Insulin receptor substrates differentially exacerbate insulin-mediated left ventricular remodeling.
ABSTRACT: Pressure overload (PO) cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure are associated with generalized insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, which may exacerbate left ventricular (LV) remodeling. While PO activates insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity that is transduced by insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), the present study tested the hypothesis that IRS1 and IRS2 have divergent effects on PO-induced LV remodeling. We therefore subjected mice with cardiomyocyte-restricted deficiency of IRS1 (CIRS1KO) or IRS2 (CIRS2KO) to PO induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). In WT mice, TAC-induced LV hypertrophy was associated with hyperactivation of IRS1 and Akt1, but not IRS2 and Akt2. CIRS1KO hearts were resistant to cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in concert with attenuated Akt1 activation. In contrast, CIRS2KO hearts following TAC developed more severe LV dysfunction than WT controls, and this was prevented by haploinsufficiency of Akt1. Failing human hearts exhibited isoform-specific IRS1 and Akt1 activation, while IRS2 and Akt2 activation were unchanged. Kinomic profiling identified IRS1 as a potential regulator of cardioprotective protein kinase G-mediated signaling. In addition, gene expression profiling revealed that IRS1 signaling may promote a proinflammatory response following PO. Together, these data identify IRS1 and Akt1 as critical signaling nodes that mediate LV remodeling in both mice and humans.
Project description:Chronic pressure-overload (PO)- induced cardiomyopathy is one of the leading causes of left ventricular (LV) remodeling and heart failure. The role of the ? isoform of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3?) in PO-induced cardiac remodeling is unclear and its downstream molecular targets are largely unknown. To investigate the potential roles of GSK-3?, cardiomyocyte-specific GSK-3? conditional knockout (cKO) and control mice underwent trans-aortic constriction (TAC) or sham surgeries. Cardiac function in the cKOs and littermate controls declined equally up to 2?weeks of TAC. At 4?week, cKO animals retained concentric LV remodeling and showed significantly less decline in contractile function both at systole and diastole, vs. controls which remained same until the end of the study (6?wk). Histological analysis confirmed preservation of LV chamber and protection against TAC-induced cellular hypertrophy in the cKO. Consistent with attenuated hypertrophy, significantly lower level of cardiomyocyte apoptosis was observed in the cKO. Mechanistically, GSK-3? was found to regulate mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening and GSK-3?-deficient mitochondria showed delayed mPTP opening in response to Ca2+ overload. Consistently, overexpression of GSK-3? in cardiomyocytes resulted in elevated Bax expression, increased apoptosis, as well as a reduction of maximum respiration capacity and cell viability. Taken together, we show for the first time that GSK-3? regulates mPTP opening under pathological conditions, likely through Bax overexpression. Genetic ablation of cardiomyocyte GSK-3? protects against chronic PO-induced cardiomyopathy and adverse LV remodeling, and preserves contractile function. Selective inhibition of GSK-3? using isoform-specific inhibitors could be a viable therapeutic strategy to limit PO-induced heart failure.
Project description:While deletion of Akt1 results in a smaller heart size and Akt2-/- mice are mildly insulin resistant, Akt1-/-/Akt2-/- mice exhibit perinatal lethality, indicating a large degree of functional overlap between the isoforms of the serine/threonine kinase Akt. The present study aimed to determine the cooperative contribution of Akt1 and Akt2 on the structure and contractile function of adult hearts. To generate an inducible, cardiomyocyte-restricted Akt2 knockout (KO) model, Akt2flox/flox mice were crossed with tamoxifen-inducible MerCreMer transgenic (MCM) mice and germline Akt1-/- mice to generate the following genotypes:Akt1+/+; Akt2flox/flox (WT), Akt2flox/flox; ?-MHC-MCM (iAkt2 KO), Akt1-/-, and Akt1-/-; Akt2flox/flox; ?-MHC-MCM mice (Akt1-/-/iAkt2 KO). At 28?days after the first tamoxifen injection, Akt1-/-/iAkt2 KO mice developed contractile dysfunction paralleling increased atrial and brain natriuretic peptide (ANP and BNP) levels, and repressed mitochondrial gene expression. Neither cardiac fibrosis nor apoptosis were detected in Akt1-/-/iAkt2 KO hearts. To explore potential molecular mechanisms for contractile dysfunction, we investigated myocardial microstructure before the onset of heart failure. At 3?days after the first tamoxifen injection, Akt1-/-/iAkt2 KO hearts showed decreased expression of connexin43 (Cx43) and connexin-interacting protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1). Furthermore, Akt1/2 silencing significantly decreased both Cx43 and ZO-1 expression in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes in concert with reduced beating frequency. Akt1 and Akt2 are required to maintain cardiac contraction. Loss of Akt signaling disrupts gap junction protein, which might precipitate early contractile dysfunction prior to heart failure in the absence of myocardial remodeling, such as hypertrophy, fibrosis, or cell death.
Project description:Muscle-specific RING finger protein-1 (MuRF1) is an E3 ligase that inhibits cardiac hypertrophy. However, how MuRF1 regulates cardiac hypertrophy and function during pressure overload (PO) remains poorly understood. We investigated the role of endogenous MuRF1 in regulating cardiac hypertrophy in response to PO in vivo.Transverse aortic constriction (TAC) for 4 weeks significantly reduced expression of MuRF1 in the mouse heart. After 2 and 4 weeks of TAC, MuRF1 knockout (Murf1(-/-)) mice exhibited enhanced cardiac hypertrophy and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction compared with that of nontransgenic (NTg) mice. Histological analyses showed that Murf1(-/-) mice exhibited more severe fibrosis and apoptosis than NTg mice after TAC. TAC-induced increases in the activity of a nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) luciferase reporter were significantly greater in Murf1(-/-) than in NTg mice. TAC-induced increases in calcineurin A (CnA) expression were also significantly enhanced in Murf1(-/-) compared with that in NTg mice. Coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that endogenous MuRF1 and CnA interact with one another. Polyubiquitination of CnA was attenuated in Murf1(-/-) mouse hearts at baseline and in response to TAC, and the protein stability of CnA was enhanced in cardiomyocytes, in which MuRF1 was downregulated in vitro. Furthermore, MuRF1 directly ubiquitinated CnA in vitro. Cardiac-specific overexpression of ZAKI-4?, an endogenous inhibitor of CnA, significantly suppressed the enhancement of TAC-induced cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction, as well as increases in cardiac fibrosis and apoptosis, in Murf1(-/-) mice.Endogenous MuRF1 negatively regulates cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction in response to PO through inhibition of the calcineurin-NFAT pathway.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ventricular remodeling increases the propensity of ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden death in patients. We studied the mechanism underlying these fatal arrhythmias, electrical and structural cardiac remodeling, as well as arrhythmogeneity during early, compensated hypertrophy in a rat model of chronic pressure overload. METHODS:Twenty-six Wistar rats were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) (n?=?13) or sham operation (n?=?13). Four weeks postoperative, echo- and electrocardiography was performed. Epicardial (208 or 455 sites) and transmural (30 sites) ventricular activation mapping was performed on Langendorff perfused hearts. Subsequently, hearts were processed for (immuno)histological and molecular analyses. RESULTS:TAC rats showed significant hypertrophy with preserved left ventricular (LV) function. Epicardial conduction velocity (CV) was similar, but more dispersed in TAC. Transmural CV was slowed in TAC (37.6?±?2.9?cm s(-1)) compared to sham (58.5?±?3.9?cm s(-1); P?<?0.01). Sustained polymorphic ventricular tachycardias were induced from LV in 8/13 TAC and in 0/13 sham rats. During VT, electrical activation patterns showed variable sites of earliest epicardial activation and altering sites of functional conduction block. Wandering epicardial reentrant activation was sporadically observed. Collagen deposition was significantly higher in TAC compared to sham, but not different between arrhythmogenic and non-arrhythmogenic TAC animals. Connexin43 (Cx43) expression was heterogeneous with a higher prevalence of non-phosphorylated Cx43 in arrhythmogenic TAC animals. CONCLUSION:In TAC rats with compensated cardiac hypertrophy, dispersion of conduction correlated to arrhythmogenesis, an increased heterogeneity of Cx43, and a partial substitution with non-phosphorylated Cx43. These alterations may result in the increased vulnerability to polymorphic VTs.
Project description:Cyclic GMP (cGMP) signaling attenuates cardiac remodeling, but it is unclear which cGMP effectors mediate these effects and thus might serve as novel therapeutic targets. Therefore, we tested whether the cGMP downstream effector, cGMP-dependent protein kinase G I? (PKGI?), attenuates pressure overload-induced remodeling in vivo.The effect of transaortic constriction (TAC)-induced left ventricular (LV) pressure overload was examined in mice with selective mutations in the PKGI? leucine zipper interaction domain. Compared with wild-type littermate controls, in response to TAC, these Leucine Zipper Mutant (LZM) mice developed significant LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction by 48 hours (n=6 WT sham, 6 WT TAC, 5 LZM sham, 9 LZM TAC). In response to 7-day TAC, the LZM mice developed increased pathologic hypertrophy compared with controls (n=5 WT sham, 4 LZM sham, 8 WT TAC, 11 LZM TAC). In WT mice, but not in LZM mice, phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibition with sildenafil (Sil) significantly inhibited TAC-induced cardiac hypertrophy and LV systolic dysfunction in WT mice, but this was abolished in the LZM mice (n=3 WT sham, 4 LZM sham, 3 WT TAC vehicle, 6 LZM TAC vehicle, 4 WT TAC Sil, 6 LZM TAC Sil). And in response to prolonged, 21-day TAC (n=8 WT sham, 7 LZM sham, 21 WT TAC, 15 LZM TAC), the LZM mice developed markedly accelerated mortality and congestive heart failure. TAC induced activation of JNK, which inhibits cardiac remodeling in vivo, in WT, but not in LZM, hearts, identifying a novel signaling pathway activated by PKGI? in the heart in response to LV pressure overload.These findings reveal direct roles for PKGI? in attenuating pressure overload-induced remodeling in vivo and as a required effector for the cardioprotective effects of sildenafil.
Project description:RATIONALE:The role of interleukin (IL)-6 in the pathogenesis of cardiac myocyte hypertrophy remains controversial. OBJECTIVE:To conclusively determine whether IL-6 signaling is essential for the development of pressure overload-induced left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and to elucidate the underlying molecular pathways. METHODS AND RESULTS:Wild-type and IL-6 knockout (IL-6(-/-)) mice underwent sham surgery or transverse aortic constriction (TAC) to induce pressure overload. Serial echocardiograms and terminal hemodynamic studies revealed attenuated LV hypertrophy and superior preservation of LV function in IL-6(-/-) mice after TAC. The extents of LV remodeling, fibrosis, and apoptosis were reduced in IL-6(-/-) hearts after TAC. Transcriptional and protein assays of myocardial tissue identified Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation as important underlying mechanisms during cardiac hypertrophy induced by TAC. The involvement of these pathways in myocyte hypertrophy was verified in isolated cardiac myocytes from wild-type and IL-6(-/-) mice exposed to prohypertrophy agents. Furthermore, overexpression of CaMKII in H9c2 cells increased STAT3 phosphorylation, and exposure of H9c2 cells to IL-6 resulted in STAT3 activation that was attenuated by CaMKII inhibition. Together, these results identify the importance of CaMKII-dependent activation of STAT3 during cardiac myocyte hypertrophy via IL-6 signaling. CONCLUSIONS:Genetic deletion of IL-6 attenuates TAC-induced LV hypertrophy and dysfunction, indicating a critical role played by IL-6 in the pathogenesis of LV hypertrophy in response to pressure overload. CaMKII plays an important role in IL-6-induced STAT3 activation and consequent cardiac myocyte hypertrophy. These findings may have significant therapeutic implications for LV hypertrophy and failure in patients with hypertension.
Project description:Pressure overload (PO) first causes cardiac hypertrophy and then heart failure (HF), which are associated with sex differences in cardiac morphology and function. We aimed to identify genes that may cause HF-related sex differences. We used a transverse aortic constriction (TAC) mouse model leading to hypertrophy without sex differences in cardiac function after 2 weeks, but with sex differences in hypertrophy 6 and 9 weeks after TAC. Cardiac gene expression was analyzed 2 weeks after surgery. Deregulated genes were classified into functional gene ontology (GO) categories and used for pathway analysis. Classical marker genes of hypertrophy were similarly upregulated in both sexes (alpha-actin, ANP, BNP, CTGF). Thirty-five genes controlling mitochondrial function (PGC-1, cytochrome oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase, acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase) had lower expression in males compared to females after TAC. Genes encoding ribosomal proteins and genes associated with extracellular matrix remodeling exhibited relative higher expression in males (collagen 3, matrix metalloproteinase 2, TIMP2, and TGFbeta2, all about twofold) after TAC. We confirmed 87% of the gene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction. By GO classification, female-specific genes were related to mitochondria and metabolism and males to matrix and biosynthesis. Promoter studies confirmed the upregulation of PGC-1 by E2. Less downregulation of metabolic genes in female hearts and increased protein synthesis capacity and deregulation of matrix remodeling in male hearts characterize the sex-specific early response to PO. These differences could contribute to subsequent sex differences in cardiac function and HF.
Project description:Recent data suggest adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, affects development of heart failure in response to hypertension. Severe short-term pressure overload [1-3 wk of transverse aortic constriction (TAC)] in adiponectin(-/-) mice causes greater left ventricle (LV) hypertrophy than in wild-type (WT) mice, but conflicting results are reported regarding LV remodeling, with either increased or decreased LV end diastolic volume compared with WT mice. Here we assessed the effects of prolonged TAC on LV hypertrophy and remodeling. WT and adiponectin(-/-) mice were subjected to TAC and maintained for 6 wk. Regardless of strain, TAC induced similar LV hypertrophy ( approximately 70%) and upregulation of mRNA for heart failure marker genes. However, LV chamber size was dramatically different, with classic LV dilation in WT TAC mice but concentric LV hypertrophy in adiponectin(-/-) mice. LV end diastolic and systolic volumes were lower and ejection fraction higher in adiponectin(-/-) TAC mice compared with WT, indicating that adiponectin deletion prevented LV remodeling and deterioration in systolic function. The activities of marker enzymes of mitochondrial oxidative capacity were reduced in WT TAC mice by approximately 35%, whereas enzyme activities were maintained at sham levels in adiponectin(-/-) TAC mice. In conclusion, in WT mice, long-term pressure overload caused dilated LV hypertrophy accompanied by decreased activity of mitochondrial oxidative enzymes. Although adiponectin deletion did not affect LV hypertrophy, it prevented LV chamber remodeling and preserved mitochondrial oxidative capacity, suggesting that adiponectin plays a permissive role in mediating changes in cardiac structure and metabolism in response to pressure overload.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The intracellular second messenger cGMP protects the heart under pathological conditions. We examined expression of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5), an enzyme that hydrolyzes cGMP, in human and mouse hearts subjected to sustained left ventricular (LV) pressure overload. We also determined the role of cardiac myocyte-specific PDE5 expression in adverse LV remodeling in mice after transverse aortic constriction (TAC). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) undergoing valve replacement, we detected greater myocardial PDE5 expression than in control hearts. We observed robust expression in scattered cardiac myocytes of those AS patients with higher LV filling pressures and BNP serum levels. Following TAC, we detected similar, focal PDE5 expression in cardiac myocytes of C57BL/6NTac mice exhibiting the most pronounced LV remodeling. To examine the effect of cell-specific PDE5 expression, we subjected transgenic mice with cardiac myocyte-specific PDE5 overexpression (PDE5-TG) to TAC. LV hypertrophy and fibrosis were similar as in WT, but PDE5-TG had increased cardiac dimensions, and decreased dP/dtmax and dP/dtmin with prolonged tau (P<0.05 for all). Greater cardiac dysfunction in PDE5-TG was associated with reduced myocardial cGMP and SERCA2 levels, and higher passive force in cardiac myocytes in vitro. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Myocardial PDE5 expression is increased in the hearts of humans and mice with chronic pressure overload. Increased cardiac myocyte-specific PDE5 expression is a molecular hallmark in hypertrophic hearts with contractile failure, and represents an important therapeutic target.
Project description:Insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor signaling pathways differentially modulate cardiac growth under resting conditions and following exercise training. These effects are mediated by insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and IRS2, which also differentially regulate resting cardiac mass. To determine the role of IRS isoforms in mediating the hypertrophic and metabolic adaptations of the heart to exercise training, we subjected mice with cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of either IRS1 (CIRS1 knockout [CIRS1KO] mice) or IRS2 (CIRS2KO mice) to swim training. CIRS1KO hearts were reduced in size under basal conditions, whereas CIRS2KO hearts exhibited hypertrophy. Following exercise swim training in CIRS1KO and CIRS2KO hearts, the hypertrophic response was equivalently attenuated, phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation was blunted, and prohypertrophic signaling intermediates, such as Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?), were dephosphorylated potentially on the basis of reduced Janus kinase-mediated inhibition of protein phosphatase 2a (PP2A). Exercise training increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1?) protein content, mitochondrial capacity, fatty acid oxidation, and glycogen synthesis in wild-type (WT) controls but not in IRS1- and IRS2-deficient hearts. PGC-1? protein content remained unchanged in CIRS1KO but decreased in CIRS2KO hearts. These results indicate that although IRS isoforms play divergent roles in the developmental regulation of cardiac size, these isoforms exhibit nonredundant roles in mediating the hypertrophic and metabolic response of the heart to exercise.