Estimating abortion incidence and unintended pregnancy among adolescents in Zimbabwe, 2016: a cross-sectional study.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To estimate age-specific abortion incidence and unintended pregnancy in Zimbabwe, and to examine differences among adolescents by marital status and residence. DESIGN:We used a variant of the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology, an indirect estimation approach, to estimate age-specific abortion incidence. We used three surveys: the Health Facility Survey, a census of 227 facilities that provide postabortion care (PAC); the Health Professional Survey, a purposive sample of key informants knowledgeable about abortion (n=118) and the Prospective Morbidity Survey of PAC patients (n=1002). SETTING:PAC-providing health facilities in Zimbabwe. PARTICIPANTS:Healthcare providers in PAC-providing facilities and women presenting to facilities with postabortion complications. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:The primary outcome measure was abortion incidence (in rates and ratios). The secondary outcome measure was the proportion of unintended pregnancies that end in abortion. RESULTS:Adolescent women aged 15-19 years had the lowest abortion rate at five abortions per 1000 women aged 15-19 years compared with other age groups. Adolescents living in urban areas had a higher abortion ratio compared with adolescents in rural areas, and unmarried adolescent women had a higher abortion ratio compared with married adolescents. Unintended pregnancy levels were similar across age groups, and adolescent women had the lowest proportion of unintended pregnancies that ended in induced abortion (9%) compared with other age groups. CONCLUSIONS:This paper provides the first estimates of age-specific abortion and unintended pregnancy in Zimbabwe. Despite similar levels of unintended pregnancy across age groups, these findings suggest that adolescent women have abortions at lower rates and carry a higher proportion of unintended pregnancies to term than older women. Adolescent women are also not a homogeneous group, and youth-focused reproductive health programmes should consider the differences in experiences and barriers to care among young people that affect their ability to decide whether and when to parent.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Zimbabwe has the highest contraceptive prevalence rate in sub-Saharan Africa, but also one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world. Little is known, however, about the incidence of abortion and post-abortion care (PAC) in Zimbabwe. Access to legal abortion is rare, and limited to circumstances of rape, incest, fetal impairment, or to save the woman's life.<h4>Objectives</h4>This paper estimates a) the national provision of PAC, b) the first-ever national incidence of induced abortion in Zimbabwe, and c) the proportion of pregnancies that are unintended.<h4>Methods</h4>We use the Abortion Incidence Complications Method (AICM), which indirectly estimates the incidence of induced abortion by obtaining a national estimate of PAC cases, and then estimates what proportion of all induced abortions in the country would result in women receiving PAC. Three national surveys were conducted in 2016: a census of health facilities with PAC capacity (n = 227), a prospective survey of women seeking abortion-related care in a nationally-representative sample of those facilities (n = 127 facilities), and a purposive sample of experts knowledgeable about abortion in Zimbabwe (n = 118). The estimate of induced abortion, along with census and Demographic Health Survey data was used to estimate unintended pregnancy.<h4>Results</h4>There were an estimated 25,245 PAC patients treated in Zimbabwe in 2016, but there were critical gaps in their care, including stock-outs of essential PAC medicines at half of facilities. Approximately 66,847 induced abortions (uncertainty interval (UI): 54,000-86,171) occurred in Zimbabwe in 2016, which translates to a national rate of 17.8 (UI: 14.4-22.9) abortions per 1,000 women 15-49. Overall, 40% of pregnancies were unintended in 2016, and one-quarter of all unintended pregnancies ended in abortion.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Zimbabwe has one of the lowest abortion rates in sub-Saharan Africa, likely due to high rates of contraceptive use. There are gaps in the health care system affecting the provision of quality PAC, potentially due to the prolonged economic crisis. These findings can inform and improve policies and programs addressing unsafe abortion and PAC in Zimbabwe.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Abortion complications cause significant morbidity and mortality. We aimed to assess the severity and factors associated with abortion complications (induced or spontaneous), and the management of postabortion care (PAC) in Zimbabwe. DESIGN:Prospective, facility-based 28 day survey among women seeking PAC and their providers. SETTING:127 facilities in Zimbabwe with the capacity to provide PAC, including all central and provincial hospitals, and a sample of primary health centres (30%), district/general/mission hospitals (52%), private (77%) and non-governmental organisation (NGO) (68%) facilities. PARTICIPANTS:1002 women presenting with abortion complications during the study period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Severity of abortion complications and associated factors, delays in care seeking, and clinical management of complications. RESULTS:Overall, 59% of women had complications classified as mild, 19% as moderate, 19% as severe, 3% as near miss and 0.2% died. A median of 47?hours elapsed between experiencing complication and receiving treatment; many delays were due to a lack of finances. Women who were rural, younger, not in union, less educated, at later gestational ages or who had more children were significantly more likely to have higher severity complications. Most women were treated by doctors (91%). The main management procedure used was dilatation and curettage/dilatation and evacuation (75%), while 12% had manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) or electrical vacuum aspiration and 11% were managed with misoprostol. At discharge, providers reported that 43% of women received modern contraception. CONCLUSION:Zimbabwean women experience considerable abortion-related morbidity, particularly young, rural or less educated women. Abortion-related morbidity and concomitant mortality could be reduced in Zimbabwe by liberalising the abortion law, providing PAC in primary health centres, and training nurses to use medical evacuation with misoprostol and MVA. Regular in-service training on PAC guidelines with follow-up audits are needed to ensure compliance and availability of equipment, supplies and trained staff.
Project description:In 2005, Ethiopia's parliament amended the penal code to expand the circumstances in which abortion is legal. Although the country has expanded access to abortion and postabortion care, the last estimates of abortion incidence date from 2008.Data were collected in 2014 from a nationally representative sample of 822 facilities that provide abortion or postabortion care, and from 82 key informants knowledgeable about abortion services in Ethiopia. The Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology and the Prospective Morbidity Methodology were used to estimate the incidence of abortion in Ethiopia and assess trends since 2008.An estimated 620,300 induced abortions were performed in Ethiopia in 2014. The annual abortion rate was 28 per 1,000 women aged 15-49, an increase from 22 per 1,000 in 2008, and was highest in urban regions (Addis Ababa, Dire Dawa and Harari). Between 2008 and 2014, the proportion of abortions occurring in facilities rose from 27% to 53%, and the number of such abortions increased substantially; nonetheless, an estimated 294,100 abortions occurred outside of health facilities in 2014. The number of women receiving treatment for complications from induced abortion nearly doubled between 2008 and 2014, from 52,600 to 103,600. Thirty-eight percent of pregnancies were unintended in 2014, a slight decline from 42% in 2008.Although the increases in the number of women obtaining legal abortions and postabortion care are consistent with improvements in women's access to health care, a substantial number of abortions continue to occur outside of health facilities, a reality that must be addressed.
Project description:PURPOSE:The 2005 expansion of the Ethiopian abortion law provided minors access to legal abortions, yet little is known about abortion among adolescents. This paper estimates the incidence of legal and clandestine abortions and the severity of abortion-related complications among adolescent and nonadolescent women in Ethiopia in 2014. METHODS:This paper uses data from three surveys: a Health Facility Survey (n?=?822) to collect data on legal abortions and postabortion complications, a Health Professionals Survey (n?=?82) to estimate the share of clandestine abortions that resulted in treated complications, and a Prospective Data Survey (n?=?5,604) to collect data on abortion care clients. An age-specific variant of the Abortion Incidence Complications Method was used to estimate abortions by age-group. RESULTS:Adolescents have the lowest abortion rate among all women below age 35 (19.6 per 1,000 women). After adjusting for lower levels of sexual activity among adolescents however, we find that adolescents have the highest abortion rate among all age-groups. Adolescents also have the highest proportion (64%) of legal abortions compared with other age-groups. We find no differences in the severity of abortion-related complications between adolescent and nonadolescent women. CONCLUSIONS:We find no evidence that adolescents are more likely than older women to have clandestine abortions. However, the higher abortion and pregnancy rates among sexually active adolescents suggest that they face barriers in access to and use of contraceptive services. Further work is needed to address the persistence of clandestine abortions among adolescents in a context where safe and legal abortion is available.
Project description:Adolescent pregnancy represents a serious public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa, and stigmatising attitudes are contributing factors. This study investigates stigmatising attitudes related to adolescent pregnancy, abortion and contraceptive use among healthcare providers working with postabortion care (PAC) in a low-resource setting in Kenya.A mixed methods approach in a convergent design was utilised to capture attitudes related to abortion and contraceptive use among 86 (f=62; m=19) PAC providers in Kisumu, Kenya. Two Likert-scale questionnaires were used: the 18-item Stigmatising Attitudes, Beliefs and Actions Scale (SABAS) and the 7-item Contraceptive Use Stigma Scale (CUSS). 74 PAC providers responded to the SABAS, 44 to the CUSS and 12 participated in two focus group discussions. Descriptive statistics, psychometric tests of instruments and qualitative content analysis were conducted and reported in accordance with Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research.Cronbach's ? coefficients for the total instrument was 0.88 (SABAS) and 0.84 (CUSS). The majority, 92% (68/74) agreed that a woman who has had an abortion should be treated equally to everyone else, 27% (20/74) considered abortion a sin and 30% (22/74) believed she will make abortion a habit. Contraceptive use among adolescent women was associated with promiscuity (39%; 17/44), hence contraceptives should only be available to married women (36%; 16/44), and 20% (9/44) believed that contraceptive use causes infertility. The providers encouraged women's autonomy and their rights to sexual and reproductive health; however, unclear regulations reinforce religious and cultural beliefs, which hampers implementation of evidence-based contraceptive counselling.Stigmatising attitudes towards young women in need of abortion and contraception is common among PAC providers. Their work is characterised by a conflict between human rights and societal norms, thus highlighting the need for interventions targeting PAC providers to reduce stigma and misconceptions related to abortion and contraception among adolescent women.
Project description:Integrating voluntary family planning into postabortion care (PAC) presents a critical opportunity to reduce future unintended pregnancies. Although Guinea has low contraceptive prevalence overall, acceptance of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) among PAC clients is higher than among interval LARC users and higher than the national average. In 2014, we assessed the extent of LARC provision within PAC services and the factors influencing integration. Primary and secondary data collected from 143 interviews, 75 provider assessments, and facility inventories and service statistics from all 38 public facilities providing PAC in Guinea allowed exploration of voluntary family planning uptake in the context of PAC. Study findings showed that 38 of 456 (8.3%) public health facilities or 38 of 122 (31.1%) facilities with a mandate to manage obstetric complications provided PAC services. Service statistics from 4,544 PAC clients in 2013 indicate that 95.2% received counseling and 73.0% voluntarily left the facility with contraception, with 29.6% of acceptors choosing a LARC. Family planning within PAC was emphasized in advocacy, policy and guidelines, quality improvement, and supervision, and the range of contraceptive options for postabortion clients was expanded to enable them to avoid a second unintended pregnancy. Factors that influenced provision of family planning within PAC included (1) the ability of champions both within and outside the Ministry of Public Health to advocate for PAC and leverage donor resources, (2) the incorporation of PAC with postabortion family planning into national policies, standards, and guidelines, (3) training of large numbers of providers in PAC and LARCs, and (4) integration of LARCs within PAC into quality improvement and supervision tools and performance standards. Guinea has gradually scaled up provision of PAC services nationwide and its experience may offer learning opportunities for other countries; however, continued advocacy for further expansion to more rural areas of the country and among private health facilities is necessary.
Project description:Although abortion has been legal under broad criteria in Nepal since 2002, a significant proportion of women continue to obtain illegal, unsafe abortions, and no national estimates exist of the incidence of safe and unsafe abortions.Data were collected in 2014 from a nationally representative sample of 386 facilities that provide legal abortions or postabortion care and a survey of 134 health professionals knowledgeable about abortion service provision. Facility caseloads and indirect estimation techniques were used to calculate the national and regional incidence of legal and illegal abortion. National and regional levels of abortion complications and unintended pregnancy were also estimated.In 2014, women in Nepal had 323,100 abortions, of which 137,000 were legal, and 63,200 women were treated for abortion complications. The abortion rate was 42 per 1,000 women aged 15-49, and the abortion ratio was 56 per 100 live births. The abortion rate in the Central region (59 per 1,000) was substantially higher than the national average. Overall, 50% of pregnancies were unintended, and the unintended pregnancy rate was 68 per 1,000 women of reproductive age.Despite legalization of abortion and expansion of services in Nepal, unsafe abortion is still common and exacts a heavy toll on women. Programs and policies to reduce rates of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion, increase access to high-quality contraceptive care and expand safe abortion services are warranted.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Abortion is termination of pregnancy before the viability of the pregnancy. It is one of the major causes for maternal mortality in the world and in Ethiopia. Unintended pregnancies which end up in abortion occur due to contraception method nonuse or misuse. To limit unintended pregnancies and avoid repeated abortions promoting immediate postabortion contraception is crucial.<h4>Objective</h4>To assess the proportion of postabortion contraception acceptance among women who got abortion care service and factors associated with it in Marie stopes international clinic and Dessie health center, Dessie, North eastern Amhara, 2017.<h4>Methods</h4>An institutional based cross-sectional study design was conducted from May 1 to May 30, 2017, at Marie stopes international clinics and Dessie health center. A sample of 125 women were selected by means of systematic sampling techniques and 118 abortion clients were interviewed in Marie stopes international clinic and Dessie on the use/acceptance of postabortion family planning (PAFP). Data were collected through pretested structured questionnaire. Data was cleaned and checked. Chi-square test was done to assess the association between dependent and independent variables. Odds ratio was done to assess the strength of association. Frequency tables, pie chart, and graphs were used to present the finding of the study.<h4>Results</h4>From a total of 125 participants recruited, 118 participated in the study while 7 were unwilling to participate in the study, yielding the response rate of 94.4%. Among the 118 study participants, 79 (66.9%) were within the age group 25-34. This study found a strong positive association between Postabortion contraception acceptance and age [P = <i>0.007</i> [X<sup>2</sup> test= <i>9.989,</i> COR=2.625)]. Study subjects aged 15-24 years were 3 times more likely to accept postabortion family planning as compared with those aged >35 years.<h4>Conclusion and recommendation</h4>This study revealed that the acceptance of postabortion family planning method was 84%. Age of women, marital status, ever use of history family planning, involvement of others in decision making, and family planning counseling were significantly associated with postabortion family planning acceptance. Therefore it is better to give emphasis on health education about family planning.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In 2010-2014, approximately 86% of abortions took place in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although abortion incidence varies minimally across geographical regions, it varies widely by subregion and within countries by subgroups of women. Differential abortion levels stem from variation in the level of unintended pregnancies and in the likelihood that women with unintended pregnancies obtain abortions.<h4>Objectives</h4>To examine the characteristics of women obtaining induced abortions in LMICs.<h4>Methods</h4>We use data from official statistics, population-based surveys, and abortion patient surveys to examine variation in the percentage distribution of abortions and abortion rates by age at abortion, marital status, parity, wealth, education, and residence. We analyze data from five countries in Africa, 13 in Asia, eight in Europe, and two in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC).<h4>Results</h4>Women across all sociodemographic subgroups obtain abortions. In most countries, women aged 20-29 obtained the highest proportion of abortions, and while adolescents obtained a substantial fraction of abortions, they do not make up a disproportionate share. Region-specific patterns were observed in the distribution of abortions by parity. In many countries, a higher fraction of abortions occurred among women of high socioeconomic status, as measured by wealth status, educational attainment, and urban residence. Due to limited data on marital status, it is unknown whether married or unmarried women make up a larger share of abortions.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These findings help to identify subgroups of women with disproportionate levels of abortion, and can inform policies and programs to reduce the incidence of unintended pregnancies; and in LMICs that have restrictive abortion laws, these findings can also inform policies to minimize the consequences of unsafe abortion and motivate liberalization of abortion laws. Program planners, policymakers, and advocates can use this information to improve access to safe abortion services, postabortion care, and contraceptive services.
Project description:In Ethiopia, liberalization of the abortion law in 2005 led to changes in abortion services. It is important to examine how levels and types of abortion care-i.e., legal abortion and treatment of abortion complications-changed over time.Between December 2013 and May 2014, data were collected on symptoms, procedures and treatment from 5,604 women who sought abortion care at a sample of 439 public and private health facilities; the sample did not include lower-level private facilities-some of which provide abortion care-to maintain comparability with the sample from a 2008 study. These data were combined with monitoring data from 105,806 women treated in 74 nongovernmental organization facilities in 2013. Descriptive analyses were conducted and annual estimates were calculated to compare the numbers and types of abortion care services provided in 2008 and 2014.The estimated annual number of women seeking a legal abortion in the types of facilities sampled increased from 158,000 in 2008 to 220,000 in 2014, and the estimated number presenting for postabortion care increased from 58,000 to 125,000. The proportion of abortion care provided in the public sector increased from 36% to 56% nationally. The proportion of women presenting for postabortion care who had severe complications rose from 7% to 11%, the share of all abortion procedures accounted for by medical abortion increased from 0% to 36%, and the proportion of abortion care provided by midlevel health workers increased from 48% to 83%. Most women received postabortion contraception.Ethiopia has made substantial progress in expanding comprehensive abortion care; however, eradication of morbidity from unsafe abortion has not yet been achieved.