T2/FLAIR-mismatch sign for noninvasive detection of IDH-mutant 1p/19q non-codeleted gliomas: validity and pathophysiology.
ABSTRACT: AbstractBackgroundThis study aimed to assess the validity and pathophysiology of the T2/FLAIR-mismatch sign for noninvasive identification of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant 1p/19q non-codeleted glioma.MethodsMagnetic resonance imaging scans from 408 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed glioma (113 lower-grade gliomas and 295 glioblastomas) were evaluated for the presence of T2/FLAIR-mismatch sign by 2 independent reviewers. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated to assess the performance of the T2/FLAIR-mismatch sign for identifying IDH-mutant 1p/19q non-codeleted tumors. An exploratory analysis of differences in contrast-enhancing tumor volumes, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, and relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) values in IDH-mutant gliomas with versus without the presence of a T2/FLAIR-mismatch sign (as well as analysis of spatial differences within tumors with the presence of a T2/FLAIR-mismatch sign) was performed.ResultsThe T2/FLAIR-mismatch sign was present in 12 cases with lower-grade glioma (10.6%), all of them being IDH-mutant 1p/19q non-codeleted tumors (sensitivity = 10.9%, specificity = 100%, PPV = 100%, NPV = 3.0%, accuracy = 13.3%). There was a substantial interrater agreement to identify the T2/FLAIR-mismatch sign (Cohen’s kappa = 0.75 [95% CI, 0.57–0.93]). The T2/FLAIR-mismatch sign was not identified in any other molecular subgroup, including IDH-mutant glioblastoma cases (n = 5). IDH-mutant gliomas with a T2/FLAIR-mismatch sign showed significantly higher ADC (P < .0001) and lower rCBV values (P = .0123) as compared to IDH-mutant gliomas without a T2/FLAIR-mismatch sign. Moreover, in IDH-mutant gliomas with T2/FLAIR-mismatch sign the ADC values were significantly lower in the FLAIR-hyperintense rim as compared to the FLAIR-hypointense core of the tumor (P = .0005).ConclusionsThis study confirms the high specificity of the T2/FLAIR-mismatch sign for noninvasive identification of IDH-mutant 1p/19q non-codeleted gliomas; however, sensitivity is low and applicability is limited to lower-grade gliomas. Whether the higher ADC and lower rCBV values in IDH-mutant gliomas with a T2/FLAIR-mismatch sign (as compared to those without) translate into a measurable prognostic effect requires investigation in future studies. Moreover, spatial differences in ADC values between the core and rim of tumors with a T2/FLAIR-mismatch sign potentially reflect specific distinctions in tumor cellularity and microenvironment.
Project description:Background:The purpose of this study was to assess the reproducibility of the previously described T2-fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) mismatch sign as a specific imaging marker in non-enhancing isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutant, 1p/19q non-codeleted lower-grade glioma (LGG), encompassing both diffuse and anaplastic astrocytoma. Methods:MR scans (n = 154) from 3 separate databases with genotyped LGG were evaluated by 2 independent reviewers to assess (i) presence/absence of "T2-FLAIR mismatch" sign and (ii) presence/absence of homogeneous signal on T2-weighted images. Interrater agreement with Cohen's kappa (κ) was calculated, as well as diagnostic test performance of the T2-FLAIR mismatch sign to identify IDH-mutant astrocytoma. Results:There was substantial interrater agreement for the T2-FLAIR mismatch sign [κ = 0.75 (0.64-0.87)], but only fair agreement for T2 homogeneity [κ = 0.38 (0.25-0.52)]. The T2-FLAIR mismatch sign was present in 38 cases (25%) and had a positive predictive value of 100%, negative predictive value of 68%, a sensitivity of 51%, and a specificity of 100%. Conclusions:With a robust interrater agreement, our study confirms that among non-enhancing LGG the T2-FLAIR mismatch sign represents a highly specific imaging marker for IDH-mutant astrocytoma. This non-invasive marker may enable a more informed patient counsel and can aid in the treatment decision processes in a significant proportion of patients presenting with non-enhancing, LGG-like lesions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The T2-FLAIR mismatch sign is an imaging finding highly suggestive of isocitrate dehydrogenase mutated (IDH-mut) 1p19q non-codeleted (non-codel) gliomas (astrocytomas). In previous studies, it has shown excellent specificity but limited sensitivity for IDH-mut astrocytomas. Whether the mismatch sign is a marker of a clinically relevant subtype of IDH-mut astrocytomas is unknown. METHODS:We included histopathologically verified supratentorial lower-grade gliomas (LGG) WHO grade II-III retrospectively during the period 2010-2016. In the period 2017-2018, patients with suspected LGG radiologically were prospectively included, and in this cohort other diagnoses than glioma could occur. Clinical, radiological and molecular data were collected. For clinical evaluation we included all patients with IDH-mut astrocytomas. In the 2010-2016 cohort DNA methylation analysis with Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip (Illumina) was performed for patients with an IDH-mut astrocytoma with available tissue. We aimed to examine the association of the T2-FLAIR mismatch sign with clinical factors and outcomes. Additionally, we evaluated the diagnostic reliability of the mismatch sign and its relation to methylation profiles. RESULTS:Out of 215 patients with LGG, 135 had known IDH-mutation and 1p19q codeletion status. Fifty patients had an IDH-mut astrocytoma and 12 of these (24.0%) showed a mismatch sign. The sensitivity and specificity of the mismatch sign for IDH-mut detection were 26.4 and 97.6%, respectively. There were no differences between patients with an IDH-mut astrocytoma with or without mismatch sign when grouped according to T2-FLAIR mismatch sign with respect to baseline characteristics, clinical outcomes and methylation profiles. The overall interrater agreement between neuroradiologist and clinical neurosurgeons for the T2-FLAIR mismatch sign was significant when all 215 MRI examination assessed (??=?0.77, p?<?0.001, N?=?215). CONCLUSION:The T2-FLAIR mismatch sign in patients with an IDH-mut astrocytoma is not associated with clinical presentation or outcome. It seems unlikely that the IDH-mut astrocytomas with mismatch sign represent a specific subentity. Finally, we have validated that the T2-FLAIR mismatch sign is a reliable and specific marker of IDH-mut astrocytomas.
Project description:PURPOSE:With the updated World Health Organization (WHO) 2016 neuropathological diagnostic criteria, radiographic prognostic associations in lower-grade gliomas (LGG, WHO grade II and III) are undergoing re-evaluation. METHODS:We identified 316 LGG patients (151 grade II and 165 grade III) for a combined cohort from three independent databases. We analyzed the preoperative axial FLAIR, axial T2-weighted and post-gadolinium volumetric T1-weighted MR images. The molecular data collected included the status of IDH1/2, TP53, TERT promoter and ATRX mutations, in addition to 1p/19q co-deletions. In a subset of cases (n?=?133), we assessed the "T2-FLAIR mismatch" sign. RESULTS:Gliomas were assigned to one of the three molecular groups: Group O (IDH-mutant, 1p/19q co-deleted oligodendrogliomas, n?=?95), Group A (IDH-mutant, ATRX inactivated astrocytomas, n?=?175) and Group G (IDH wild-type, GBM-like, n?=?46). A contrast-enhancing tumor was seen in 98 patients (31%), most frequently in Group G (n?=?28/45, 57%), when compared to Group A (n?=?49/175, 28%) and Group O (n?=?24/95, 25.3%) tumors (p?=?0.008 and p?=?0.0011, respectively). Consistent with previous reports, T2-FLAIR mismatch was preferentially found in Group A tumors (73.1%, 60 of 82), although its presence was not associated with survival, after controlling for molecular group. False positive mismatch sign was noted in 28.5% (12/42) Group O tumors, but none of the tumors in Group G. A combination of all three factors: age under 40 years at first diagnosis, a tumor size larger than 6 cm and T2-FLAIR mismatch was highly specific for IDH mutant astrocytoma (Group A). CONCLUSION:We identify radiographic correlates of molecular groups in lower-grade gliomas, which join clinical demographic features in defining the characteristic presentation of these tumors. Radiographic correlates of prognosis in LGG require re-evaluation within molecular group.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant lower grade gliomas are classified as oligodendrogliomas or diffuse astrocytomas based on 1p/19q-codeletion status. We aimed to test and validate neuroradiologists' performances in predicting the codeletion status of IDH-mutant lower grade gliomas based on simple neuroimaging metrics. MATERIALS AND METHODS:One hundred two IDH-mutant lower grade gliomas with preoperative MR imaging and known 1p/19q status from The Cancer Genome Atlas composed a training dataset. Two neuroradiologists in consensus analyzed the training dataset for various imaging features: tumor texture, margins, cortical infiltration, T2-FLAIR mismatch, tumor cyst, T2* susceptibility, hydrocephalus, midline shift, maximum dimension, primary lobe, necrosis, enhancement, edema, and gliomatosis. Statistical analysis of the training data produced a multivariate classification model for codeletion prediction based on a subset of MR imaging features and patient age. To validate the classification model, 2 different independent neuroradiologists analyzed a separate cohort of 106 institutional IDH-mutant lower grade gliomas. RESULTS:Training dataset analysis produced a 2-step classification algorithm with 86.3% codeletion prediction accuracy, based on the following: 1) the presence of the T2-FLAIR mismatch sign, which was 100% predictive of noncodeleted lower grade gliomas, (n = 21); and 2) a logistic regression model based on texture, patient age, T2* susceptibility, primary lobe, and hydrocephalus. Independent validation of the classification algorithm rendered codeletion prediction accuracies of 81.1% and 79.2% in 2 independent readers. The metrics used in the algorithm were associated with moderate-substantial interreader agreement (? = 0.56-0.79). CONCLUSIONS:We have validated a classification algorithm based on simple, reproducible neuroimaging metrics and patient age that demonstrates a moderate prediction accuracy of 1p/19q-codeletion status among IDH-mutant lower grade gliomas.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Surgical resection and irradiation of diffuse glioma are guided by standard MRI: T2/fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR)-weighted MRI for non-enhancing and T1-weighted gadolinium-enhanced (T1G) MRI for enhancing gliomas. Amino acid PET has been suggested as the new standard. Imaging combinations may improve standard MRI and amino acid PET. The aim of the study was to determine the accuracy of imaging combinations to detect glioma infiltration. METHODS:We included 20 consecutive adults with newly diagnosed non-enhancing glioma (7 diffuse astrocytomas, isocitrate dehydrogenase [IDH] mutant; 1 oligodendroglioma, IDH mutant and 1p/19q codeleted; 1 glioblastoma IDH wildtype) or enhancing glioma (glioblastoma, 9 IDH wildtype and 2 IDH mutant). Standardized preoperative imaging (T1-, T2-, FLAIR-weighted, and T1G MRI, perfusion and diffusion MRI, MR spectroscopy and O-(2-[18F]-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ([18F]FET) PET) was co-localized with multiregion stereotactic biopsies preceding resection. Tumor presence in the biopsies was assessed by 2 neuropathologists. Diagnostic accuracy was determined using receiver operating characteristic analysis. RESULTS:A total of 174 biopsies were obtained (63 from 9 non-enhancing and 111 from 11 enhancing gliomas), of which 129 contained tumor (50 from non-enhancing and 79 from enhancing gliomas). In enhancing gliomas, the combination of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with [18F]FET PET (area under the curve [AUC], 95% CI: 0.89, 0.79?0.99) detected tumor better than T1G MRI (0.56, 0.39?0.72; P < 0.001) and [18F]FET PET (0.76, 0.66?0.86; P = 0.001). In non-enhancing gliomas, no imaging combination detected tumor significantly better than standard MRI. FLAIR-weighted MRI had an AUC of 0.81 (0.65-0.98) compared with 0.69 (0.56-0.81; P = 0.019) for [18F]FET PET. CONCLUSION:Combining ADC and [18F]FET PET detects glioma infiltration better than standard MRI and [18F]FET PET in enhancing gliomas, potentially enabling better guidance of local therapy.
Project description:The 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System incorporates the use of molecular information into the classification of brain tumors, including grade II and III gliomas, providing new prognostic information that cannot be delineated based on histopathology alone. We hypothesized that these genomic subgroups may also have distinct imaging features. A retrospective single institution study was performed on 40 patients with pathologically proven infiltrating WHO grade II/III gliomas with a pre-treatment MRI and molecular data on IDH, chromosomes 1p/19q and ATRX status. Two blinded Neuroradiologists qualitatively assessed MR features. The relationship between each parameter and molecular subgroup (IDH-wildtype; IDH-mutant-1p/19q codeleted-ATRX intact; IDH-mutant-1p/19q intact-ATRX loss) was evaluated with Fisher's exact test. Progression free survival (PFS) was also analyzed. A border that could not be defined on FLAIR was most characteristic of IDH-wildtype tumors, whereas IDH-mutant tumors demonstrated either well-defined or slightly ill-defined borders (p?=?0.019). Degree of contrast enhancement and presence of restricted diffusion did not distinguish molecular subgroups. Frontal lobe predominance was associated with IDH-mutant tumors (p?=?0.006). The IDH-wildtype subgroup had significantly shorter PFS than the IDH-mutant groups (p?<?0.001). No differences in PFS were present when separating by tumor grade. FLAIR border patterns and tumor location were associated with distinct molecular subgroups of grade II/III gliomas. These imaging features may provide fundamental prognostic and predictive information at time of initial diagnostic imaging.
Project description:Background:Single-gene mutation syndromes account for some familial glioma (FG); however, they make up only a small fraction of glioma families. Gliomas can be classified into 3 major molecular subtypes based on isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation and 1p/19q codeletion. We hypothesized that the prevalence of molecular subtypes might differ in familial versus sporadic gliomas and that tumors in the same family should have the same molecular subtype. Methods:Participants in the FG study (Gliogene) provided samples for germline DNA analysis. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumors were obtained from a subset of FG cases, and DNA was extracted. We analyzed tissue from 75 families, including 10 families containing a second affected family member. Copy number variation data were obtained using a first-generation Affymetrix molecular inversion probe (MIP) array. Results:Samples from 62 of 75 (83%) FG cases could be classified into the 3 subtypes. The prevalence of the molecular subtypes was: 30 (48%) IDH-wildtype, 21 (34%) IDH-mutant non-codeleted, and 11 (19%) IDH-mutant and 1p/19q codeleted. This distribution of molecular subtypes was not statistically different from that of sporadic gliomas (P = 0.54). Of 10 paired FG samples, molecular subtypes were concordant for 7 (? = 0.59): 3 IDH-mutant non-codeleted, 2 IDH-wildtype, and 2 IDH-mutant and 1p/19q codeleted gliomas. Conclusions:Our data suggest that within individual families, patients develop gliomas of the same molecular subtype. However, we did not observe differences in the prevalence of the molecular subtypes in FG compared with sporadic gliomas. These observations provide further insight into the distribution of molecular subtypes in FG.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system tumors stratifies isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant gliomas into 2 major groups depending on the presence or absence of 1p/19q codeletion. However, the grading system remains unchanged and it is now controversial whether it can be still applied to this updated molecular classification. METHODS:In a large cohort of 911 high-grade IDH-mutant gliomas from the French national POLA network (including 428 IDH-mutant gliomas without 1p/19q codeletion and 483 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, IDH-mutant and 1p/19q codeleted), we investigated the prognostic value of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) gene homozygous deletion as well as WHO grading criteria (mitoses, microvascular proliferation, and necrosis). In addition, we searched for other retinoblastoma pathway gene alterations (CDK4 amplification and RB1 homozygous deletion) in a subset of patients. CDKN2A homozygous deletion was also searched in an independent series of 40 grade II IDH-mutant gliomas. RESULTS:CDKN2A homozygous deletion was associated with dismal outcome among IDH-mutant gliomas lacking 1p/19q codeletion (P < 0.0001 for progression-free survival and P = 0.004 for overall survival) as well as among anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, IDH-mutant + 1p/19q codeleted (P = 0.002 for progression-free survival and P < 0.0001 for overall survival) in univariate and multivariate analysis including age, extent of surgery, adjuvant treatment, microvascular proliferation, and necrosis. In both groups, the presence of microvascular proliferation and/or necrosis remained of prognostic value only in cases lacking CDKN2A homozygous deletion. CDKN2A homozygous deletion was not recorded in grade II gliomas. CONCLUSIONS:Our study pointed out the utmost relevance of CDKN2A homozygous deletion as an adverse prognostic factor in the 2 broad categories of IDH-mutant gliomas stratified on 1p/19q codeletion and suggests that the grading of these tumors should be refined.
Project description:AbstractBackgroundIsocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation and 1p/19q-codeletion are oncogenetic alterations with a positive prognostic value for diffuse gliomas, especially grade II and III. Some studies have suggested differences in biological behavior as reflected by radiological characteristics. In this paper, the literature regarding radiological characteristics in grade II and III glioma subtypes was systematically evaluated and a meta-analysis was performed.MethodsStudies that addressed the relationship between conventional radiological characteristics and IDH mutations and/or 1p/19q-codeletions in newly diagnosed, grade II and III gliomas of adult patients were included. The “3-group analysis” compared radiological characteristics between the WHO 2016 glioma subtypes (IDH-mutant astrocytoma, IDH-wildtype astrocytoma, and oligodendroglioma), and the “2-group analysis” compared radiological characteristics between 1p/19q-codeleted gliomas and 1p/19q-intact gliomas.ResultsFourteen studies (3-group analysis: 670 cases, 2-group analysis: 1042 cases) were included. IDH-mutated astrocytomas showed more often sharp borders and less frequently contrast enhancement compared to IDH-wildtype astrocytomas. 1p/19q-codeleted gliomas had less frequently sharp borders, but showed a heterogeneous aspect, calcification, cysts, and edema more frequently. For the 1p/19q-codeleted gliomas, a sensitivity of 96% was found for heterogeneity and a specificity of 88.1% for calcification.ConclusionsSignificant differences in conventional radiological characteristics exist between the WHO 2016 glioma subtypes, which may reflect differences in biological behavior. However, the diagnostic value of the independent radiological characteristics is insufficient to reliably predict the molecular genetic subtype.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Diffuse low-grade gliomas (LGGs) form a heterogeneous subgroup of gliomas in adults. Chromosome (chr) arms 1p/19q codeletion and IDH mutation have been shown to be closely associated with oligodendroglial phenotype and better prognosis. We sought to identify relevant biomarkers in non 1p/19q codeleted LGGs. METHODS: We characterized a retrospective series of 126 LGGs using genomic arrays, microsatellite analysis, IDH sequencing, MGMT promoter methylation assay, and p53 expression analysis. RESULTS: Our study confirms that 1p/19q codeletion, mutually exclusive with p53 overexpression, was associated with: (i) better prognosis, (ii) oligodendroglial phenotype, (iii) MGMT promoter methylation, and (iv) IDH mutation. Interestingly, 1p/19q codeleted tumors occur in older patients at diagnosis. Our study shows that non 1p/19q codeleted LGGs can be divided in 5 main genomic subgroups: (i) 11p loss, (ii) 19q loss (iii) 7 gain, (iv) 19 gain, and (v) unclassified. In non 1p/19q codeleted LGGs, we demonstrated that (i) 11p loss is associated with astrocytoma phenotype and has an independent negative prognostic value, and (ii) 19q loss diminished the favorable prognostic value of IDH mutation. Our findings were validated in an independent cohort of 98 LGGs. CONCLUSION: Novel genomic entities and biomarkers have been identified in non 1p/19q codeleted LGGs. Our findings may help to stratify non 1p/19q codeleted LGGs, facilitating future individualization of treatment. Further prospective studies are warranted to support our findings.