Comparison of Target Recognition by TRAF1 and TRAF2.
ABSTRACT: Although TRAF1 and TRAF2 share common receptors and have extremely conserved amino acid residues, recent studies have shown that key differences in receptor binding preferences with different affinities exist, which might be important for their different functions in TRAF-mediated signal transduction. To better understand TRAF1 and TRAF2 signaling, we analyzed and compared their receptor binding-affinities. Our study revealed that TRADD, TANK, and caspase-2 bind to both TRAF1 and TRAF2 with different affinities in vitro. Sequence and structural analyses revealed that S454 on TRAF2 (corresponding to A369 of TRAF1) is critical for the binding of TRADD, and F347 on TRAF1 (corresponding to L432 of TRAF2) is a critical determinant for high affinity binding of TANK and caspase-2.
Project description:TRAF1/2 and cIAP1/2 are members of the TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF) and the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) families, respectively. They are critical for canonical and noncanonical NF-kappaB signaling pathways. Here, we report the crystal structures of the TRAF2: cIAP2 and the TRAF1: TRAF2: cIAP2 complexes. A TRAF2 trimer interacts with one cIAP2 both in the crystal and in solution. Two chains of the TRAF2 trimer directly contact cIAP2, and key residues at the interface are confirmed by mutagenesis. TRAF1 and TRAF2 preferentially form the TRAF1: (TRAF2)(2) heterotrimer, which interacts with cIAP2 more strongly than TRAF2 alone. In contrast, TRAF1 alone interacts very weakly with cIAP2. Surprisingly, TRAF1 and one chain of TRAF2 in the TRAF1: (TRAF2)(2): cIAP2 ternary complex mediate interaction with cIAP2. Because TRAF1 is upregulated by many stimuli, it may modulate the interaction of TRAF2 with cIAP1/2, which explains regulatory roles of TRAF1 in TNF signaling.
Project description:TNF-receptor associated factor (TRAF) proteins are key adaptor molecules containing E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that play a critical role in immune cell signaling. TRAF1 is a unique family of TRAF lacking the N-terminal RING finger domain. TRAF1 is an important scaffold protein that participates in TNFR2 signaling in T cells as a negative or positive regulator via direct interaction with TRAF2, which has recently been identified as a pro-apoptotic regulator in neuronal cell death. Here, we report the first crystal structure of the TRAF1 TRAF domain containing both the TRAF-N coiled-coil domain and the TRAF-C domain. Our structure reveals both similarities and differences with other TRAF family members, which may be functionally relevant to TRAFs. We also found that the TRAF-N coiled-coil domain of TRAF1 is critical for the trimer formation and stability of the protein. Finally, we found that conserved surface residues on the TRAF1 TRAF domain that might be binding hot spots that are critical for interaction with signaling molecules.
Project description:The activation of NF-kappaB by receptors in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor and Toll/interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor families requires the TRAF family of adaptor proteins. Receptor oligomerization causes the recruitment of TRAFs to the receptor complex, followed by the activation of a kinase cascade that results in the phosphorylation of IkappaB. TANK is a TRAF-binding protein that can inhibit the binding of TRAFs to receptor tails and can also inhibit NF-kappaB activation by these receptors. However, TANK also displays the ability to stimulate TRAF-mediated NF-kappaB activation. In this report, we investigate the mechanism of the stimulatory activity of TANK. We find that TANK interacts with TBK1 (TANK-binding kinase 1), a novel IKK-related kinase that can activate NF-kappaB in a kinase-dependent manner. TBK1, TANK and TRAF2 can form a ternary complex, and complex formation appears to be required for TBK1 activity. Kinase-inactive TBK1 inhibits TANK-mediated NF-kappaB activation but does not block the activation mediated by TNF-alpha, IL-1 or CD40. The TBK1-TANK-TRAF2 signaling complex functions upstream of NIK and the IKK complex and represents an alternative to the receptor signaling complex for TRAF-mediated activation of NF-kappaB.
Project description:Primary effusion lymphomas (PELs) characterized by infection with the Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV; also called human herpesvirus 8) depend on the expression of the viral FADD-like interleukin-1-beta-converting enzyme (FLICE)/caspase-8-inhibitory protein (vFLIP) for their survival. This effect is achieved by activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) are direct mediators of NF-kappaB signalling by TNF family receptors and the Epstein-Barr virus oncoprotein latent membrane protein 1 and so we assessed the role of TRAFs in signalling by vFLIP. Here, we report the identification of a TRAF-interacting motif (PYQLT) in vFLIP, which is not present in other FLIP molecules. We show that vFLIP directly binds to TRAF2 in vitro and in PEL cells. TRAF2 and TRAF3 are required for induction of NF-kappaB and associated cell survival, as well as Jun amino-terminal kinase phosphorylation by vFLIP, whereas TRAF1, TRAF5 and TRAF6 are dispensable. Mutations in the P93 or Q95 amino acids within the TRAF-interacting motif of vFLIP abolish its ability to bind to TRAF2 and to signal to NF-kappaB. TRAF2, but not TRAF3, mediates the association of vFLIP with the IkappaB kinase complex. These data indicate that vFLIP uses TRAF2 and TRAF3 for signalling to NF-kappaB, which is crucial for KSHV-associated lymphomagenesis.
Project description:I-kappa B kinase 2 (IKK2 or IKK-beta) is one of the most crucial signaling kinases for activation of NF-kappa B, a transcription factor that is important for inflammation, cell survival and differentiation. Since many NF-kappa B activating pathways converge at the level of IKK2, molecular interactions of this kinase are pivotal for regulation of NF-kappa B signaling.We searched for proteins interacting with IKK2 using the C-terminal part (amino acids 466-756) as bait in a yeast two-hybrid system and identified the N-terminal part (amino acids 1-228) of the TNF-receptor associated factor TRAF1 as putative interaction partner. The interaction was confirmed in human cells by mammalian two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation experiments. The IKK2/TRAF1 interaction seemed weaker than the interaction between TRAF1 and TRAF2, an important activating adapter molecule of NF-kappa B signaling. Reporter gene and kinase assays using ectopic expression of TRAF1 indicated that it can both activate and inhibit IKK2 and NF-kappa B. Co-expression of fluorescently tagged TRAF1 and TRAF2 at different ratios implied that TRAF1 can affect clustering and presumably the activating function of TRAF2 in a dose dependent manner.The observation that TRAF1 can either activate or inhibit the NF-kappa B pathway and the fact that it influences the oligomerization of TRAF2 indicates that relative levels of IKK2, TRAF1 and TRAF2 may be important for regulation of NF-kappa B activity. Since TRAF1 is an NF-kappa B induced gene, it might act as a feedback effector molecule.
Project description:Latent infection membrane protein 1 (LMP1), the Epstein-Barr virus transforming protein, associates with tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) associated factor 1 (TRAF1) and TRAF3. Since TRAF2 has been implicated in TNFR-mediated NF-kappa B activation, we have evaluated the role of TRAF2 in LMP1-mediated NF-kappa B activation. TRAF2 binds in vitro to the LMP1 carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic domain (CT), coprecipitates with LMP1 in B lymphoblasts, and relocalizes to LMP1 plasma membrane patches. A dominant negative TRAF2 deletion mutant that lacks amino acids 6-86 (TRAF/ delta 6-86) inhibits NF-kappa B activation from the LMP1 CT and competes with TRAF2 for LMP1 binding. TRAF2 delta 6-86 inhibits NF-kappa B activation mediated by the first 45 amino acids of the LMP1 CT by more than 75% but inhibits NF-kappa B activation through the last 55 amino acids of the CT by less than 40%. A TRAF interacting protein, TANK, inhibits NF-kappa B activation by more than 70% from both LMP1 CT domains. These data implicate TRAF2 aggregation in NF-kappa B activation by the first 45 amino acids of the LMP1 CT and suggest that a different TRAF-related pathway may be involved in NF-kappa B activation by the last 55 amino acids of the LMP1 CT.
Project description:Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) constitute a family of adapter proteins that act in numerous signaling pathways important in human biology and disease. The MATH domain of TRAF proteins binds peptides found in the cytoplasmic domains of signaling receptors, thereby connecting extracellular signals to downstream effectors. Beyond several very general motifs, the peptide binding preferences of TRAFs have not been extensively characterized, and differences between the binding preferences of TRAF paralogs are poorly understood. Here we report a screening system that we established to explore TRAF peptide-binding specificity using deep mutational scanning of TRAF-peptide ligands. We displayed single- and double-mutant peptide libraries based on the TRAF-binding sites of CD40 or TANK on the surface of Escherichia coli and screened them for binding to TRAF2, TRAF3, and TRAF5. Enrichment analysis of the library sequencing results showed differences in the permitted substitution patterns in the TANK versus CD40 backgrounds. The three TRAF proteins also demonstrated different preferences for binding to members of the CD40 library, and three peptides from that library that were analyzed individually showed striking differences in affinity for the three TRAFs. These results illustrate a previously unappreciated level of binding specificity between these close paralogs and demonstrate that established motifs are overly simplistic. The results from this work begin to outline differences between TRAF family members, and the experimental approach established herein will enable future efforts to investigate and redesign TRAF peptide-binding specificity.
Project description:The compound 5-(4-methoxyarylimino)-2-N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-oxo-1,2,4-thiadiazolidine (P(3)-25) is known to possess anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and anti-tubercular activities. In this report, we provide evidence that P(3)-25 inhibits NF-kappaB, known to induce inflammatory and tumorigenic responses. It activates AP-1, another transcription factor. It inhibits TRAF2-mediated NF-kappaB activation but not TRAF6-mediated NF-kappaB DNA binding by preventing its association with TANK (TRAF for NF-kappaB). It facilitates binding of MEKK1 with TRAF2 and thereby activates JNK and AP-1. We provide evidence, for the first time, that suggests that the interaction of P(3)-25 with TRAF2 leads to inhibition of the NF-kappaB pathway and activation of AP-1 pathway. These results suggest novel approaches to design of P(3)-25 as an anti-cancer/inflammatory drug for therapy through regulation of the TRAF2 pathway.
Project description:TRADD participates in various receptor signaling pathways and plays vital roles in many biological activities, including cell survival and apoptosis, in different cellular contexts. TRADD has two distinct functional domains, a TRAF-binding domain at the N-terminus and a death domain (DD) at the C-terminus. The TRAF binding domain of TRADD folds into an ?-? plait topology and is mainly responsible for binding TRAF2, while the TRADD-DD can interact with a variety of DD-containing proteins, including receptors and intracellular signaling molecules. After activation of specific receptors such as TNFR1 and DR3, TRADD can bind to the receptor through DD-DD interaction, creating a membrane-proximal platform for the recruitment of downstream molecules to propagate cellular signals. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the studies of the structural mechanism of TRADD adaptor functions for NF-?B activation and apoptosis induction. We also provide suggestions for future structure research related to TRADD-mediated signaling pathways.