Histological Effects of an Innovative 445 Nm Blue Laser During Oral Soft Tissue Biopsy.
ABSTRACT: Continuously evolving laser devices can be used in various fields; they are an alternative to the traditional cold blade surgery to perform biopsies of oral soft tissues. The aspect focused on in this paper is the possibility to use the 445 nm diode laser (Eltech K-Laser srl, Treviso, Italy) in complete safety, by evaluating its thermal effects during microscopy. A histological evaluation of the alteration of the peri-incisional edges on 10 samples was realized. All excisional biopsies were related to clinically unsuspected lesions and performed by the same expert operator. The surgical procedure was performed with the same laser parameters and the same pathologist evaluated the thermal effect on the samples. An average value of the detected tissue alteration was calculated; the average damage of the epithelium was 650.93 ?m, while in the connective tissue it was 468.07 ?m. In all the cases a clear diagnosis was possible, and no clinical complications were observed; so, the 445 nm diode laser proved to be a device that can be safely used for biopsies of clinically unsuspicious lesions. Due to the small number of cases, this in vivo preliminary experience needs to be extended.
Project description:Oral biopsy aims to obtain clear and safe diagnosis; it can be performed by scalpel or laser. The controversy in this latter application is the thermal alteration due to tissue heating. The aim of this study is the histological evaluation of margins of "in vivo" biopsies collected by diode and KTP lasers.17 oral benign lesions biopsies were made by diode 808 nm (SOL, DenMatItalia, Italy) and KTP 532 nm (SmartLite, DEKA, Italy). Samples were observed at OM LEICA DM 2000; margin alterations were evaluated through Leica Application Suite 3.4.Epithelial and connective damages were assessed for each pathology with an average of 0.245 mm and a standard deviation of ± 0.162 mm in mucoceles, 0.382 mm ± 0.149 mm in fibromas, 0.336 mm ± 0.106 mm in hyperkeratosis, 0.473 mm ± 0.105 mm in squamous hyperplasia, 0.182 mm in giant cell granuloma, and 0.149 mm in melanotic macula.The histologic aspect of lesions influenced the response to laser, whereas the greater inflammation and cellularity were linked with the higher thermal signs. Many artifacts were also associated to histologic procedures.Both tested lasers permitted sure histologic diagnosis. However, it is suggested to enlarge biopsies of about 0.5 mm, to avoid thermal alterations, especially in inflammatory lesions like oral lichen planus.
Project description:Oral granular cell tumor (GCT) is a relatively rare, benign lesion that can easily be misdiagnosed. Particularly, the presence of pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia might, in some cases, lead to the hypothesis of squamous cell carcinoma. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice. Recurrence has been reported in up to 15% of cases treated with conventional surgery. Here, we reported a case of GCT of the tongue in a young female patient, which was successfully treated through 445 nm diode laser excision. Laser surgery might reduce bleeding and postoperative pain and may be associated with more rapid healing. Particularly, the vaporization effect on remnant tissues could eliminate GCT cells on the surgical bed, thus hypothetically leading to a lower rate of recurrence. In the present case, complete healing occurred in 1 week, and no recurrence was observed after 6 months. Laser surgery also allows the possibility to obtain second intention healing. Possible laser-induced histopathological artifacts should be carefully considered.
Project description:This study investigated the caries-preventive effect of 445 nm laser radiation in combination with fluoride on the prevention of white spot lesions. Previously, several studies have indicated the ability of 488 nm argon ion laser irradiation to reduce early enamel demineralization. A diode laser (445 nm) could be an alternative technology for possible caries-preventive potential. Each sample of a group of seventeen caries-free bovine teeth was treated in four different ways on four different zones of the labial surface: control/no treatment (C), laser irradiation only (L) (0.3 W, 60 s and applied dose of 90 J/cm2), amine fluoride application only (10,000 ppm and pH 3.9) (F), and amine fluoride application followed by laser irradiation (FL). After treatment, the teeth were subjected to a demineralization solution (pH 4.3 for 48 h at 37 °C) to induce subsurface lesions. After sectioning, the teeth were examined by light microscopy. Three teeth were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The depths of the subsurface lesions in the C, L, F, and FL groups were 103.01 (± 13.04), 96.99 (± 14.51), 42.59 (± 17.13), and 24.35 (± 11.38) ?m, respectively. The pairwise group comparison showed the following results: p < 0.001 for FL versus C, FL versus L, F versus C, and F versus L, p = 0.019 for FL versus F and p = 0.930 for L versus C. The SEM micrographs support the light-microscopic examination. The results of the current study have shown that using relatively low irradiation settings of 445 nm laser on fluoridated enamel may be effective for prevention of white spot lesions.
Project description:Earlobe piercing is a common office room procedure done by a plastic surgeon. Various methods of ear piercing have been described. In this article, we describe a novel method of laser ear piercing using the diode laser. An 18-year-old female patient underwent an ear piercing using a diode laser with a power of 2.0 W in continuous mode after topical local anaesthetic and pre-cooling. The diode laser was fast, safe, easy to use and highly effective way of ear piercing. The advantages we noticed while using the diode laser over conventional methods were more precision, minimal trauma with less chances of hypertrophy and keloids, no bleeding with coagulation effect of laser, less time taken compared to conventional method and less chance of infection due to thermal heat effect of laser.
Project description:The normal appearance of the gingiva is pink to light red, and this appearance may change due to many factors and might be noticeable causing aesthetic concerns. In the Gulf area, the gingival melanin pigmentation is of the main type of concern, and patients expect the pigmentation to be removed for aesthetic reasons. Many techniques have been used to remove the melanin pigmentation such as using surgical blades, diamond or ceramic burs, chemicals, and lasers. This study is comparing the results of three lasers (Er, Cr, YSGG 2780?nm, Diode 940?nm, and 445?nm) in the removal of melanin gingival depigmentation. Clinical outcome parameters including bleeding, wound healing, pain, duration of procedure, color improvement, patient satisfaction, and relapse rate after 2 years were assessed. Conclusion. Within the limitation of this study, all three wavelengths were fast, effective in peeling the pigmentations and well tolerated by the patients. The esthetical results were excellent, and the patients were highly satisfied. Suggestion. To have a bigger number of samples in future papers, and histological studies might be included to explore the different impacts of each wavelength on the gingival melanin pigmentation specifically and on the gingival tissue generally.
Project description:The aim of this study was to compare the antibacterial efficacy of diode laser 810nm and photodynamic therapy (PDT) in reducing bacterial microflora in endodontic retreatment of teeth with periradicular lesion.In this in vivo clinical trial, 20 patients who needed endodontic retreatment were selected. After conventional chemo mechanical preparation of root canals, microbiological samples were taken with sterile paper point (PP), held in thioglycollate broth, and then were transferred to the microbiological lab. In the first group, PDT with methylene blue (MB) and diode laser (810 nm, 0.2 W, 40 seconds) was performed and in the second group diode laser (810 nm, 1.2 W, 30 seconds) was irradiated. Then second samples were taken from all canals.CFU/ml amounts showed statistically significant reduction in both groups (P < 0.001). CFU/ml amounts were compared between the two groups and there was no statistical difference.PDT and diode laser 810 nm irradiation are effective methods for root canal disinfection. PDT is a suitable alternative for diode laser 810 nm irradiation, because of lower thermal risk on root dentin.
Project description:A hand-held diode laser is implemented for solid sampling in portable ambient mass spectrometry (MS). Specifically, a pseudocontinuous wave battery-powered surgical laser diode is employed for portable laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD) at 940 nm and compared with nanosecond pulsed laser ablation at 2940 nm. Postionization is achieved in both cases using atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI). The laser ablation atmospheric pressure photoionization (LAAPPI) and LDTD-APPI mass spectra of sage leaves (Salvia officinalis) using a field-deployable quadrupole ion trap MS display many similar ion peaks, as do the mass spectra of membrane grown biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These results indicate that LDTD-APPI method should be useful for in-field sampling of plant and microbial communities, for example, by portable ambient MS. The feasibility of many portable MS applications is facilitated by the availability of relatively low cost, portable, battery-powered diode lasers. LDTD could also be coupled with plasma- or electrospray-based ionization for the analysis of a variety of solid samples.
Project description:BACKGROUND:VX-445 is a next-generation cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) corrector designed to restore Phe508del CFTR protein function in patients with cystic fibrosis when administered with tezacaftor and ivacaftor (VX-445-tezacaftor-ivacaftor). METHODS:We evaluated the effects of VX-445-tezacaftor-ivacaftor on Phe508del CFTR protein processing, trafficking, and chloride transport in human bronchial epithelial cells. On the basis of in vitro activity, a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, dose-ranging, phase 2 trial was conducted to evaluate oral VX-445-tezacaftor-ivacaftor in patients heterozygous for the Phe508del CFTR mutation and a minimal-function mutation (Phe508del-MF) and in patients homozygous for the Phe508del CFTR mutation (Phe508del-Phe508del) after tezacaftor-ivacaftor run-in. Primary end points were safety and absolute change in percentage of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) from baseline. RESULTS:In vitro, VX-445-tezacaftor-ivacaftor significantly improved Phe508del CFTR protein processing, trafficking, and chloride transport to a greater extent than any two of these agents in dual combination. In patients with cystic fibrosis, VX-445-tezacaftor-ivacaftor had an acceptable safety and side-effect profile. Most adverse events were mild or moderate. The treatment also resulted in an increased percentage of predicted FEV1 of up to 13.8 points in the Phe508del-MF group (P<0.001). In patients in the Phe508del-Phe508del group, who were already receiving tezacaftor-ivacaftor, the addition of VX-445 resulted in an 11.0-point increase in the percentage of predicted FEV1 (P<0.001). In both groups, there was a decrease in sweat chloride concentrations and improvement in the respiratory domain score on the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised. CONCLUSIONS:The use of VX-445-tezacaftor-ivacaftor to target Phe508del CFTR protein resulted in increased CFTR function in vitro and translated to improvements in patients with cystic fibrosis with one or two Phe508del alleles. This approach has the potential to treat the underlying cause of cystic fibrosis in approximately 90% of patients. (Funded by Vertex Pharmaceuticals; VX16-445-001 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03227471 ; and EudraCT number, 2017-000797-11 .).