Method for measurement of bacillithiol redox potential changes using the Brx-roGFP2 redox biosensor in Staphylococcus aureus.
ABSTRACT: Recent advances in the design of genetically encoded redox biosensors, such as redox-sensitive GFP (roGFP) have facilitated the real-time imaging of the intracellular redox potential in eukaryotic cells at high sensitivity and at spatiotemporal resolution. To increase the specificity of roGFP2 for the interaction with the glutathione (GSH)/ glutathione disulfide (GSSG) redox couple, roGFP2 has been fused to glutaredoxin (Grx) to construct the Grx-roGFP2 biosensor. We have previously designed the related Brx-roGFP2 redox biosensor for dynamic measurement of the bacillithiol redox potential (E BSH) in the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we describe the detailed method for measurements of the oxidation degree (OxD) of the Brx-roGFP2 biosensor in S. aureus using the microplate reader. In particularly, we provide details for determination of the E BSH changes during the growth and after oxidative stress. For future biosensor applications at the single cell level, we recommend the design of genome-encoded roGFP2 biosensors enabling stable expression and fluorescence in bacteria.•Brx-roGFP2 is specific for measurements of the bacillithiol redox potential in Staphylococcus aureus cells•Control samples for fully reduced and oxidized states of Brx-roGFP2 are required for calibration during OxD measurements•Easy to measure fluorescence excitation intensities at the 405 and 488 nm excitation maxima using microplate readers.
Project description:Bacillithiol (BSH) is utilized as a major thiol-redox buffer in the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Under oxidative stress, BSH forms mixed disulfides with proteins, termed as S-bacillithiolation, which can be reversed by bacilliredoxins (Brx). In eukaryotes, glutaredoxin-fused roGFP2 biosensors have been applied for dynamic live imaging of the glutathione redox potential. Here, we have constructed a genetically encoded bacilliredoxin-fused redox biosensor (Brx-roGFP2) to monitor dynamic changes in the BSH redox potential in S. aureus.The Brx-roGFP2 biosensor showed a specific and rapid response to low levels of bacillithiol disulfide (BSSB) in vitro that required the active-site Cys of Brx. Dynamic live imaging in two methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) USA300 and COL strains revealed fast and dynamic responses of the Brx-roGFP2 biosensor under hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stress and constitutive oxidation of the probe in different BSH-deficient mutants. Furthermore, we found that the Brx-roGFP2 expression level and the dynamic range are higher in S. aureus COL compared with the USA300 strain. In phagocytosis assays with THP-1 macrophages, the biosensor was 87% oxidized in S. aureus COL. However, no changes in the BSH redox potential were measured after treatment with different antibiotics classes, indicating that antibiotics do not cause oxidative stress in S. aureus. Conclusion and Innovation: This Brx-roGFP2 biosensor catalyzes specific equilibration between the BSH and roGFP2 redox couples and can be applied for dynamic live imaging of redox changes in S. aureus and other BSH-producing Firmicutes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 26, 835-848.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and has to cope with reactive oxygen and chlorine species (ROS, RCS) during infections. The low molecular weight thiol bacillithiol (BSH) is an important defense mechanism of S. aureus for detoxification of ROS and HOCl stress to maintain the reduced state of the cytoplasm. Under HOCl stress, BSH forms mixed disulfides with proteins, termed as S-bacillithiolations, which are reduced by bacilliredoxins (BrxA and BrxB). The NADPH-dependent flavin disulfide reductase YpdA is phylogenetically associated with the BSH synthesis and BrxA/B enzymes and was recently suggested to function as BSSB reductase (Mikheyeva et al., 2019). Here, we investigated the role of the complete bacilliredoxin BrxAB/BSH/YpdA pathway in S. aureus COL under oxidative stress and macrophage infection conditions in vivo and in biochemical assays in vitro. Using HPLC thiol metabolomics, a strongly enhanced BSSB level and a decreased BSH/BSSB ratio were measured in the S. aureus COL ?ypdA deletion mutant under control and NaOCl stress. Monitoring the oxidation degree (OxD) of the Brx-roGFP2 biosensor revealed that YpdA is required for regeneration of the reduced BSH redox potential (E BSH) upon recovery from oxidative stress. In addition, the ?ypdA mutant was impaired in H2O2 detoxification as measured with the novel H2O2-specific Tpx-roGFP2 biosensor. Phenotype analyses further showed that BrxA and YpdA are required for survival under NaOCl and H2O2 stress in vitro and inside murine J-774A.1 macrophages in infection assays in vivo. Finally, NADPH-coupled electron transfer assays provide evidence for the function of YpdA in BSSB reduction, which depends on the conserved Cys14 residue. YpdA acts together with BrxA and BSH in de-bacillithiolation of S-bacillithiolated GapDH. In conclusion, our results point to a major role of the BrxA/BSH/YpdA pathway in BSH redox homeostasis in S. aureus during recovery from oxidative stress and under infections.
Project description:Allicin from garlic is an antimicrobial substance that is effective against several ESKAPE pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, the antimicrobial mode action of allicin has not been revealed in Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we have studied the changes in the transcriptome by Allicin which revealed a thiol-specific oxidative stress response in S. aureus. Using shotgun proteomics, we identified numerous proteins that were modified by protein S-sulfoallylation in S. aureus. Allicin further caused an oxidative shift in the bacillithiol (BSH) redox potential as revealed by Brx-roGFP2 biosensor measurements. In summary, our results revealed that allicin acts via sulfoallylation of Cys residues in proteins causing an impaired redox state in S. aureus.
Project description:Bacillithiol (BSH) is the major low-molecular-weight thiol of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. In this study, we used OxICAT and Voronoi redox treemaps to quantify hypochlorite-sensitive protein thiols in S. aureus USA300 and analyzed the role of BSH in protein S-bacillithiolation.The OxICAT analyses enabled the quantification of 228 Cys residues in the redox proteome of S. aureus USA300. Hypochlorite stress resulted in >10% increased oxidation of 58 Cys residues (25.4%) in the thiol redox proteome. Among the highly oxidized sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)-sensitive proteins are five S-bacillithiolated proteins (Gap, AldA, GuaB, RpmJ, and PpaC). The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) dehydrogenase Gap represents the most abundant S-bacillithiolated protein contributing 4% to the total Cys proteome. The active site Cys151 of Gap was very sensitive to overoxidation and irreversible inactivation by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or NaOCl in vitro. Treatment with H2O2 or NaOCl in the presence of BSH resulted in reversible Gap inactivation due to S-bacillithiolation, which could be regenerated by the bacilliredoxin Brx (SAUSA300_1321) in vitro. Molecular docking was used to model the S-bacillithiolated Gap active site, suggesting that formation of the BSH mixed disulfide does not require major structural changes. Conclusion and Innovation: Using OxICAT analyses, we identified 58 novel NaOCl-sensitive proteins in the pathogen S. aureus that could play protective roles against the host immune defense and include the glycolytic Gap as major target for S-bacillithiolation. S-bacillithiolation of Gap did not require structural changes, but efficiently functions in redox regulation and protection of the active site against irreversible overoxidation in S. aureus. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 410-430.
Project description:In bacillithiol (BSH)-utilizing organisms, protein S-bacillithiolation functions as a redox switch in response to oxidative stress and protects critical Cys residues against overoxidation. In Bacillus subtilis, both the redox-sensing repressor OhrR and the methionine synthase MetE are redox controlled by S-bacillithiolation in vivo. Here, we identify pathways of protein de-bacillithiolation and test the hypothesis that YphP(BrxA) and YqiW(BrxB) act as bacilliredoxins (Brx) to remove BSH from OhrR and MetE mixed disulfides.We present evidence that the BrxA and BrxB paralogs have de-bacillithiolation activity. This Brx activity results from attack of the amino-terminal Cys residue in a CGC motif on protein BSH-mixed disulfides. B. subtilis OhrR DNA-binding activity is eliminated by S-thiolation on its sole Cys residue. Both the BrxA and BrxB bacilliredoxins mediate de-bacillithiolation of OhrR accompanied by the transfer of BSH to the amino-terminal cysteine of their CGC active site motif. In vitro studies demonstrate that BrxB can restore DNA-binding activity to OhrR which is S-bacillithiolated, but not to OhrR that is S-cysteinylated. MetE is most strongly S-bacillithiolated at Cys719 in vitro and can be efficiently de-bacillithiolated by both BrxA and BrxB.We demonstrate that BrxA and BrxB function in the reduction of BSH mixed protein disulfides with two natural substrates (MetE, OhrR). These results provide biochemical evidence for a new class of bacterial redox-regulatory proteins, the bacilliredoxins, which function analogously to glutaredoxins. Bacilliredoxins function in concert with other thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases to maintain redox homeostasis in response to disulfide stress conditions.
Project description:The intracellular redox environment of Staphylococcus aureus is mainly buffered by bacillithiol (BSH), a low molecular weight thiol. The identity of enzymes responsible for the recycling of oxidized bacillithiol disulfide (BSSB) to the reduced form (BSH) remains elusive. We examined YpdA, a putative bacillithiol reductase, for its role in maintaining intracellular redox homeostasis. The ypdA mutant showed increased levels of BSSB and a lower bacillithiol redox ratio vs. the isogenic parent, indicating a higher level of oxidative stress within the bacterial cytosol. We showed that YpdA consumed NAD(P)H; and YpdA protein levels were augmented in response to stress. Wild type strains overexpressing YpdA showed increased tolerance to oxidants and electrophilic agents. Importantly, YpdA overexpression in the parental strain caused an increase in BSH levels accompanied by a decrease in BSSB concentration in the presence of stress, resulting in an increase in bacillithiol redox ratio vs. the vector control. Additionally, the ypdA mutant exhibited decreased survival in human neutrophils (PMNs) as compared with the parent, while YpdA overexpression protected the resulting strain from oxidative stress in vitro and from killing by human neutrophils ex vivo. Taken together, these data present a new role for YpdA in S. aureus physiology and virulence through the bacillithiol system.
Project description:Multidrug-resistant pathogens, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pose an increasing health burden and demand alternative antimicrobials to treat bacterial infections. The surface coating AGXX® is a novel broad-spectrum antimicrobial composed of two transition metals, silver and ruthenium that can be electroplated on various surfaces, such as medical devices and implants. AGXX® has been shown to kill nosocomial and waterborne pathogens by production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the effect of AGXX® on the bacterial redox balance has not been demonstrated. Since treatment options for MRSA infections are limited, ROS-producing agents are attractive alternatives to combat multi-resistant strains. In this work, we used RNA-seq transcriptomics, redox biosensor measurements and phenotype analyses to study the mode of action of AGXX® microparticles in S. aureus USA300. Using growth and survival assays, the growth-inhibitory amount of AGXX® microparticles was determined as 5 ?g/ml. In the RNA-seq transcriptome, AGXX® caused a strong thiol-specific oxidative stress response and protein damage as revealed by the induction of the PerR, HypR, QsrR, MhqR, CstR, CtsR, and HrcA regulons. The derepression of the Fur, Zur, and CsoR regulons indicates that AGXX® also interferes with the metal ion homeostasis inducing Fe2+- and Zn2+-starvation responses as well as export systems for toxic Ag+ ions. The induction of the SigB and GraRS regulons reveals also cell wall and general stress responses. AGXX® stress was further shown to cause protein S-bacillithiolation, protein aggregation and an oxidative shift in the bacillithiol (BSH) redox potential. In phenotype assays, BSH and the HypR-controlled disulfide reductase MerA were required for protection against ROS produced under AGXX® stress in S. aureus. Altogether, our study revealed a strong thiol-reactive mode of action of AGXX® in S. aureus USA300 resulting in an increased BSH redox potential and protein S-bacillithiolation.
Project description:Low G+C Gram-positive Firmicutes, such as the clinically important pathogens <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> and <i>Bacillus cereus</i>, use the low-molecular weight thiol bacillithiol (BSH) as a defense mechanism to buffer the intracellular redox environment and counteract oxidative stress encountered by human neutrophils during infections. The protein YpdA has recently been shown to function as an essential NADPH-dependent reductase of oxidized bacillithiol disulfide (BSSB) resulting from stress responses and is crucial for maintaining the reduced pool of BSH and cellular redox balance. In this work, we present the first crystallographic structures of YpdAs, namely, those from <i>S. aureus</i> and <i>B. cereus</i>. Our analyses reveal a uniquely organized biological tetramer; however, the structure of the monomeric subunit is highly similar to those of other flavoprotein disulfide reductases. The absence of a redox active cysteine in the vicinity of the FAD isoalloxazine ring implies a new direct disulfide reduction mechanism, which is backed by the presence of a potentially gated channel, serving as a putative binding site for BSSB in the proximity of the FAD cofactor. We also report enzymatic activities for both YpdAs, which along with the structures presented in this work provide important structural and functional insight into a new class of FAD-containing NADPH-dependent oxidoreductases, related to the emerging fight against pathogenic bacteria.
Project description:FosB is a divalent-metal-dependent thiol-S-transferase implicated in fosfomycin resistance among many pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria. In the present paper, we describe detailed kinetic studies of FosB from Staphylococcus aureus (SaFosB) that confirm that bacillithiol (BSH) is its preferred physiological thiol substrate. SaFosB is the first to be characterized among a new class of enzyme (bacillithiol-S-transferases), which, unlike glutathione transferases, are distributed among many low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria that use BSH instead of glutathione as their major low-molecular-mass thiol. The K(m) values for BSH and fosfomycin are 4.2 and 17.8 mM respectively. Substrate specificity assays revealed that the thiol and amino groups of BSH are essential for activity, whereas malate is important for SaFosB recognition and catalytic efficiency. Metal activity assays indicated that Mn(2+) and Mg(2+) are likely to be the relevant cofactors under physiological conditions. The serine analogue of BSH (BOH) is an effective competitive inhibitor of SaFosB with respect to BSH, but uncompetitive with respect to fosfomycin. Coupled with NMR characterization of the reaction product (BS-fosfomycin), this demonstrates that the SaFosB-catalysed reaction pathway involves a compulsory ordered binding mechanism with fosfomycin binding first followed by BSH which then attacks the more sterically hindered C-1 carbon of the fosfomycin epoxide. Disruption of BSH biosynthesis in S. aureus increases sensitivity to fosfomycin. Together, these results indicate that SaFosB is a divalent-metal-dependent bacillithiol-S-transferase that confers fosfomycin resistance on S. aureus.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus produces bacillithiol (BSH) as major low molecular weight (LMW) thiol which functions in thiol-protection and redox-regulation by protein S-bacillithiolation under hypochlorite stress. The aldehyde dehydrogenase AldA was identified as S-bacillithiolated at its active site Cys279 under NaOCl stress in S. aureus. Here, we have studied the expression, function, redox regulation and structural changes of AldA of S. aureus. Transcription of aldA was previously shown to be regulated by the alternative sigma factor SigmaB. Northern blot analysis revealed SigmaB-independent induction of aldA transcription under formaldehyde, methylglyoxal, diamide and NaOCl stress. Deletion of aldA resulted in a NaOCl-sensitive phenotype in survival assays, suggesting an important role of AldA in the NaOCl stress defense. Purified AldA showed broad substrate specificity for oxidation of several aldehydes, including formaldehyde, methylglyoxal, acetaldehyde and glycol aldehyde. Thus, AldA could be involved in detoxification of aldehyde substrates that are elevated under NaOCl stress. Kinetic activity assays revealed that AldA is irreversibly inhibited under H2O2 treatment in vitro due to overoxidation of Cys279 in the absence of BSH. Pre-treatment of AldA with BSH prior to H2O2 exposure resulted in reversible AldA inactivation due to S-bacillithiolation as revealed by activity assays and BSH-specific Western blot analysis. Using molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulation, we further show that BSH occupies two different positions in the AldA active site depending on the AldA activation state. In conclusion, we show here that AldA is an important target for S-bacillithiolation in S. aureus that is up-regulated under NaOCl stress and functions in protection under hypochlorite stress.