COVID-19 in people living with human immunodeficiency virus: a case series of 33 patients.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Data on people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) in the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic are still scarce. This case series of 33 PLWH patients with COVID-19 reveals symptoms and outcome in this special population. METHODS:Retrospective analysis of anonymized data including age, gender, HIV-associated parameters, symptoms, and outcome. RESULTS:Three out of 32 patients with documented outcomes died (9%). 91% of the patients recovered and 76% have been classified as mild cases. All patients were on antiretroviral treatment, of them 22 on tenofovir-containing regimen and 4 on the protease inhibitor darunavir. CONCLUSIONS:This preliminary case series does not support excess morbidity and mortality among symptomatic COVID-19 PLWH and with viral suppression on ART. SARS-CoV-2 infections may occur during boosted darunavir-based and/or on tenofovir-containing ART.
Project description:Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV (PLWH), who commonly experience lipid disturbances. The aim of this study was to determine whether the plasma lipidomic profile differs between PLWH receiving a darunavir-based ART and those receiving integrase inhibitor-based ART. This was a cross-sectional study of unselected patients for whom metabolomic analysis was performed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Data for the two subgroups were compared by calculating the log2 of the fold change for each metabolite and then grouping these into the main lipid families. Sixty-two PLWH aged 49.3?±?8.6 years (82% men) were included: 12 patients (19.4%) had hypertension, 8 (12.9%) had type 2 diabetes, 25 (41.0%) had dyslipidaemia and 9 (14.5%) were taking statins, without significant differences in all these variables between the two groups. Twenty-five (40.3%) received darunavir-based ART and 37 (59.7%) integrase inhibitor-based ART. Although the differences were not statistically significant, patients treated with darunavir-based ART had higher concentrations of total cholesterol (211?mg/dL vs 194?mg/dL), LDL-cholesterol (132?mg/dL vs 117?mg/dL) and triglycerides (155?mg/dL vs 122?mg/dL), and lower HDL-cholesterol concentration (50?mg/dL vs 52?mg/dL). The main lipid families and metabolites differed slightly between groups (log2-fold change; P-value): ceramides (-0.07; 0.49), phosphatidylinositols (-0.05; 0.63), diacylglycerols (0.10; 0.64), phosphatidylethanolamines (0.03; 0.78), triacylglycerols (0.27; 0.18) and lysophosphatidylethanolamines (0.03; 0.83). In the integrase inhibitor-based group, the use of tenofovir alafenamide fumarate significantly increases the majority of lipid fractions, when compared with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. The lipidomic profile did not differ between PLWH treated with darunavir-based or integrase inhibitor-based ART. This was especially true for ceramides, which are involved in cardiovascular disease. Further studies are needed to study the impact of ART in lipidomic profile.
Project description:There is great concern about the impact of COVID-19 among the nearly 40 million people living with HIV (PLWH) worldwide. In this review, we surveyed current literature and found no evidence of higher prevalence of COVID-19 among PLWH but equivocal data on increased mortality and worse clinical outcomes. Having HIV does not confer protection against severe manifestations of COVID-19. Several studies looking at antiretroviral drugs against HIV to treat SARS-CoV-2 have shown no mortality benefit. Thus, there is no indication to change antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens among virologically suppressed PLWH to prevent COVID-19. HIV care delivery has been adversely impacted in several countries during this pandemic but has created an opportunity for accelerating effective strategies like multi-month ART. Decentralizing HIV care in low-resource settings and incorporating telemedicine in high-resource settings will be critical in mitigating shocks to healthcare systems in the future.
Project description:Since the first case reports in Wuhan, China, the SARS-CoV-2 has caused a pandemic and took lives of?>?8,35,000 people globally. This single-stranded RNA virus uses Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor for entry into the host cell. Overexpression of ACE2 is mainly observed in hypertensive, diabetic and heart patients that make them prone to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Mitigations strategies were opted globally by the governments to minimize transmission of SARS-CoV-2 via the implementation of social distancing norms, wearing the facemasks, and spreading awareness using digital platforms. The lack of an approved drug treatment regimen, and non-availability of a vaccine, collectively posed a challenge for mankind to fight against the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. In this scenario, repurposing of existing drugs and old treatment options like convalescent plasma therapy can be one of the potential alternatives to treat the disease. The drug repurposing provides a selection of drugs based on the scientific rationale and with a shorter cycle of clinical trials, while plasma isolated from COVID-19 recovered patients can be a good source of neutralizing antibody to provide passive immunity. In this review, we provide in-depth analysis on these two approaches currently opted all around the world to treat COVID-19 patients. For this, we used "Boolean Operators" such as AND, OR & NOT to search relevant research articles/reviews from the PUBMED for the repurposed drugs and the convalescent plasma in the COVID-19 treatment. The repurposed drugs like Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine, Tenofovir, Remdesivir, Ribavirin, Darunavir, Oseltamivir, Arbidol (Umifenovir), Favipiravir, Anakinra, and Baricitinib are already being used in clinical trials to treat the COVID-19 patients. These drugs have been approved for a different indication and belong to a diverse category such as anti-malarial/anti-parasitic, anti-retroviral/anti-viral, anti-cancer, or against rheumatoid arthritis. Although, the vaccine would be an ideal option for providing active immunity against the SARS-CoV-2, but considering the current situation, drug repurposing and convalescent plasma therapy and repurposed drugs are the most viable option against SARS-CoV-2.
Project description:To elucidate the T cell epitopes of SARS-CoV-2, we stimulated human PBMCs from healthy donors and convalescent COVID-19 patients with various SARS-CoV-2 antigens, sorted the activated T cells and performed sc-RNA and -TCR sequencing. We obtained thousands of T cell clonotypes that responded to SARS-CoV-2 antigens, and identified the epitopes and restricting HLAs of several clonotypes that were significantly expanded in the COVID-19 patients. Overall design: Determination of the TCR and mRNA expression of human T cells stimulated with SARS-CoV-2 antigens.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is currently recommended for all persons living with HIV (PLWH), regardless of their CD4 T-cell count, and should be continued throughout life. Nonetheless, vigilance of the safety of ART, including its neurotoxicity, must continue. We hypothesized that use of certain ART drugs might be associated with aging-related cerebral degenerative changes among PLWH. DESIGN:Clinicopathological study of PLWH who were using ART drugs at the last clinical assessment. METHODS:Using multivariable logistic regression, we tested associations between use of each specific ART drug (with reference to use of other ART drugs) and cerebral degenerative changes including neuronal phospho-tau lesions, ?-amyloid plaque deposition, microgliosis, and astrogliosis in the frontal cortex and putamen (immunohistochemistry), as well as cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) in the forebrain white matter (standard histopathology), with relevant covariates being taken into account. The Bonferroni adjustment was applied. RESULTS:Darunavir use was associated with higher likelihood of neuronal phospho-tau lesions in the putamen [odds ratio (OR) 15.33, n?=?93, P?=?0.005]. Ritonavir use was associated with marked microgliosis in the putamen (OR 4.96, n?=?101, P?=?0.023). On the other hand, use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate was associated with lower likelihood of ?-amyloid plaque deposition in the frontal cortex (OR 0.13, n?=?102, P?=?0.012). There was a trend toward an association between emtricitabine use and CSVD (OR 13.64, n?=?75, P?=?0.099). CONCLUSION:Our findings suggest that PLWH treated with darunavir and ritonavir may be at increased risk of aging-related cerebral degenerative changes.
Project description:Since its first appearance in Wuhan, China, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread throughout the world and has become a global pandemic. Several medical comorbidities have been identified as risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, it remains unclear whether people living with human immunodefeciency virus (PLWH) are at an increased risk of COVID-19 and severe disease manifestation, with controversial suggestion that HIV-infected individuals could be protected from severe COVID-19 by means of antiretroviral therapy or HIV-related immunosuppression. Several cases of coinfection with HIV and SARS-CoV-2 have been reported from different parts of the globe. This review seeks to provide a holistic overview of SARS-CoV-2 infection in PLWH.
Project description:Here, we show that midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are selectively permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection both in vitro and upon transplantation in vivo, and that SARS-CoV-2 infection triggers a DA neuron inflammatory and cellular senescence response. A high-throughput screen in hPSC-derived DA neurons identified several FDA approved drugs, including riluzole, metformin, and imatinib, that can rescue the cellular senescence phenotype and prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. RNA-seq analysis of human ventral midbrain tissue from COVID-19 patients, using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded autopsy samples, confirmed the induction of an inflammatory and cellular senescence signature and identified low levels of SARS-CoV-2 transcripts. Our findings demonstrate that hPSC-derived DA neurons can serve as a disease model to study neuronal susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 and to identify candidate neuroprotective drugs for COVID-19 patients. The susceptibility of hPSC-derived DA neurons to SARS-CoV-2 and the observed inflammatory and senescence transcriptional responses suggest the need for careful, long-term monitoring of neurological problems in COVID-19 patients. Overall design: RNA sequencing
Project description:BACKGROUND:Information about incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of HIV-infected individuals with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is scarce. We characterised individuals with COVID-19 among a cohort of HIV-infected adults in Madrid. METHODS:In this observational prospective study, we included all consecutive HIV-infected individuals (aged ?18 years) who had suspected or confirmed COVID-19 as of April 30, 2020, at the Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal (Madrid, Spain). We compared the characteristics of HIV-infected individuals with COVID-19 with a sample of HIV-infected individuals assessed before the COVID-19 pandemic, and described the outcomes of individuals with COVID-19. FINDINGS:51 HIV-infected individuals were diagnosed with COVID-19 (incidence 1·8%, 95% CI 1·3-2·3). Mean age of patients was 53·3 years (SD 9·5); eight (16%) were women, and 43 (84%) men. 35 (69%) cases of co-infection had laboratory confirmed COVID-19, and 28 (55%) required hospital admission. Age and CD4 cell counts in 51 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were similar to those in 1288 HIV-infected individuals without; however, 32 (63%) with COVID-19 had at least one comorbidity (mostly hypertension and diabetes) compared with 495 (38%) without COVID-19 (p=0·00059). 37 (73%) patients had received tenofovir before COVID-19 diagnosis compared with 487 (38%) of those without COVID-19 (p=0·0036); 11 (22%) in the COVID-19 group had previous protease inhibitor use (mostly darunavir) compared with 175 (14%; p=0·578). Clinical, analytical, and radiological presentation of COVID-19 in HIV-infected individuals was similar to that described in the general population. Six (12%) individuals were critically ill, two of whom had CD4 counts of less than 200 cells per ?L, and two (4%) died. SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR remained positive after a median of 40 days from symptoms onset in six (32%) individuals, four of whom had severe disease or low nadir CD4 cell counts. INTERPRETATION:HIV-infected individuals should not be considered to be protected from SARS-CoV-2 infection or to have lower risk of severe disease. Generally, they should receive the same treatment approach applied to the general population. FUNDING:None.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Darunavir is an anti-HIV protease inhibitor repurposed for SARS-CoV-2 treatment. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to assess the population pharmacokinetics of darunavir in SARS-CoV-2 patients compared with HIV patients. METHODS:Two separate models were created by means of a nonlinear mixed-effect approach. The influence of clinical covariates on each basic model was tested and the association of significant covariates with darunavir parameters was assessed at multivariate regression and classification and regression tree (CART) analyses. Monte Carlo simulation assessed the influence of covariates on the darunavir concentration versus time profile. RESULTS:A one-compartment model well-described darunavir concentrations in both groups. In SARS-CoV-2 patients (n?=?30), interleukin (IL)-6 and body surface area were covariates associated with darunavir oral clearance (CL/F) and volume of distribution (Vd), respectively; no covariates were identified in HIV patients (n?=?25). Darunavir CL/F was significantly lower in SARS-CoV-2 patients compared with HIV patients (4.1 vs. 10.3 L/h; p?<?0.001). CART analysis found that an IL-6 level of 18 pg/mL may split the SARS-CoV-2 population in patients with low versus high darunavir CL/F (mean?±?standard deviation 3.47?±?1.90 vs. 8.03?±?3.24 L/h; proportion of reduction in error?=?0.46). Median (interquartile range) darunavir CL/F was significantly lower in SARS-CoV-2 patients with IL-6 levels ??18 pg/mL than in SARS-CoV-2 patients with IL-6 levels <?18 pg/mL or HIV patients (2.78 [2.16-4.47] vs. 7.24 [5.88-10.38] vs. 9.75 [8.45-13.79] L/h, respectively; p?<?0.0001). Increasing IL-6 levels affected darunavir concentration versus time simulated profiles. We hypothesized that increases in IL-6 levels associated with severe SARS-CoV-2 disease may downregulate the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4-mediated metabolism of darunavir. CONCLUSIONS:This is a proof-of-concept of SARS-CoV-2 disease-drug interactions, and may support the need for optimal dose selection of sensitive CYP3A4 substrates in severe SARS-CoV-2 patients.
Project description:The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS CoV-2, is responsible for millions of death worldwide. No approved/proper therapeutics is currently available which can effectively combat this outbreak. Several attempts have been undertaken in the search of effective drugs to control the spread of SARS CoV-2 infection. The main protease (Mpro), key component for the cleavage of the viral polyprotein, is considered to be one of the important drug targets for treating COVID-19. Various phytochemicals, including polyphenols and alkaloids, have been proposed as potent inhibitors of Mpro. The alkaloids from leaf extracts of Justicia adhatoda have also been reported to possess anti-viral activity. But whether these alkaloids exhibit any inhibitory effect on SARS CoV-2 Mpro is far from clear. To explore this in detail, we have adopted computational approaches. Justicia adhatoda alkaloids possessing proper drug-likeness properties and two anti-HIV drugs (lopinavir and darunavir; having binding affinity -7.3 to -7.4 kcal/mol) were docked against SARS CoV-2 Mpro to study their binding properties. Only one alkaloid (anisotine) had interaction with both the catalytic residues (His41 and Cys145) of Mpro and exhibited good binding affinity (-7.9 kcal/mol). Molecular dynamic simulations (100 ns) revealed that Mpro-anisotine complex is more stable, conformationally less fluctuated; slightly less compact and marginally expanded than Mpro-darunavir/lopinavir complex. Even the number of intermolecular H-bonds and MM-GBSA analysis suggested that anisotine is a more potent Mpro inhibitor than the two previously recommended antiviral drugs (lopinavir and darunavir) and may evolve as a promising anti-COVID-19 drug if proven in animal experiments and on patients.