased with chest CT scores, which positively correlated with the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, neutrophil percentage, D-dimer level, lactate dehydrogenase level and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, while negatively correlated with the lymphocyte percentage and lymphocyte count. Conclusions: Chest CT scores correlate well with risk factors for mortality over periods, thus they may be used as a prognostic indicator in COVID-19. While higher chest CT scores are associated with a higher mortality rate, CT images taken at least 6 days since symptom onset may contain more prognostic information than images taken at an earlier period.
Project description:There is accumulating evidence that serum levels of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) are a more accurate predictor of cardiovascular outcomes when compared with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, we recently found that higher serum concentrations of triglycerides are associated with better outcomes in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Therefore, we hypothesized that the association of serum levels of non-HDL-C (which includes triglyceride-rich lipoproteins) with outcomes may also be different in patients undergoing hemodialysis when compared with other patient populations.We studied the association of baseline and time-dependent serum levels of non-HDL-C with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality using Cox proportional hazard regression models in a nationally representative cohort of 50 118 patients undergoing incident hemodialysis from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2011. In time-dependent models adjusted for case mix and surrogates of malnutrition and inflammation, a graded inverse association between non-HDL-C level and mortality was demonstrated with hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of the lowest (<60 mg/dL) and highest (≥160 mg/dL) categories: 1.88 (1.72-2.06) and 0.73 (0.64-0.83) for all-cause mortality and 2.07 (1.78-2.41) and 0.75 (0.60-0.93) for cardiovascular mortality, respectively (reference, 100-115 mg/dL). In analyses using baseline values, non-HDL-C levels <100 mg/dL were also associated with significantly higher mortality risk across all levels of adjustment. Similar associations were found when evaluating non-HDL/HDL cholesterol ratio and mortality, with the highest all-cause and cardiovascular mortality being observed in patients with decreased non-HDL/HDL-C ratio (<2.5).Contrary to the general population, decrements in non-HDL-C and non-HDL/HDL cholesterol ratio were paradoxically associated with increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients undergoing incident hemodialysis. The underlying mechanisms responsible for these associations await further investigation.
Project description:Magnesium concentration is a proven predictor of mortality in hemodialysis patients. Recent reports have indicated that proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use affects serum magnesium levels, however few studies have investigated the relationship between PPI use and magnesium levels in hemodialysis patients. This study aimed to clarify the association between PPI use and serum magnesium levels in hemodialysis patients. We designed this cross sectional study and included 1189 hemodialysis patients in stable condition. Associations between PPI and magnesium-related factors, as well as other possible confounders, were evaluated using a multiple regression model. We defined hypomagnesemia as a value < 2.0 mg/dL, and created comparable logistic regression models to assess the association between PPI use and hypomagnesemia. PPI use is associated with a significantly lower mean serum magnesium level than histamine 2 (H2) receptor antagonists or no acid-suppressive medications (mean [SD] PPI: 2.52 [0.45] mg/dL; H2 receptor antagonist: 2.68 [0.41] mg/dL; no acid suppressive medications: 2.68 [0.46] mg/dL; P = 0.001). Hypomagnesemia remained significantly associated with PPI (adjusted OR, OR: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.14-3.69; P = 0.017). PPI use is associated with an increased risk of hypomagnesemia in hemodialysis patients. Future prospective studies are needed to explore magnesium replacement in PPI users on hemodialysis.
Project description:Whether and how anemia treatment with erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) before hemodialysis initiation may be associated with lower mortality after dialysis initiation is unknown. We compared all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in two groups of patients who experienced distinct anemia treatment patterns with ESAs before and after hemodialysis initiation. This retrospective cohort analysis included patients initiating hemodialysis April 1, 2012-June 30, 2013, identified from United States Renal Data System end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and pre-ESRD files. Patients treated with ESAs before and after hemodialysis initiation who maintained Hb ? 9.0 g/dL throughout (comparator group, n = 3662) were compared with patients with Hb < 9.0 g/dL before hemodialysis initiation (with or without ESAs) whose levels increased with ESAs after hemodialysis initiation (referent group, n = 4461). Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the hazard ratio of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality after hemodialysis initiation. Of 20,454 patients, 4855 (23.7%) had Hb < 9.0 g/dL upon hemodialysis initiation; of these 4855, 26.6% received ESAs before initiation. Comparator group Hb levels increased from 8.2 ± 0.8 mg/dL upon initiation to 10.9 ± 1.2 with ESAs afterward. Comparator patients were more likely than referent patients to be younger (76.3 ± 6.7 versus 77.2 ± 6.9 years), male (51.5% versus 49.8%), and black (24.6% versus 18.6%). Risk of all-cause mortality was lower for the comparator group versus the referent group at 3 (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.68-1.00, P = 0.052), 6 (0.86, 0.74-1.00, P = 0.047), and 12 (0.88, 0.78-0.99, P = 0.036) months. The pattern was similar for cardiovascular mortality. Hb ? 9.0 with ESAs before and after hemodialysis initiation was generally associated with lower post-initiation all-cause and cardiovascular mortality compared with predialysis Hb < 9.0 g/dL in patients whose Hb levels subsequently improved with ESAs after hemodialysis initiation.
Project description:Volume overload poses a major risk in hemodialysis patients but simple detection methods are lacking. We propose a novel marker, the Interdialytic Creatinine Rise (IDCR), readily calculated as the change in serum creatinine over time (in mg/dL/h), to assess volume overload and predict mortality risk in hemodialysis patients.First, we calculated IDCR changes with volume in a prospective cohort of 35 hospitalized hemodialysis patients awaiting hemodialysis and 33 hospitalized patients undergoing hemodialysis every other day. Second, in a prospective cohort of 25 outpatients, IDCR cutoff values associated with hypervolemia were determined between two treatments and compared with simultaneous volume assessments by their nephrologist. Third, IDCR as a mortality predictor was studied using survival analysis in a longitudinal retrospective cohort study of 39 maintenance hemodialysis patients followed from 2012 until death or 2017.IDCR decreased by -?0.014 mg/dL/h each day (95%CI -?0.017,-?0.010; p?<?0.001) without dialysis due to fluid volume gain and increased by 0.013 mg/dL/h (95%CI 0.008,0.017; p?<?0.001) from before to after each successive hemodialysis due to fluid removal. Choosing an IDCR cutoff value of ?0.1 had sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 79% in diagnosing volume overload with the area under the ROC curve of 0.78 (95%CI 0.59,0.97). The hazard ratio of death for each 0.01 decrease in IDCR was 1.64 (95%CI 1.31,2.07; p?<?0.001). If IDCR decreased to less than 0.05 mg/dL/h, the median survival was 32 days and the odds ratio of death within 2 months was 38 (95%CI 8, 131; p?<?0.001).In this pilot study, IDCR is shown to be a novel metric that decreases with fluid retention and increases after fluid removal. IDCR can assist clinicians in detection or exclusion of volume overload in hemodialysis patients and provide prognostic value in identifying those at high risk for death.
Project description:It is thought that hyperuricemia might lower the risk of mortality among hemodialysis patients, unlike in the general population, but the evidence is controversial. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of serum uric acid level on the long-term clinical outcomes of hemodialysis patients in Korea.Retrospective analysis was performed on data from the End-Stage Renal Disease Registry of the Korean Society of Nephrology. This included data for 7,333 patients (mean age, 61 ± 14 years; 61% male) who received hemodialysis from January 2001 through April 2015. Initial laboratory data were used in the analysis.The mean serum uric acid level in this study was 7.1 ± 1.7 mg/dL. Body mass index, normalized protein catabolic rate, albumin, and cholesterol were positively correlated with serum uric acid level after controlling for age and sex. After controlling for demographic data, comorbidities, and residual renal function, a higher uric acid level was independently associated with a significantly lower all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.90 per 1 mg/dL increase in uric acid level; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-0.97; P = 0.008), but not cardiovascular mortality (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.80-1.01; P = 0.078). Comparing uric acid levels in the highest and lowest quintiles, the HR for all-cause mortality was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.42-0.99; P = 0.046).Hyperuricemia was strongly associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality, but there seems to be no significant association between serum uric acid level and cardiovascular mortality among Korean hemodialysis patients with end-stage renal disease.
Project description:There are no definitive therapies for patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies are needed to improve clinical outcomes, particularly in patients with severe disease. This case series explores the safety and effectiveness of intravenous allogeneic cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs), formulated as CAP-1002, in critically ill patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Adverse reactions to CAP-1002, clinical status on the World Health Organization (WHO) ordinal scale, and changes in pro-inflammatory biomarkers and leukocyte counts were analyzed. All patients (n?=?6; age range 19-75 years, 1 female) required ventilatory support (invasive mechanical ventilation, n?=?5) with PaO2/FiO2 ranging from 69 to 198. No adverse events related to CAP-1002 administration were observed. Four patients (67%) were weaned from respiratory support and discharged from the hospital. One patient remains mechanically ventilated as of April 28th, 2020; all survive. A contemporaneous control group of critically ill COVID-19 patients (n?=?34) at our institution showed 18% overall mortality at a similar stage of hospitalization. Ferritin was elevated in all patients at baseline (range of all patients 605.43-2991.52 ng/ml) and decreased in 5/6 patients (range of all patients 252.89-1029.90 ng/ml). Absolute lymphocyte counts were low in 5/6 patients at baseline (range 0.26-0.82?×?103/µl) but had increased in three of these five patients at last follow-up (range 0.23-1.02?×?103/µl). In this series of six critically ill COVID-19 patients, intravenous infusion of CAP-1002 was well tolerated and associated with resolution of critical illness in 4 patients. This series demonstrates the apparent safety of CAP-1002 in COVID-19. While this initial experience is promising, efficacy will need to be further assessed in a randomized controlled trial.
Project description:Uncorrected serum calcium concentration is the first mineral metabolism metric planned for use as a quality measure in the United States ESRD population. Few studies in patients undergoing either peritoneal dialysis (PD) or hemodialysis (HD) have assessed the association of uncorrected serum calcium concentration with clinical outcomes. We obtained data from 129,076 patients on dialysis (PD, 10,066; HD, 119,010) treated in DaVita, Inc. facilities between July 1, 2001, and June 30, 2006. After adjustment for potential confounders, uncorrected serum calcium <8.5 and ?10.2 mg/dl were associated with excess mortality in patients on PD or HD (comparison group uncorrected calcium 9.0 to <9.5 mg/dl). Additional adjustment for serum albumin concentration substantially attenuated the all-cause mortality hazard ratios (HRs) associated with uncorrected calcium <8.5 mg/dl (HR, 1.29; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.16 to 1.44 for PD; HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.20 for HD) and amplified the HRs associated with calcium ?10.2 mg/dl (HR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.42 to 1.91 for PD; HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.53 to 1.65 for HD). Albumin-corrected calcium ?10.2 mg/dl and serum phosphorus ?6.4 mg/dl were also associated with increased risk for death, irrespective of dialysis modality. In summary, in a large nationally representative cohort of patients on dialysis, abnormalities in markers of mineral metabolism, particularly high concentrations of serum calcium and phosphorus, were associated with increased mortality risk. Additional studies are needed to investigate whether control of hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia in patients undergoing dialysis results in improved clinical outcomes.
Project description:Dysfunctional variants of ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2), a urate transporter in the kidney and intestine, are the major causes of hyperuricemia and gout. A recent study found that ABCG2 is a major transporter of uremic toxins; however, few studies have investigated the relationship between ABCG2 gene polymorphisms and mortality. This prospective cohort study of 1214 hemodialysis patients investigated the association between serum uric acid levels and ABCG2 genotype and mortality. Genotyping of dysfunctional ABCG2 variants, Q126X (rs72552713) and Q141K (rs2231142), was performed using the patients' DNA. During the study period, 220 patients died. Lower serum uric acid levels were associated with higher mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-3.10, P???0.001). ABCG2 dysfunction, estimated by genetic variants, had a significant positive association with serum uric acid levels (full function: 7.4?±?1.2 mg/dl, 3/4 function: 7.9?±?1.3 mg/dl, 1/2 function: 8.2?±?1.4 mg/dl, ??1/4 function: 8.7?±?1.3 mg/dl, P???0.001). This association remained significant on multiple regression analysis. The Cox proportional hazard analysis indicated that the ABCG2???1/4 function type was significantly associated with higher mortality (HR 6.66, 95% CI 2.49 to 17.8, P???0.001) than the other function types. These results showed that ABCG2 plays a physiologically important role in uric acid excretion, and that ABCG2 dysfunction is a risk factor for mortality in hemodialysis patients.