Sport and Physical Activity Level Impacts Health-Related Quality of Life Among Collegiate Students.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:To examine and compare the role of self-assessed sport and physical activity involvement on the health-related quality of life among undergraduate student-athletes and general undergraduate college students. DESIGN:Cross-sectional survey. Data set was examined for differences in physical and mental health by self-assessed sport and physical activity level. SETTING:Large Midwestern University in the fall of 2016. PARTICIPANTS:A combined data set representing undergraduate Division I student athletes (n = 842) and general undergraduate students (n = 1322). MEASURES:Veterans RAND 12 Item Health Survey (VR-12), as measure of health-related quality of life, comprised of physical component score (PCS) and mental component score (MCS). Self-assessed sport and physical activity level categorized as Division I athlete, club athlete, intramural player, student who works out regularly, or student who is physically inactive. ANALYSIS:Standard univariable statistics described the study population. Two-sample t tests and ?2 tests were conducted, as appropriate, to compare Division I student-athletes to the general undergraduate group. Multivariable linear regression models were then built to assess associations between physical activity level and year in school with VR-12 outcomes, after adjusting for sex. All pairwise interactions were considered for inclusion in the final models. Adjusted least-square means were calculated for all variables in the model; pairwise comparisons were adjusted for multiple comparisons via Tukey-Kramer adjustment criteria. A linear test for trend was also conducted for the association between VR-12 MCS and increasing physical activity. RESULTS:Significant differences in MCS were noted between levels of sport and physical activity; however, such differences were not detected in PCS. After controlling for sex, a positive relationship between increased sport and physical activity level and greater MCS was found. CONCLUSIONS:This study represents the first prospective assessment of health-related quality of life among undergraduate athletes and general college students. Higher levels of sport and physical activity were associated with more positive mental health in these populations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sport participation has many physical and psychosocial benefits, but there is also an inherent risk of injury, subsequent osteoarthritis and psychological challenges that can negatively impact quality of life (QOL). Considering the multifaceted impacts of sport participation on QOL across the lifespan, there is a need to consolidate and present the evidence on QOL in former sport participants. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate QOL and life satisfaction in former sport participants, and determine what factors are associated with QOL and life satisfaction in this population. METHODS:Eight electronic databases were systematically searched in July 2018 to retrieve all articles that evaluated QOL or life satisfaction in former sport participants. Two authors independently screened titles/abstracts and full texts, extracted data, and appraised methodological quality using a modified Downs and Black Checklist. Random-effects meta-analysis estimated pooled mean and 95% confidence intervals (Cis) for Mental Component Scores (MCS) and Physical Component Scores (PCS) derived from the SF-12, SF-36, VR-12 and VR-36 measures. MCS and PCS were pooled for all former sport participants, as well as professional- and collegiate-athlete subgroups. Data that were inappropriate for meta-analysis (i.e. EQ-5D, PROMIS and life-satisfaction outcomes) were collated and reported descriptively. RESULTS:Seventeen articles evaluated QOL or life satisfaction in a total of 6692 former athletes [eight studies (n?=?4255) former professional athletes; six studies (n?=?1946) former collegiate athletes; two studies (n?=?491) included both] with a mean age ranging from 21 to 66 years. Most studies were cross-sectional (15 of 17 articles) and 12 studies had a moderate risk of bias (n?=?1 high-risk, n?=?4 low-risk). Unpublished data were provided for five studies. Meta-analysis of seven studies resulted in a pooled PCS mean (95% CI) of 50.0 (46.6-53.3) [former professional athletes from two studies: 46.7 (42.1-51.2), former collegiate athletes from five studies: 51.2 (48.4-53.9)] and a pooled MCS of 51.4 (50.5-52.2) [former professional athletes: 52.7 (51.3-54.2), former collegiate athletes: 50.9 (50.0-51.8)]. Factors associated with worse QOL or life satisfaction in former athletes included involuntary retirement from sport (three studies), collision/high-contact sport compared with low/no-contact sport (three studies), three or more concussions compared with no/fewer concussions (two studies), increased body mass index (BMI) (worse PCS, three studies), and osteoarthritis or musculoskeletal issues (worse PCS and MCS, three studies; worse PCS but not MCS, two studies). CONCLUSIONS:Former athletes had similar PCS and better MCS, compared to general-population norms. Former athletes with impaired PCS reported better MCS than population norms, highlighting the need to use an instrument that differentiates between physical and mental components of QOL in former sport participants. Factors associated with worse QOL that may explain between-study variation include involuntary retirement, collision/high contact sports, concussion, BMI and osteoarthritis. PROSPERO:CRD42018104319.
Project description:There is a dearth of research on the current health of former collegiate athletes.To examine the current health and related correlates in a cohort of former collegiate athletes who played in a diverse range of men's and women's sports with various levels of contact.Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3.Former collegiate athletes (N = 3657) were asked to complete an online questionnaire addressing sports history, medical history, and demographics. The questionnaire also included the Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey (VR-12), which yielded 2 composite scores for physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) health. The VR-12 PCS and MCS scores were compared with published US normative data using t tests and analyses of variance.Mean PCS and MCS scores of the 797 respondents with complete data (21.9% of target sample; average, 14.5 years since last played collegiate sport) were 53.0 ± 6.1 and 51.7 ± 9.4, respectively. When stratified by age and sex, PCS and MCS scores were similar to normative scores in the United States. Lower PCS scores were associated with sustaining ?3 concussions, playing in collision sports during college, and sustaining a career-ending injury (all, P < .001). No association was found between concussion and MCS scores (P = .06). Among former collegiate athletes, prevalent medical conditions included anxiety (16.2%), hypercholesterolemia/high cholesterol (10.6%), and depression (10.4%). Additionally, 5.8% screened positive for alcohol dependence, and 5.8% screened positive for disordered eating (eg, binge eating, purging). These findings were more prevalent than those reported by the World Health Organization as representative of the US population. Conversely, there was a lower prevalence of depression, bipolar disorders, and attention deficit disorder, with or without hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD), than in the World Health Organization US population data sample.Former collegiate athletes appear similar to the general US population on many aspects of mental and physical health. However, observed health deficits associated with previous sports injuries warrant ongoing monitoring of the health and well-being of former collegiate athletes.
Project description:PURPOSE:Physical distancing measures to combat the spread of the novel coronavirus have presented challenges for the mental health and well-being of college students. As campus activities ceased, student-athletes abruptly became isolated from teammates and were no longer able to participate in sport activities that are often central to their identity as an athlete. However, student-athletes who have supportive social connections with teammates during this pandemic may maintain their athletic identity to a greater extent and report better mental health. The present study examined how student-athletes' mental health was associated with teammate social support, connectedness, and changes to athletic identity from before to during COVID-19. METHOD:A sample of 234 student-athletes completed surveys before COVID-19 physical distancing (February 2020), with 135 (63% female) participating in a follow-up in the month following school closures (April 2020). Path models estimated the effects of teammate social support and connectedness (during COVID-19), as well as changes in athletic identity on indices of mental health. RESULTS:Considering all path models tested, student-athletes who received more social support and reported more connectedness with teammates reported less dissolution of their athletic identity and-in most models-reported better mental health and well-being. Indirect effects indicated that student-athletes' change in athletic identity mediated the effects of teammate social support on psychological well-being and depression symptoms. CONCLUSIONS:In addition to advancing theory on how small groups relate to mental health, these findings demonstrate the value in remaining socially connected with peers and maintaining role identities during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Project description:Movement competency (MC) development of high-school athletes can prepare them for the requirements of physical preparation training and the demands of sport. The aim of this study was to explore the physical effects of and athlete compliance to coach-led versus self-directed training approaches in this population. Thirty-nine high-school athletes (19 male, 14.5 ± 0.3 years old; 20 female, 14.6 ± 0.3 years) were allocated into two groups for a physical preparation program to improve MC. Groups were prescribed either (i) one face-to-face and one online (F2F, n = 18), or (ii) two online (OL, n = 21) sessions per week for 16-weeks. Before and after the intervention, the Athlete Introductory Movement Screen (AIMS) was used to assess MC alongside common physical capacity measures (triple-hop, star-excursion balance, medicine ball throw, 40m sprint and countermovement jump). Dropout left 22 participants with pre-post physical scores. Compliance with online training was low and F2F session attendance moderate. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to assess participant perceptions following the intervention. Assessing individual responses, the F2F group had a higher proportion of positive responders to AIMS scores, yet capacity measures were inconclusive across groups. Face-to-face coaching when acquiring MCs as part of physical preparation, may provide greater positive perceptions towards training compared to self-directed online prescriptions, and thereby greater compliance.
Project description:Background:Coaches have the potential to support athlete mental wellness, but many are unsure what to do and concerned they may unintentionally engage in behaviours that negatively impact their athletes. Education has the potential to help coaches engage in primary, secondary and tertiary preventive behaviours related to athlete mental health; however, there exists no empirical or consensus basis for specifying the target behaviours that should be included in such education. Objective:The aim of this research was to review extant literature about the role of sport coaches in mental health prevention and promotion, and obtain expert consensus about useful, appropriate and feasible coach behaviours. Design:Modified Delphi methodology with exploration (ie, narrative review) and evaluation phase. Data sources:Twenty-one articles from PubMed, PsycINFO and ProQuest, and grey literature published by prominent sport organisations. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies:All studies were English-language articles that focused on the role of coaches as they relate to (1) culture setting in sport, (2) addressing athlete mental health and (3) providing ongoing support to athletes with mental health concerns. No study design, publication date limits or sport characteristics were applied. Results:The coach's role should include fostering team cultures that support athlete mental health, encouraging care-seeking and supporting athletes currently receiving mental healthcare. Summary/Conclusion:The behaviours specified herein have implications for coach education programme development. This study is the first to use a structured Delphi process to develop specific recommendations about the role coaches can play in supporting athlete mental health.
Project description:Even though sport satisfaction has proved an important element for youngsters to keep practicing sports, little is known on the sport satisfaction of coaches. Moreover, the coach-athlete relationship is acknowledged as a key element for sport success, but whether its importance is the same for coaches and athletes is yet to be investigated. Our study analyzed the mediating role of the coach-athlete relationship in associating the satisfaction of basic psychological needs and sport satisfaction of Brazilian coaches and athletes. 364 coaches and athletes participated in the study representing 182 dyads from different sports according to the following instruments: Basic Needs Satisfaction Sport Scale (BNSSS), Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire, athlete and coach versions (CART-Q), and the Athletic Satisfaction Questionnaire (ASQ). Data analysis followed a Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with a significance level of p < 0.05, generating results in which the mediating model for coaches was not adequately fit, while the direct model, without mediation, was adequately fit and explained 48% of sport satisfaction variance. For athletes, the mediating model has shown adequate fit and explained 81% of the sport satisfaction variance, leading us to conclude that the quality of the coach-athlete relationship can be considered a determining factor for the satisfaction of young Brazilian athletes' basic psychological needs as well as sport satisfaction, but proved not as relevant to their coaches.
Project description:Background:Poor oral health of elite athletes is common and is associated with negative performance impacts. There is a need for oral health promotion strategies that are effective within the elite sport environment. Aim:To develop, implement and evaluate a pragmatic oral health promotion intervention that integrated the capability, opportunity, motivation and behaviour model of behavioural change into the knowledge transfer system for effective implementation of preventive interventions. Methods:Repeated measures study. Athletes and support team together viewed one 10?min presentation and three 90?s information films. Athletes alone received oral health screening, personalised advice and an oral health toolkit. Outcome measures included: (1) oral health knowledge, athlete-reported performance impacts (Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre, OSTRC score), use of oral hygiene aids, gingival inflammation (bleeding) score, recorded at baseline, 4-6 weeks and 12-16 weeks and (2) athlete feedback. Results:We recruited 62 athletes; 44 (71%) male and 58 (93.5%) white British, 55 (88.7%) athletes completed the study. Mean knowledge score improved from 5.69 (1.59) to 6.93 (1.32) p<0.001. Mean OSTRC score reduced from 8.73 (14.54) to 2.73 (11.31) p<0.001. Athlete use of prescription strength fluoride toothpaste increased from 8 (12.9%) to 45 (80.4%) p<0.001. Athlete-reported use of interdental cleaning aids at least 2-3?x week increased from 10 (16.2%) to 21 (34%) p=0.013. Bleeding score remained unchanged. Conclusion:This behavioural change intervention was successfully implemented within different elite sport environments. It was associated with an increase in athlete oral health knowledge, enhanced oral health behaviour, a reduction in self-reported performance impacts and high participant retention.
Project description:BACKGROUND::The development of athlete-specific electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation standards, along with recent rates of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in athletes being higher than previously estimated, has heightened the debate in the sports medicine community regarding cardiovascular screening of the college athlete, including whether certain high-risk subsets, such as male basketball athletes, should undergo more intensive screening. HYPOTHESIS::ECG and/or echocardiography screening in National Collegiate Athletic Association Autonomous 5 Division I (A5DI) schools will be more common than previous reports, and there will be more frequent use of noninvasive cardiac screening for men's basketball players than the general athlete population. STUDY DESIGN::Cross-sectional, quantitative study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE::Level 4. METHODS::The head team physician for each of the 65 schools in the A5DI conferences was contacted to complete an anonymous survey regarding cardiovascular screening practices at their institution. The survey inquired about current screening protocols, whether SCD epidemiology (SCD-E) was considered in establishing those practices, and whether awareness of present epidemiology altered physician attitudes toward screening. RESULTS::A total of 45 of the 65 team physicians (69%) responded. All schools reported performing history and a physical evaluation. While 17 (38%) perform only history and physical, 26 (58%) also include an ECG, and 12 (27%) include echocardiography for all student-athletes. Specifically for male basketball athletes, 10 (22%) schools perform only history and physical, 32 (71%) include ECG, and 20 (45%) include echocardiography. Additionally, 64% reported using SCD-E in developing their screening protocol. Those that had not considered SCD-E indicated they were unlikely to change their screening protocol when presented with current SCD-E. CONCLUSION::The majority (62%) of A5DI institutions include ECG and/or echocardiography as part of their cardiovascular screening of all athletes, increasing to 78% when specifically analyzing male basketball athletes. CLINICAL RELEVANCE::A5DI institutions, presumably with greater resources, have largely implemented more intensive cardiovascular screening than just history and physical for all student-athletes and specifically for men's basketball-the athlete group at greatest risk.
Project description:Students in Higher Education report high levels of mental health issues and psychological distress. Paradoxical findings on performance-orientated students, such as athletes and musicians, suggest that the demands of highly skilled vocations may enhance wellbeing while being detrimental to physical and mental health. To provide timely and appropriate help, institutions need to understand what areas of health and wellbeing are compromised in different student groups. In this study, we compared performance-orientated (music and sport) students to other students and the general population on a selection of wellbeing (WHO5, PWS, and WEMWBS), mental and physical health (K10, SF12, and PHQ9), and trait measures (TIPI, LOT-R, and PCS). Through an online survey (N = 273), data were collected from bachelor and master students (n = 135 music, n = 67 sport, n = 71 controls). Students' scores were compared to the general population, where norm values were available, and analyzed within and between groups. Multiple regression was performed to investigate trait measures as predictors of wellbeing. All groups scored significantly below population norms for wellbeing and mental health. One third were classed as having moderate to severe depression. Musicians scored higher openness to experience than athletes. While sport students showed a highly homogenous within-group profile, music students' scores differed significantly across study courses (e.g., performance and composition). Predictors for wellbeing were: optimism and emotional stability (all students); additionally conscientiousness (sport and music); and perceived competence (music only). As expected, students reported more health and wellbeing issues than general population. Distinct profiles of wellbeing were apparent for performance-orientated students. Results are in line with Self Determination Theory and suggest the need for institutions to embed health and wellbeing into a 'living curriculum' to accommodate the needs of different student groups. The WHO5 emerged as a parsimonious yet sensitive measure for mental health and wellbeing in student populations.
Project description:Psychological science faces a call to action researching the implications of the corona virus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic. Rapid reviews have reported that maintaining rigorous research standards is a priority for the field, such as ensuring reliable and valid measurement, when investigating people's experience of Covid-19 (O'Connor et al., 2020). However, no research to date has validated a measure mental health symptomology for an athlete population. The current research addresses this gap by examining the internal consistency, factor structure, invariance, and convergent validity of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21; Lovibond and Lovibond, 1995) in two athlete samples. Participants completed the DASS-21 and sport-specific measures of mental health such as the Profile of Mood States - Depression subscale (POMS-D), Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2), Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ), and Athlete Psychological Strain Questionnaire (APSQ). In sample one (n = 894), results of exploratory structural equation modeling indicated that a three-factor model provided good fit to the data, but a bifactor model provided better fit. Factor loadings indicated minimal misspecification and higher loadings on the general-factor. Invariance testing suggested equivalence across gender, athletic expertise, sport type, and injury status. Further, latent mean differences analyses indicated that females and injured athletes scored higher than male and non-injured athletes on all DASS-21 factors reporting higher mental health symptomology, those with more expertise scored higher on the general-factor and depression and those with less expertise scored higher on anxiety and stress, and no differences between team and individual athletes. In sample two (n = 589), the bifactor structure was replicated. Results largely supported the scales convergent validity with depression predicting POMS-D scores, whereas all three subscales predicted the SAS-2, ABQ, and APSQ scores. Internal consistency was acceptable in both samples. The current work provides initial support for use of the DASS-21 as an operationalisation of mental health symptomology in athletes. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.