Peptide-like and small-molecule inhibitors against Covid-19.
ABSTRACT: Coronavirus disease strain (SARS-CoV-2) was discovered in 2019, and it is spreading very fast around the world causing the disease Covid-19. Currently, more than 1.6 million individuals are infected, and several thousand are dead across the globe because of Covid-19. Here, we utilized the in-silico approaches to identify possible protease inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2. Potential compounds were screened from the CHEMBL database, ZINC database, FDA approved drugs and molecules under clinical trials. Our study is based on 6Y2F and 6W63 co-crystallized structures available in the protein data bank (PDB). Seven hundred compounds from ZINC/CHEMBL databases and fourteen hundred compounds from drug-bank were selected based on positive interactions with the reported binding site. All the selected compounds were subjected to standard-precision (SP) and extra-precision (XP) mode of docking. Generated docked poses were carefully visualized for known interactions within the binding site. Molecular mechanics-generalized born surface area (MM-GBSA) calculations were performed to screen the best compounds based on docking scores and binding energy values. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out on four selected compounds from the CHEMBL database to validate the stability and interactions. MD simulations were also performed on the PDB structure 6YF2F to understand the differences between screened molecules and co-crystallized ligand. We screened 300 potential compounds from various databases, and 66 potential compounds from FDA approved drugs. Cobicistat, ritonavir, lopinavir, and darunavir are in the top screened molecules from FDA approved drugs. The screened drugs and molecules may be helpful in fighting with SARS-CoV-2 after further studies.
Project description:The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 requires a fast development of antiviral drugs. SARS-CoV-2 viral main protease (Mpro, also called 3C-like protease, 3CLpro) is a potential target for drug design. Crystal and co-crystal structures of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro have been solved, enabling the rational design of inhibitory compounds. In this study we analyzed the available SARS-CoV-2 and the highly similar SARS-CoV-1 crystal structures. We identified within the active site of the Mpro, in addition to the inhibitory ligands' interaction with the catalytic C145, two key H-bond interactions with the conserved H163 and E166 residues. Both H-bond interactions are present in almost all co-crystals and are likely to occur also during the viral polypeptide cleavage process as suggested from docking of the Mpro cleavage recognition sequence. We screened in silico a library of 6900 FDA-approved drugs (ChEMBL) and filtered using these key interactions and selected 29 non-covalent compounds predicted to bind to the protease. Additional screen, using DOCKovalent was carried out on DrugBank library (11,414 experimental and approved drugs) and resulted in 6 covalent compounds. The selected compounds from both screens were tested in vitro by a protease activity inhibition assay. Two compounds showed activity at the 50 µM concentration range. Our analysis and findings can facilitate and focus the development of highly potent inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Project description:The aim of this study was to develop an appropriate anti-viral drug against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. An immediately qualifying strategy would be to use existing powerful drugs from various virus treatments. The strategy in virtual screening of antiviral databases for possible therapeutic effect would be to identify promising drug molecules, as there is currently no vaccine or treatment approved against COVID-19. Targeting the main protease (pdb id: 6LU7) is gaining importance in anti-CoV drug design. In this conceptual context, an attempt has been made to suggest an in silico computational relationship between US-FDA approved drugs, plant-derived natural drugs, and Coronavirus main protease (6LU7) protein. The evaluation of results was made based on Glide (Schrödinger) dock score. Out of 62 screened compounds, the best docking scores with the targets were found for compounds: lopinavir, amodiaquine, and theaflavin digallate (TFDG). Molecular dynamic (MD) simulation study was also performed for 20 ns to confirm the stability behaviour of the main protease and inhibitor complexes. The MD simulation study validated the stability of three compounds in the protein binding pocket as potent binders.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The rapidly enlarging COVID-19 pandemic caused by the novel SARS-corona virus-2 is a global public health emergency of an unprecedented level. Unfortunately no treatment therapy or vaccine is yet available to counter the SARS-CoV-2 infection, which substantiates the need to expand research efforts in this direction. The indispensable function of the main protease in virus replication makes this enzyme a promising target for inhibitors screening and drug discovery to treat novel coronavirus infection. The recently concluded ?-ketoamide ligand-bound X-ray crystal structure of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro (PDB ID: 6Y2F) from Zhang et al. has revealed the potential inhibitor binding mechanism and the molecular determinants responsible for substrate binding. METHODS:For the study, we have targeted the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro for the screening of FDA approved antiviral drugs and carried out molecular docking based virtual screening. Further molecular dynamic simulation studies of the top three selected drugs carried out to investigated for their binding affinity and stability in the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro active site. The phylogenetic analysis was also performed to know the relatedness between the SARS-CoV-2 genomes isolated from different countries. RESULTS:The phylogenetic analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 genome reveals that the virus is closely related to the Bat-SL-CoV and does not exhibit any divergence at the genomic level. Molecular docking studies revealed that among the 77 drugs, screened top ten drugs shows good binding affinities, whereas the top three drugs: Lopinavir-Ritonavir, Tipranavir, and Raltegravir were undergone for molecular dynamics simulation studies for their conformational stability in the active site of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro protein. CONCLUSIONS:In the present study among the library of FDA approved antiviral drugs, the top three inhibitors Lopinavir-Ritonavir, Tipranavir, and Raltegravir show the best molecular interaction with the main protease of SARS-CoV-2. However, the in-vitro efficacy of the drug molecules screened in this study further needs to be corroborated by carrying out a biochemical and structural investigation.
Project description:The SARS-CoV-2 was confirmed to cause the global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro), an essential enzyme for viral replication, is a valid target to combat SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. In this work, we present a structure-based study to identify potential covalent inhibitors containing a variety of chemical warheads. The targeted Asinex Focused Covalent (AFCL) library was screened based on different reaction types and potential covalent inhibitors were identified. In addition, we screened FDA-approved protease inhibitors to find candidates to be repurposed against SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. A number of compounds with significant covalent docking scores were identified. These compounds were able to establish a covalent bond (C-S) with the reactive thiol group of Cys145 and to form favorable interactions with residues lining the substrate-binding site. Moreover, paritaprevir and simeprevir from FDA-approved protease inhibitors were identified as potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. The mechanism and dynamic stability of binding between the identified compounds and SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro were characterized by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The identified compounds are potential inhibitors worthy of further development as COVID-19 drugs. Importantly, the identified FDA-approved anti-hepatitis-C virus (HCV) drugs paritaprevir and simeprevir could be ready for clinical trials to treat infected patients and help curb COVID-19. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
Project description:A novel coronavirus [severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), or 2019 novel coronavirus] has been identified as the pathogen of coronavirus disease 2019. The main protease (Mpro , also called 3-chymotrypsin-like protease) of SARS-CoV-2 is a potential target for treatment of COVID-19. A Mpro homodimer structure suitable for docking simulations was prepared using a crystal structure (PDB ID: 6Y2G; resolution 2.20 Å). Structural refinement was performed in the presence of peptidomimetic ?-ketoamide inhibitors, which were previously disconnected from each Cys145 of the Mpro homodimer, and energy calculations were performed. Structure-based virtual screenings were performed using the ChEMBL database. Through a total of 1 485 144 screenings, 64 potential drugs (11 approved, 14 clinical, and 39 preclinical drugs) were predicted to show high binding affinity with Mpro . Additional docking simulations for predicted compounds with high binding affinity with Mpro suggested that 28 bioactive compounds may have potential as effective anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug candidates. The procedure used in this study is a possible strategy for discovering anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs from drug libraries that may significantly shorten the clinical development period with regard to drug repositioning.
Project description:Anti-viral small molecules are currently lacking for treating coronavirus infection. The long development timescales for such drugs are a major problem, but could be shortened by repurposing existing drugs. We therefore screened a small library of FDA-approved compounds for potential severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) antivirals using a pseudovirus system that allows a sensitive read-out of infectivity. A group of structurally-related compounds, showing moderate inhibitory activity with IC<sub>50</sub> values in the 2-5 μM range, were identified. Further studies demonstrated that these "kite-shaped" molecules were surprisingly specific for SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 and that they acted early in the entry steps of the viral infectious cycle, but did not affect virus attachment to the cells. Moreover, the compounds were able to prevent infection in both kidney- and lung-derived human cell lines. The structural homology of the hits allowed the production of a well-defined pharmacophore that was found to be highly accurate in predicting the anti-viral activity of the compounds in the screen. We discuss the prospects of repurposing these existing drugs for treating current and future coronavirus outbreaks.
Project description:The recent outbreak of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) continues to drastically affect healthcare throughout the world. To date, no approved treatment regimen or vaccine is available to effectively attenuate or prevent the infection. Therefore, collective and multidisciplinary efforts are needed to identify new therapeutics or to explore effectiveness of existing drugs and drug-like small molecules against SARS-CoV-2 for lead identification and repurposing prospects. This study addresses the identification of small molecules that specifically bind to any of the three essential proteins (RdRp, 3CL-protease and helicase) of SARS-CoV-2. By applying computational approaches we screened a library of 4574 compounds also containing FDA-approved drugs against these viral proteins. Shortlisted hits from initial screening were subjected to iterative docking with the respective proteins. Ranking score on the basis of binding energy, clustering score, shape complementarity and functional significance of the binding pocket was applied to identify the binding compounds. Finally, to minimize chances of false positives, we performed docking of the identified molecules with 100 irrelevant proteins of diverse classes thereby ruling out the non-specific binding. Three FDA-approved drugs showed binding to 3CL-protease either at the catalytic pocket or at an allosteric site related to functionally important dimer formation. A drug-like molecule showed binding to RdRp in its catalytic pocket blocking the key catalytic residues. Two other drug-like molecules showed specific interactions with helicase at a key domain involved in catalysis. This study provides lead drugs or drug-like molecules for further in vitro and clinical investigation for drug repurposing and new drug development prospects.
Project description:Recent outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has raised serious global concern for public health. The viral main 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (M<sup>pro</sup>), known to control coronavirus replication and essential for viral life cycle, has been established as an essential drug discovery target for SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we employed computationally screening of Druglib database containing FDA approved drugs against active pocket of SARS-CoV-2 M<sup>pro</sup> using MTiopen screen web server, yields a total of 1051 FDA approved drugs with docking energy >-7 kcal/mol. The top 10 screened potential compounds against SARS-CoV-2 M<sup>pro</sup> were then studied by re-docking, binding affinity, intermolecular interaction, and complex stability <i>via</i> 100 ns all atoms molecular dynamics (MD) simulation followed by post-simulation analysis, including end point binding free energy, essential dynamics, and residual correlation analysis against native crystal structure ligand N3 inhibitor. Based on comparative molecular simulation and interaction profiling of the screened drugs with SARS-CoV-2 M<sup>pro</sup> revealed R428 (-10.5 kcal/mol), Teniposide (-9.8 kcal/mol), VS-5584 (-9.4 kcal/mol), and Setileuton (-8.5 kcal/mol) with stronger stability and affinity than other drugs and N3 inhibitor; and hence, these drugs are advocated for further validation using <i>in vitro</i> enzyme inhibition and <i>in vivo</i> studies against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
Project description:The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively affected human life globally. It has led to economic crises and health emergencies across the world, spreading rapidly among the human population and has caused many deaths. Currently, there are no treatments available for COVID-19 so there is an urgent need to develop therapeutic interventions that could be used against the novel coronavirus infection. In this research, we used computational drug design technologies to repurpose existing drugs as inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins. The Broad Institute's Drug Repurposing Hub consists of in-development/approved drugs and was computationally screened to identify potential hits which could inhibit protein targets encoded by the SARS-CoV-2 genome. By virtually screening the Broad collection, using rationally designed pharmacophore features, we identified molecules which may be repurposed against viral nucleocapsid and non-structural proteins. The pharmacophore features were generated after careful visualisation of the interactions between co-crystalised ligands and the protein binding site. The ChEMBL database was used to determine the compound's level of inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 and correlate the predicted viral protein target with whole virus <i>in vitro</i> data. The results from this study may help to accelerate drug development against COVID-19 and the hit compounds should be progressed through further <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> studies on SARS-CoV-2.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Outbreak of COVID-19 has been recognized as a global health concern since it causes high rates of morbidity and mortality. No specific antiviral drugs are available for the treatment of COVID-19 till date. Drug repurposing strategy helps to find out the drugs for COVID-19 treatment from existing FDA approved antiviral drugs. In this study, FDA approved small molecule antiviral drugs were repurposed against the major viral proteins of SARS-CoV-2.<h4>Methods</h4>The 3D structures of FDA approved small molecule antiviral drugs were retrieved from PubChem. Virtual screening was performed to find out the lead antiviral drug molecules against main protease (Mpro) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) using COVID-19 Docking Server. Furthermore, lead molecules were individually docked against protein targets using AutoDock 4.0.1 software and their drug-likeness and ADMET properties were evaluated.<h4>Results</h4>Out of 65 FDA approved small molecule antiviral drugs screened, Raltegravir showed highest interaction energy value of -9 kcal/mol against Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 and Indinavir, Tipranavir, and Pibrentasvir exhibited a binding energy value of ?-8 kcal/mol. Similarly Indinavir showed the highest binding energy of -11.5 kcal/mol against the target protein RdRp and Dolutegravir, Elbasvir, Tipranavir, Taltegravir, Grazoprevir, Daclatasvir, Glecaprevir, Ledipasvir, Pibrentasvir and Velpatasvir showed a binding energy value in range from -8 to -11.2 kcal/mol. The antiviral drugs Raltegravir, Indinavir, Tipranavir, Dolutegravir, and Etravirine also exhibited good bioavailability and drug-likeness properties.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study suggests that the screened small molecule antiviral drugs Raltegravir, Indinavir, Tipranavir, Dolutegravir, and Etravirine could serve as potential drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 with further validation studies.