No direct effect of SGLT2 activity on glucagon secretion.
ABSTRACT: AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:Sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitors constitute a new class of glucose-lowering drugs, but they increase glucagon secretion, which may counteract their glucose-lowering effect. Previous studies using static incubation of isolated human islets or the glucagon-secreting cell line ?-TC1 suggested that this results from direct inhibition of alpha cell SGLT1/2-activity. The aim of this study was to test whether the effects of SGLT2 on glucagon secretion demonstrated in vitro could be reproduced in a more physiological setting. METHODS:We explored the effect of SGLT2 activity on glucagon secretion using isolated perfused rat pancreas, a physiological model for glucagon secretion. Furthermore, we investigated Slc5a2 (the gene encoding SGLT2) expression in rat islets as well as in mouse and human islets and in mouse and human alpha, beta and delta cells to test for potential inter-species variations. SGLT2 protein content was also investigated in mouse, rat and human islets. RESULTS:Glucagon output decreased three- to fivefold within minutes of shifting from low (3.5 mmol/l) to high (10 mmol/l) glucose (4.0?±?0.5 pmol/15 min vs 1.3?±?0.3 pmol/15 min, p?
Project description:OBJECTIVES:It is controversial whether sodium glucose transporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitors increase glucagon secretion via direct inhibition of SGLT2 in pancreatic ? cells. The role of SGLT1 in ? cells is also unclear. We aimed to elucidate these points that are important not only for basic research but also for clinical insight. METHODS:Plasma glucagon levels were assessed in the high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HFHSD) fed C57BL/6J mice treated with dapagliflozin or canagliflozin. RT-PCR, RNA sequence, and immunohistochemistry were conducted to test the expression of SGLT1 and SGLT2 in ? cells. We also used ?TC1 cells and mouse islets to investigate the molecular mechanism by which SGLT1 modulates glucagon secretion. RESULTS:Dapagliflozin, but not canagliflozin, increased plasma glucagon levels in HFHSD fed mice. SGLT1 and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), but not SGLT2, were expressed in ?TC1 cells, mouse islets and human islets. A glucose clamp study revealed that the plasma glucagon increase associated with dapagliflozin could be explained as a response to acute declines in blood glucose. Canagliflozin suppressed glucagon secretion by inhibiting SGLT1 in ? cells; consequently, plasma glucagon did not increase with canagliflozin, even though blood glucose declined. SGLT1 effect on glucagon secretion depended on glucose transport, but not glucose metabolism. Islets from HFHSD and db/db mice displayed higher SGLT1 mRNA levels and lower GLUT1 mRNA levels than the islets from control mice. These expression levels were associated with higher glucagon secretion. Furthermore, SGLT1 inhibitor and siRNA against SGLT1 suppressed glucagon secretion in isolated islets. CONCLUSIONS:These data suggested that a novel mechanism regulated glucagon secretion through SGLT1 in ? cells. This finding possibly explained the distinct effects of dapagliflozin and canagliflozin on plasma glucagon levels in mice.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors (SGLT2i), or gliflozins, are anti-diabetic drugs that lower glycemia by promoting glucosuria, but they also stimulate endogenous glucose and ketone body production. The likely causes of these metabolic responses are increased blood glucagon levels, and decreased blood insulin levels, but the mechanisms involved are hotly debated. This study verified whether or not SGLT2i affect glucagon and insulin secretion by a direct action on islet cells in three species, using multiple approaches. METHODS:We tested the in vivo effects of two selective SGLT2i (dapagliflozin, empagliflozin) and a SGLT1/2i (sotagliflozin) on various biological parameters (glucosuria, glycemia, glucagonemia, insulinemia) in mice. mRNA expression of SGLT2 and other glucose transporters was assessed in rat, mouse, and human FACS-purified ?- and ?-cells, and by analysis of two human islet cell transcriptomic datasets. Immunodetection of SGLT2 in pancreatic tissues was performed with a validated antibody. The effects of dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, and sotagliflozin on glucagon and insulin secretion were assessed using isolated rat, mouse and human islets and the in situ perfused mouse pancreas. Finally, we tested the long-term effect of SGLT2i on glucagon gene expression. RESULTS:SGLT2 inhibition in mice increased the plasma glucagon/insulin ratio in the fasted state, an effect correlated with a decline in glycemia. Gene expression analyses and immunodetections showed no SGLT2 mRNA or protein expression in rodent and human islet cells, but moderate SGLT1 mRNA expression in human ?-cells. However, functional experiments on rat, mouse, and human (29 donors) islets and the in situ perfused mouse pancreas did not identify any direct effect of dapagliflozin, empagliflozin or sotagliflozin on glucagon and insulin secretion. SGLT2i did not affect glucagon gene expression in rat and human islets. CONCLUSIONS:The data indicate that the SGLT2i-induced increase of the plasma glucagon/insulin ratio in vivo does not result from a direct action of the gliflozins on islet cells.
Project description:Sodium-glucose cotransporters SGLT1 (encoded by SGLT1, also known as SLC5A1) and SGLT2 (encoded by SGLT2, also known as SLC5A2) are important mediators of epithelial glucose transport. While SGLT1 accounts for most of the dietary glucose uptake in the intestine, SGLT2 is responsible for the majority of glucose reuptake in the tubular system of the kidney, with SGLT1 reabsorbing the remainder of the filtered glucose. As a consequence, mutations in the SLC5A1 gene cause glucose/galactose malabsorption, whereas mutations in SLC5A2 are associated with glucosuria. Since the cloning of SGLT1 more than 30 years ago, big strides have been made in our understanding of these transporters and their suitability as drug targets. Phlorizin, a naturally occurring competitive inhibitor of SGLT1 and SGLT2, provided the first insights into potential efficacy, but its use was hampered by intestinal side effects and a short half-life. Nevertheless, it was a starting point for the development of specific inhibitors of SGLT1 and SGLT2, as well as dual SGLT1/2 inhibitors. Since the approval of the first SGLT2 inhibitor in 2013 by the US Food and Drug Administration, SGLT2 inhibitors have become a new mainstay in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. They also have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system (including heart failure) and the kidney. This review focuses on the rationale for the development of individual SGLT2 and SGLT1 inhibitors, as well as dual SGLT1/2 inhibition, including, but not limited to, aspects of genetics, genetically modified mouse models, mathematical modelling and general considerations of drug discovery in the field of metabolism.
Project description:Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of antidiabetic drugs that improve glycemic control by inhibiting reabsorption of glucose filtered through the renal glomerulus. Use of drugs in this class has increased because of their effect of decreasing body weight and a low risk for hypoglycemia, in addition to a relatively strong glucose-lowering effect. SGLT2 inhibitors such as canagliflozin and sotagliflozin (a SGLT1/SGLT2 dual inhibitor) also have a mild or moderate intestinal and renal SGLT1 inhibitory effect because of their relatively weak selectivity for SGLT2 over SGLT1. Recent evidence shows that these SGLT2 inhibitors with low SGLT2/SGLT1 selectivity elevate the level of circulating glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an incretin hormone that promotes insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells. This effect probably occurs partly via inhibition of intestinal SGLT1, and the elevation of active GLP-1 levels is especially apparent when these drugs are co-administered with dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors. These findings suggest that a combination of canagliflozin or sotagliflozin and a DPP4 inhibitor can provide a beneficial effect associated with elevation of circulating active GLP-1 and may serve as a treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes.
Project description:Inhibition of sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), the key transport protein in renal glucose reabsorption, promotes glucose excretion and represents a new concept in the therapy of type-2 diabetes. In addition, SGLT2 inhibition elevates circulating glucagon concentrations and enhances hepatic glucose production. Since SGLT2 is expressed in human pancreatic ?-cells and regulates glucagon release, we tested whether common variants of the SGLT2 gene SLC5A2 associate with altered plasma glucagon concentrations in the fasting state and upon glucose challenge.A study population of 375 healthy subjects at increased risk for type-2 diabetes, phenotyped by a 5-point oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and genotyped for recently described SLC5A2 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), was selected for plasma glucagon measurements.After adjustment for gender, age, body mass index, and insulin sensitivity, the four tagging SNPs (rs9924771, rs3116150, rs3813008, rs9934336), tested separately or as genetic score, were neither significantly nor nominally associated with plasma glucagon concentrations at any time during the OGTT, with the inverse AUC of glucagon or the glucagon fold-change during the OGTT (p ? 0.2, all). Testing for genotype-related differences in the time course of the glucagon response using MANOVA did also not reveal any significant or nominal associations (p ? 0.5, all).We could not obtain statistically significant evidence for a role of common SLC5A2 variants in the regulation of glucagon release in the fasting state or upon glucose challenge. Moreover, the reported nominal effects of individual SLC5A2 variants on fasting and post-challenge glucose levels may probably not be mediated by altered glucagon release.
Project description:Glucagon is one of the main regulators of blood glucose levels and dysfunctional stimulus secretion coupling in pancreatic A-cells is believed to be an important factor during development of diabetes. However, regulation of glucagon secretion is poorly understood. Recently it has been shown that Na(+)/glucose co-transporter (SGLT) inhibitors used for the treatment of diabetes increase glucagon levels in man. Here, we show experimentally that the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin increases glucagon secretion at high glucose levels both in human and mouse islets, but has little effect at low glucose concentrations. Because glucagon secretion is regulated by electrical activity we developed a mathematical model of A-cell electrical activity based on published data from human A-cells. With operating SGLT2, simulated glucose application leads to cell depolarization and inactivation of the voltage-gated ion channels carrying the action potential, and hence to reduce action potential height. According to our model, inhibition of SGLT2 reduces glucose-induced depolarization via electrical mechanisms. We suggest that blocking SGLTs partly relieves glucose suppression of glucagon secretion by allowing full-scale action potentials to develop. Based on our simulations we propose that SGLT2 is a glucose sensor and actively contributes to regulation of glucagon levels in humans which has clinical implications.
Project description:Glycemic control by medical treatment represents one therapeutic strategy for diabetic patients. The Na+-d-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) is currently of high interest in this context. SGLT1 is known to mediate glucose absorption and incretin secretion in the small intestine. Recently, inhibition of SGLT1 function was shown to improve postprandial hyperglycemia. In view of the lately demonstrated SGLT1 expression in pancreatic islets, we investigated if loss of SGLT1 affects islet morphology and function.Effects associated with the loss of SGLT1 on pancreatic islet (cyto) morphology and function were investigated by analyzing islets of a SGLT1 knockout mouse model, that were fed a glucose-deficient, fat-enriched diet (SGLT1-/--GDFE) to circumvent the glucose-galactose malabsorption syndrome. To distinguish diet- and Sglt1-/--dependent effects, wildtype mice on either standard chow (WT-SC) or the glucose-free, fat-enriched diet (WT-GDFE) were used as controls. Feeding a glucose-deficient, fat-enriched diet further required the analysis of intestinal SGLT1 expression and function under diet-conditions.Consistent with literature, our data provide evidence that small intestinal SGLT1 mRNA expression and function is regulated by nutrition. In contrast, pancreatic SGLT1 mRNA levels were not affected by the applied diet, suggesting different regulatory mechanisms for SGLT1 in diverse tissues. Morphological changes such as increased islet sizes and cell numbers associated with changes in proliferation and apoptosis and alterations of the ?- and ?-cell population are specifically observed for pancreatic islets of SGLT1-/--GDFE mice. Glucose stimulation revealed no insulin response in SGLT1-/--GDFE mice while WT-GDFE mice displayed only a minor increase of blood insulin. Irregular glucagon responses were observed for both, SGLT1-/--GDFE and WT-GDFE mice. Further, both animal groups showed a sustained release of GLP-1 compared to WT-SC controls.Loss or impairment of SGLT1 results in abnormal pancreatic islet (cyto)morphology and disturbed islet function regarding the insulin or glucagon release capacity from ?- or ?-cells, respectively. Consequently, our findings propose a new, additional role for SGLT1 maintaining proper islet structure and function.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:We investigated the mechanisms of the glucose-lowering effects of teneligliptin and canagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, by monitoring several gastrointestinal peptides using the most appropriate measuring methods during multiple meal tolerance tests (MTTs) and flash glucose monitoring. METHODS:Twelve Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in the 14-day study. Subjects were treated with teneligliptin 20 mg/day from day 4, followed by a combination tablet of teneligliptin 20 mg and canagliflozin 100 mg (T/C) per day from day 11. MTTs were conducted on days 3 (premedication; Pre), 10 (teneligliptin; T) and 13 (T/C) to evaluate plasma glucose, C-peptide, glucagon, active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), active gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin. RESULTS:Plasma glucose was significantly decreased with the progress of treatment intervention, and C-peptide was significantly decreased in T/C compared to the others. Plasma postprandial glucagon was increased for 90 min from fasting in Pre, but only for 30 min in T and T/C. Plasma postprandial active GLP-1 was significantly increased in T compared to Pre, and that of T/C was significantly higher than T. Plasma postprandial active GIP was increased in T and T/C compared to Pre. Plasma ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin levels did not change during the treatment. CONCLUSION:Teneligliptin increased incretin hormones and suppressed postprandial glucagon secretion as expected. Concurrent use of canagliflozin and teneligliptin improved glycemic control without increasing postprandial glucagon secretion, and increased postprandial GLP-1 secretion and decreased the required amount of postprandial insulin secretion. The underlying mechanisms may involve canagliflozin's inhibitory activity against not only SGLT2 but also SGLT1. TRIAL REGISTRATION:UMIN identifier, UMIN000030043. FUNDING:Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation and a Grant for Clinical Research from Miyazaki University Hospital.
Project description:Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors enhance urinary glucose, Na+ and fluid excretion, and lower hyperglycemia in diabetes by targeting Na+ and glucose reabsorption along the proximal convoluted tubule. A goal of this study was to predict the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in diabetic and nondiabetic patients with chronic kidney disease. To that end, we employed computational rat kidney models to explore how SGLT2 inhibition affects renal solute transport and metabolism when nephron populations are normal or reduced. Model simulations suggested that in a nondiabetic rat, acute and chronic SGLT2 inhibition induces glucosuria, diuresis, natriuresis, and kaliuresis. Those effects were stronger with chronic SGLT2 inhibition (due to SGLT1 downregulation) and tempered by nephron loss. In a diabetic rat with normal nephron number, acute SGLT2 inhibition similarly elevated urine fluid, Na+, and K+ excretion, whereas the urinary excretory effects of chronic SGLT2 inhibition were attenuated in proportion to its plasma glucose level lowering effect. Nephron loss in a diabetic kidney was predicted to lower the glucosuric and blood glucose-reducing effect of chronic SGLT2 inhibition, but due to the high luminal glucose delivery in the remaining hyperfiltering nephrons, nephron loss enhanced proximal tubular paracellular Na+ secretion, thereby augmenting the natriuretic, diuretic, and kaliuretic effects. A proposed shift in oxygen-consuming active transport to the outer medulla, which may simulate systemic hypoxia and enhance erythropoiesis, was also preserved with nephron loss. These effects may contribute to the protective effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on blood pressure and heart failure observed in diabetic patients with chronic kidney diseases.
Project description:Traditional treatments for type 1 and type 2 diabetes are often associated with side effects, including weight gain and hypoglycaemia that may offset the benefits of blood glucose lowering. The kidneys filter and reabsorb large amounts of glucose, and urine is almost free of glucose in normoglycaemia. The sodium-dependent glucose transporter (SGLT)-2 in the early proximal tubule reabsorbs the majority of filtered glucose. Remaining glucose is reabsorbed by SGLT1 in the late proximal tubule. Diabetes enhances renal glucose reabsorption by increasing the tubular glucose load and the expression of SGLT2 (as shown in mice), which maintains hyperglycaemia. Inhibitors of SGLT2 enhance urinary glucose excretion and thereby lower blood glucose levels in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The load-dependent increase in SGLT1-mediated glucose reabsorption explains why SGLT2 inhibitors in normoglycaemic conditions enhance urinary glucose excretion to only ~50% of the filtered glucose. The role of SGLT1 in both renal and intestinal glucose reabsorption provides a rationale for the development of dual SGLT1/2 inhibitors. SGLT2 inhibitors lower blood glucose levels independent of insulin and induce pleiotropic actions that may be relevant in the context of lowering cardiovascular risk. Ongoing long-term clinical studies will determine whether SGLT2 inhibitors have a safety profile and exert cardiovascular benefits that are superior to traditional agents.