Ten-year trends in antibiotic usage at a tertiary care hospital in Korea, 2004 to 2013.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND/AIMS:This study was performed to evaluate trends in antibiotic usage at a tertiary care hospital in Korea. METHODS:This study collated antibiotic prescription data and total patient days for inpatients at a tertiary care hospital in Korea between 2004 and 2013. The consumption of each class of antibiotic was converted to defined daily dose (DDD)/1,000 patient-days. We defined 3rd generation cephalosporins, 4th generation cephalosporins, ?-lactam/?-lactamase inhibitors, and fluoroquinolones as broad-spectrum antibiotics; carbapenems, tigecycline, glycopeptides, oxazolidinone, and polymyxin were defined as antibiotics against multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. Other antibiotic classes were defined as nonbroad-spectrum antibiotics. RESULTS:Mean antibiotic consumption was 920.69 DDD/1,000 patient-days. The proportions of broad-spectrum antibiotics, antibiotics against MDR pathogens, and nonbroad-spectrum antibiotics were 41.8% (384.48/920.69), 3.5% (32.24/920.69), and 54.7% (503.97/920.69), respectively. Consumption of broad-spectrum antibiotics (coefficient for time 0.141; p = 0.049) and antibiotics against MDR pathogens (coefficient for time 0.185; p < 0.001) showed a significant increasing trend over the study period. Nonbroad-spectrum antibiotic consumption showed a significant decreasing trend over the study period (coefficient for time -2.601; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION:Over the 10-year period, a stepwise increase in the consumption of broad-spectrum antibiotics and antibiotics against MDR pathogens was observed at a tertiary care hospital in Korea. Conversely, during the same period, nonbroad-spectrum antibiotic consumption showed a significant decreasing trend.
Project description:The aim of this study was to evaluate the changing pattern of antibiotic usage and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial pathogens among hospitalized patients in Korea. We simultaneously investigated the correlation between antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic consumption.Data on total antibiotic prescriptions, patient days, and antimicrobial sensitivity tests among inpatients from 6 university hospitals in Korea in 2004, 2008, and 2012 were collected. The consumption of each antibiotic class was converted to defined daily dose/1000 patient-days by using the anatomical therapeutic chemical classification system by the World Health Organization. We defined third-generation cephalosporins (3rd CEPs), fourth-generation cephalosporins, beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors, and fluoroquinolones (FQs) as broad-spectrum antibiotics and carbapenems, tigecycline, glycopeptides, oxazolidinone, and polymyxin as antibiotics against multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens.A 15.1% decrease in total antibiotic consumption was observed in 2012 compared to that observed in 2004. In contrast, a 10.2% and 70.7% increase in broad-spectrum antibiotics and antibiotics against MDR pathogens were observed, respectively, in the same period. The resistance rate of Escherichia coli to 3rd CEPs (17.6% in 2004, 21.7% in 2008, and 33.8% in 2012, P?<.001) and ciprofloxacin (37.5% in 2004, 38.7% in 2008, and 46.6% in 2012, P?=?.001) demonstrated a significantly increasing trend. Similarly, the resistance rate of Klebsiella pneumoniae to 3rd CEPs (34.3% in 2004, 33.7% in 2008, and 44.5% in 2012, P?<.001) gradually increased. Resistance of Acinetobacter baumanii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to imipenem significantly increased throughout the study period (A baumanii: 8.9% in 2004, 40.8% in 2008, and 65.3% in 2012, P?<.001; P aeruginosa: 25.1% in 2004, 31.5% in 2008, and 29.7% in 2008, P?=?.050).The consumption of carbapenems and FQs demonstrated significant positive correlation for resistance of E coli or K pneumoniae to 3rd CEPs as well as E coli or K pneumoniae to ciprofloxacin. Increasing resistance of A baumanii to ciprofloxacin was significantly correlated with increasing consumption of FQs; increasing resistance of A baumanii to imipenem was significantly correlated with increasing consumption of carbapenems.In conclusion, overall antimicrobial resistance increased and consumption of broad-spectrum antibiotics and antibiotics against MDR pathogens subsequently increased in Korean hospitals.
Project description:China has a high rate of antibiotic use. The Chinese Ministry of Health (MOH) established the Center for Antibacterial Surveillance (CAS) to monitor the use of antibacterial agents in hospitals in 2005. The purpose of this study was to identify trends, pattern changes and regional differences in antibiotic consumption in 151 public general tertiary hospitals across China from 2011-2014.Valid data for antibiotic use were collected quarterly, and the antibiotic consumption data were expressed as the defined daily dose (DDD) per 100 inpatient days (ID). We compared the patterns of antibiotic use in different classes and geographical clusters.Total antibiotic use significantly decreased (P = 0.018) from 75.86 DDD/100 ID in 2011 to 47.03 DDD/100 ID in 2014. The total consumption of flomoxef sodium and cefminox increased from 1.31 DDD/100 BD in 2011 to 8.6 DDD/100 BD in 2014. Cephalosporins were the most frequently used antibiotics in all regions. Third-generation cephalosporins accounted for more than 45% of the cephalosporins used. Carbapenem use substantially increased (P = 0.043). Penicillin combinations with inhibitors accounted for 50% of the penicillin used, and prescribed meropenem accounted for most of the carbapenems used in all regions in 2014. The subclasses in each antibiotic group were used differently between the seven regions, and the total hospital antibiotic use in 2014 differed significantly by region (P = 0.014).Although the volume and intensity of total antibiotic use decreased, the antibiotic use patterns were not optimal, and broad-spectrum antibiotics were still the main classes. The aggregate data obtained during the study period reveal similar antibiotic consumption patterns in different regions. These findings provide useful information for improving the rational use of antibiotics. More detailed data on antibiotics linked to inpatient diseases need to be collected in future studies.
Project description:Antibiotics are commonly prescribed in community and hospital care. Overuse and misuse favors emergence and spread of resistant bacteria. The ATC/DDD methodology is commonly used for presenting the drug utilization data. In primary care, the consumption is usually expressed in DDD per 1,000 inhabitants per day, in hospital, preferably in DDD per 100 bed days and DDD per 100 admissions. The alternative metric is days of therapy (DOT), which needs IT support. Antibiotics have ecological adverse effects at individual and population level. Antibiotics select resistant bacteria among pathogens and normal flora. Broad-spectrum antibiotics, low dosage and prolonged antibiotic therapy favor the development of resistance. Although total use of antibiotics in hospital is much less than in the community, the intensity of use magnified by cross infection ensures a multitude of resistant bacteria in today's hospitals. Reversal of resistance is complex and might persist for many years despite the introduction of antimicrobial containment and stewardship programs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The most important pathomechanism of Clostridioides difficile infections (CDI) is post-antibiotic intestinal dysbiosis. CDI affects both ambulatory and hospital patients. AIM:The objective of the study was to analyze the possibility of utilizing databases from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control subject to surveillance for the purpose of identifying areas that require intervention with respect to public health. METHODS:The analysis encompassed data concerning CDI incidence and antibiotic consumption expressed as defined daily doses (DDD) and quality indicators for antimicrobial-consumption involving both ambulatory and hospital patients in 2016. RESULTS:In 2016, in the European Union countries, total antibiotic consumption in hospital and outpatient treatment amounted to 20.4 DDD (SD 7.89, range 11.04-39.69); in ambulatory treatment using average of ten times more antibiotics than hospitals. In total, 44.9% of antibiotics used in outpatient procedures were broad-spectrum antibiotics. We have found a significant relationship between the quality of antibiotics and their consumption: The more broad-spectrum antibiotics prescribed, the higher the sales of antibiotics both in the community sector and in total. CDI incidence did not statistically significantly correlate with the remaining factors analyzed on a country-wide level. CONCLUSION:Antibiotic consumption and the CDI incidence may depend on many national variables associated with local systems of healthcare organization and financing. Their interpretation in international comparisons does not give clear-cut answers and requires caution.
Project description:This study aimed to determine the differences in antibiotic usage patterns in the treatment of acute pyelonephritis according to hospital type and region in Korea.The claims database of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in Korea was used to select patients with the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision code N10 (acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis) or N12 (tubulo-interstitial nephritis, neither acute nor chronic) as the primary discharge diagnosis in 2010-2014. Usage of each class of antibiotics was expressed as the defined daily dose (DDD)/event.The average antibiotic usage per inpatient event was 11.3 DDD. The average antibiotic usage was the highest among patients admitted to tertiary hospitals (13.8 DDD), followed by those admitted to secondary hospitals (11.5 DDD), clinics (10.0 DDD), and primary hospitals (9.8 DDD). According to the geographic analyses, third-generation cephalosporins were highly prescribed in some southern regions; fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides were highly prescribed in some centrally located regions of the Korean peninsula. The hotspots for carbapenem usage included Seoul and Gyeonggi province cluster and Busan cluster: these regions include the capital city and the second biggest city in Korea, respectively.In conclusion, the antibiotic usage patterns for acute pyelonephritis in Korea differ according to the hospital type and region.
Project description:The discovery of antibiotics marked a golden age in the revolution of human medicine. However, decades later, bacterial infections remain a global healthcare threat, and a return to the pre-antibiotic era seems inevitable if stringent measures are not adopted to curb the rapid emergence and spread of multidrug resistance and the indiscriminate use of antibiotics. In hospital settings, multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens, including carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBL) bearing Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae are amongst the most problematic due to the paucity of treatment options, increased hospital stay, and exorbitant medical costs. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) provide an excellent potential strategy for combating these threats. Compared to empirical antibiotics, they show low tendency to select for resistance, rapid killing action, broad-spectrum activity, and extraordinary clinical efficacy against several MDR strains. Therefore, this review highlights multidrug resistance among nosocomial bacterial pathogens and its implications and reiterates the importance of AMPs as next-generation antibiotics for combating MDR superbugs.
Project description:The consumption of antibiotics is a major driver in the development of antimicrobial resistance. This study aims to identify the trends and patterns of the total antibiotic consumption in China's tertiary hospitals from 2011 to 2015 by retrospectively analyzing aggregated monthly surveillance data on antibiotic sales made to 468 hospitals from 28 provinces. Antibiotic consumption was expressed in DDD per 1,000 inhabitants per day (DID). We compared population weighted antibiotic consumption patterns in China with European countries using indicators from the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC). Total antibiotic consumption, including all the specific antibiotic class except for aminoglycoside antibacterials, were significantly increased during the study period from an average of 7.97 DID in 2011 to 10.08 DID in 2015. In 2015, the eastern regions of China consumed the most antibiotics using population denominator while the western regions consumed the most using inpatient denominator. Cephalosporins accounted for 28.6% of total DID, followed by beta-lactam-beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations (20.0%), macrolides (17.4%), and fluoroquinolones (10.5%). Antibiotic in parenteral form accounted for nearly half of all antibiotics. Although over the past few years major efforts had been made to reduce the risks of excessive antibiotic use through antibiotic stewardship, total antibiotic consumption showed a significant upward trend during the study period. A consistent preference for cephalosporins, macrolides, beta-lactam-beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations, as well as parenteral preparations was observed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:An increasing rate of antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacterial pathogens has created an urgent need to discover novel therapeutic agents to combat infectious diseases. Use of bacteriocins as therapeutic agents has immense potential due to their high potency and mode of action different from that of conventional antibiotics. RESULTS:In this study, a novel bacteriocin E20c of molecular weight 6.5 kDa was purified and characterized from the probiotic strain of Enterococcus hirae. E20c had bactericidal activities against several multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Flow cytometry and scanning electron microscopy studies showed that it killed the Salmonella enterica cells by forming ion-permeable channels in the cell membrane leading to enhanced cell membrane permeability. Further, checkerboard titrations showed that E20c had synergistic interaction with antibiotics such as ampicillin, penicillin, ceftriaxone, and ciprofloxacin against a ciprofloxacin- and penicillin-resistant strain of S. enterica. CONCLUSION:Thus, this study shows the broad spectrum antimicrobial activity of novel enterocin E20c against various MDR pathogens. Further, it highlights the importance of bacteriocins in lowering the minimum inhibitory concentrations of conventional antibiotics when used in combination.
Project description:Increasing antibiotic resistance in multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) presents significant health problems worldwide, since the vital available and effective antibiotics, including; broad-spectrum penicillins, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and ?-lactams, such as; carbapenems, monobactam, and cephalosporins; often fail to fight MDR Gram-negative pathogens as well as the absence of new antibiotics that can defeat these "superbugs". All of these has prompted the reconsideration of old drugs such as polymyxins that were reckoned too toxic for clinical use. Only two polymyxins, polymyxin E (colistin) and polymyxin B, are currently commercially available. Colistin has re-emerged as a last-hope treatment in the mid-1990s against MDR Gram-negative pathogens due to the development of extensively drug-resistant GNB. Unfortunately, rapid global resistance towards colistin has emerged following its resurgence. Different mechanisms of colistin resistance have been characterized, including intrinsic, mutational, and transferable mechanisms.In this review, we intend to discuss the progress over the last two decades in understanding the alternative colistin mechanisms of action and different strategies used by bacteria to develop resistance against colistin, besides providing an update about what is previously recognized and what is novel concerning colistin resistance.
Project description:Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) poses a colossal threat to global health and incurs high economic costs to society. Economic evaluations of antimicrobials and interventions such as diagnostics and vaccines that affect their consumption rarely include the costs of AMR, resulting in sub-optimal policy recommendations. We estimate the economic cost of AMR per antibiotic consumed, stratified by drug class and national income level.The model is comprised of three components: correlation coefficients between human antibiotic consumption and subsequent resistance; the economic costs of AMR for five key pathogens; and consumption data for antibiotic classes driving resistance in these organisms. These were used to calculate the economic cost of AMR per antibiotic consumed for different drug classes, using data from Thailand and the United States (US) to represent low/middle and high-income countries.The correlation coefficients between consumption of antibiotics that drive resistance in S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, A. baumanii, and P. aeruginosa and resistance rates were 0.37, 0.27, 0.35, 0.45, and 0.52, respectively. The total economic cost of AMR due to resistance in these five pathogens was $0.5 billion and $2.9 billion in Thailand and the US, respectively. The cost of AMR associated with the consumption of one standard unit (SU) of antibiotics ranged from $0.1 for macrolides to $0.7 for quinolones, cephalosporins and broad-spectrum penicillins in the Thai context. In the US context, the cost of AMR per SU of antibiotic consumed ranged from $0.1 for carbapenems to $0.6 for quinolones, cephalosporins and broad spectrum penicillins.The economic costs of AMR per antibiotic consumed were considerable, often exceeding their purchase cost. Differences between Thailand and the US were apparent, corresponding with variation in the overall burden of AMR and relative prevalence of different pathogens. Notwithstanding their limitations, use of these estimates in economic evaluations can make better-informed policy recommendations regarding interventions that affect antimicrobial consumption and those aimed specifically at reducing the burden of AMR.