O-Vanillin Attenuates the TLR2 Mediated Tumor-Promoting Phenotype of Microglia.
ABSTRACT: Malignant gliomas are primary brain tumors with poor prognoses. These tumors are infiltrated by brain intrinsic microglia and peripheral monocytes which promote glioma cell invasion. In our previous studies, we discovered that the activation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) on microglia/brain macrophages converts them into a protumorigenic phenotype through the induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 9 and 14. In the present study, we used in vitro and in situ microglia-glioma interaction experimental models to test the impact of a novel inhibitor of TLR 2, ortho vanillin (O-Vanillin) to block TLR2 mediated microglia protumorigenic phenotype. We demonstrate that O-Vanillin inhibits the TLR2 mediated upregulation of MMP 9, MMP 14, IL 6 and iNOS expression. Similarly, the glioma supernatant induced MMP 9 and MMP 14 expression in murine and human microglia is abrogated by O-Vanillin treatment. O-Vanillin is not toxic for microglia, astrocytes or oligodendrocytes. Glioma growth in murine brain slice cultures is significantly reduced after treatment with O-Vanillin, and this reduced glioma growth depends on the presence of microglia. In addition, we also found that O-Vanillin inhibited the glioma induced proliferation of murine primary microglia. In summary, O-Vanillin attenuates the pro-tumorigenic phenotype of microglia/brain macrophages and thus qualifies as a candidate for glioma therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Glioblastomas are the most aggressive primary brain tumors in humans. Microglia/brain macrophage accumulation in and around the tumor correlates with malignancy and poor clinical prognosis of these tumors. We have previously shown that microglia promote glioma expansion through upregulation of membrane type 1 matrix metalloprotease (MT1-MMP). This upregulation depends on signaling via the Toll-like receptor (TLR) adaptor molecule myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88). METHODS: Using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo techniques, we identified TLR2 as the main TLR controlling microglial MT1-MMP expression and promoting microglia-assisted glioma expansion. RESULTS: The implantation of mouse GL261 glioma cells into TLR2 knockout mice resulted in significantly smaller tumors, reduced MT1-MMP expression, and enhanced survival rates compared with wild-type control mice. Tumor expansion studied in organotypic brain slices depended on both parenchymal TLR2 expression and the presence of microglia. Glioma-derived soluble factors and synthetic TLR2 specific ligands induced MT1-MMP expression in microglia from wild-type mice, but no such change in MT1-MMP gene expression was observed in microglia from TLR2 knockout mice. We also found evidence that TLR1 and TLR6 cofunction with TLR2 as heterodimers in regulating MT1-MMP expression in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Our results thus show that activation of TLR2 along with TLRs 1 and/or 6 converts microglia into a glioma supportive phenotype.
Project description:Accumulation and infiltration of microglia/brain macrophages around and into glioma tissue promote tumor invasion and expansion. One tumor-promoting mechanism of microglia/brain macrophages is upregulation of membrane type 1 matrix metalloprotease (MT1-MMP), which promotes the degradation of extracellular matrix. MT1-MMP upregulation is induced by soluble factors released by glioma cells activating microglial Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2).Versican identified by proteomics was silenced in glioma cells by short interference RNA and short hairpin RNA approaches and studied in vitro and after injection into mouse brains or organotypic brain slices.The splice variants V0/V1 of the endogenous TLR2 ligand versican are highly expressed in mouse and human glioma tissue. Versican-silenced gliomas induced less MT1-MMP expression in microglia both in vitro and in vivo, which resulted in smaller tumors and longer survival rates as compared with controls. Recombinant versican V1 induced significantly higher levels of MT1-MMP in wild-type microglia compared with untreated and treated TLR2 knockout microglial cells. Using glioma-injected organotypic brain slices, we found that the impact of versican signaling on glioma growth depended on the presence of microglia. Moreover, we found that TLR2 expression is upregulated in glioma-associated microglia but not in astrocytes. Additionally, an established TLR2 neutralizing antibody reduced glioma-induced microglial MT1-MMP expression as well as glioma growth ex vivo.Our results show that versican released from glioma promotes tumor expansion through glioma-associated microglial/macrophage TLR2 signaling and subsequent expression of MT1-MMP. This signaling cascade might be a novel target for glioma therapies.
Project description:In murine glioma models, TLR2 is selectively upregulated in glioma-associated microglia. We found that TLR2 activation led to down-regulation of MHC-II in microglia. Therefore, we examined the effect of TLR2 activation on IFN-gamma-induced microglial transcriptome by in vitro culture of murine adult microglia. In the study, we confirmed that TLR2 activation led to Ciita shutdown and inhibition of MHC-II related genes, which also revealed the role of TLR2 in inducing APC disability and tumor immune escape. In addition, this work can be used to reveal the transcriptional characteristics of murine microglia during IFN-gamma and TLR2 activation. Overall design: Examination of transcriptional characteristics in murine adult microglia under TLR2 agonist and IFN-gamma treatments.
Project description:Diffuse infiltration of glioma cells into normal brain tissue is considered to be a main reason for the unfavorable outcomes of patients with malignant gliomas. Invasion of glioma cells into the brain parenchyma is facilitated by metalloprotease-mediated degradation of the extracellular matrix. Metalloproteases are released as inactive pro-forms and get activated upon cleavage by membrane bound metalloproteases. Here, we show that membrane type 1 metalloprotease (MT1-MMP) is up-regulated in glioma-associated microglia, but not in the glioma cells. Overexpression of MT1-MMP is even lethal for glioma cells. Glioma-released factors trigger the expression and activity of MT1-MMP via microglial toll-like receptors and the p38 MAPK pathway, as deletion of the toll-like receptor adapter protein MyD88 or p38 inhibition prevented MT1-MMP expression and activity in cultured microglial cells. Microglial MT1-MMP in turn activates glioma-derived pro-MMP-2 and promotes glioma expansion, as shown in an ex vivo model using MT1-MMP-deficient brain tissue and a microglia depletion paradigm. Finally, MyD88 deficiency or microglia depletion largely attenuated glioma expansion in 2 independent in vivo models.
Project description:The invasiveness of malignant gliomas is one of the major obstacles in glioma therapy and the reason for the poor survival of patients. Glioma cells infiltrate into the brain parenchyma and thereby escape surgical resection. Glioma associated microglia/macrophages support glioma infiltration into the brain parenchyma by increased expression and activation of extracellular matrix degrading proteases such as matrix metalloprotease (MMP) 2, MMP9 and membrane-type 1 MMP. In this work we demonstrate that, MMP9 is predominantly expressed by glioma associated microglia/macrophages in mouse and human glioma tissue but not by the glioma cells. Supernatant from glioma cells induced the expression of MMP9 in cultured microglial cells. Using mice deficient for different Toll-like receptors we identified Toll-like receptor 2/6 as the signaling pathway for the glioma induced upregulation of microglial MMP9. Also in an experimental mouse glioma model, Toll-like receptor 2 deficiency attenuated the upregulation of microglial MMP9. Moreover, glioma supernatant triggered an upregulation of Toll-like receptor 2 expression in microglia. Both, the upregulation of MMP9 and Toll-like receptor 2 were attenuated by the antibiotic minocycline and a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase antagonist in vitro. Minocycline also extended the survival rate of glioma bearing mice when given to the drinking water. Thus glioma cells change the phenotype of glioma associated microglia/macrophages in a complex fashion using Toll-like receptor 2 as an important signaling pathway and minocycline further proved to be a potential candidate for adjuvant glioma therapy.
Project description:Microglia are patrolling cells that sense changes in the brain microenvironment and respond acquiring distinct phenotypes that can be either beneficial or detrimental for brain homeostasis. Anti-inflammatory microglia release soluble factors that might promote brain repair; however, in glioma, anti-inflammatory microglia dampen immune response and promote a brain microenvironment that foster tumor growth and invasion. The chemokine CXCL16 is expressed in the brain, where it is neuroprotective against brain ischemia, and it has been found to be over-expressed in glioblastoma (GBM). Considering that CXCL16 specific receptor CXCR6 is diffusely expressed in the brain including in microglia cells, we wanted to investigate the role of CXCL16 in the modulation of microglia cell activity and phenotype, and in the progression of glioma. Here we report that CXCL16 drives microglia polarization toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype, also restraining microglia polarization toward an inflammatory phenotype upon LPS and IFN? stimulation. In the context of glioma, we demonstrate that CXCL16 released by tumor cells is determinant in promoting glioma associated microglia/macrophages (GAMs) modulation toward an anti-inflammatory/pro-tumor phenotype, and that cxcr6ko mice, orthotopically implanted into the brain with GL261 glioma cells,survive longer compared to wild-type mice. We also describe that CXCL16/CXCR6 signaling acts directly on mouse glioma cells, as well as human primary GBM cells, promoting tumor cell growth, migration and invasion. All together these data suggest that CXCL16 signaling could represent a good target to modulate microglia phenotype in order to restrain inflammation or to limit glioma progression.
Project description:Malignant glioma belong to the most aggressive neoplasms in humans with no successful treatment available. Patients suffering from glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the highest-grade glioma, have an average survival time of only around one year after diagnosis. Both microglia and peripheral macrophages/monocytes accumulate within and around glioma, but fail to exert effective anti-tumor activity and even support tumor growth. Here we use microarray analysis to compare the expression profiles of glioma-associated microglia/macrophages and naive control cells. Samples were generated from CD11b+ MACS-isolated cells from naïve and GL261-implanted C57BL/6 mouse brains. Around 1000 genes were more than 2-fold up- or downregulated in glioma-associated microglia/macrophages when compared to control cells. A comparison with published data sets of M1, M2a,b,c-polarized macrophages revealed a gene expression pattern that has only partial overlap with any of the M1 or M2 gene expression patterns. Samples for the qRT-PCR validation of selected M1 and M2a,b,c-specific genes were generated from two different glioma mouse models and isolated by flow cytometry to distinguish between resident microglia and invading macrophages. We confirmed in both models the unique glioma-associated microglia/macrophage phenotype including a mixture of M1 and M2a,b,c-specific genes. To validate the expression of these genes in human we MACS-isolated CD11b+ microglia/macrophages from GBM, lower grade brain tumors and control specimens. Apart from the M1/M2 gene analysis, we demonstrate that the expression of Gpnmb and Spp1 is highly upregulated in both murine and human glioma-associated microglia/macrophages. High expression of these genes has been associated with poor prognosis in human GBM, as indicated by patient survival data linked to gene expression data. We also show that microglia/macrophages are the predominant source of these transcripts in murine and human GBM. Our findings provide new potential targets for future anti-glioma therapy.
Project description:Microglia play important roles in extracellular matrix remodeling, tumor invasion, angiogenesis, and suppression of adaptive immunity in glioma. Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) regulates microglial activation and migration. However, little is known about the roles of NHE1 in intratumoral microglial activation and microglia-glioma interactions. Our study revealed up-regulation of NHE1 protein expression in both glioma cells and tumor-associated Iba1(+) microglia in glioma xenografts and glioblastoma multiforme microarrays. Moreover, we observed positive correlation of NHE1 expression with Iba1 intensity in microglia/macrophages. Glioma cells, via conditioned medium or non-contact glioma-microglia co-cultures, concurrently upregulated microglial expression of NHE1 protein and other microglial activation markers (iNOS, arginase-1, TGF-?, IL-6, IL-10 and the matrix metalloproteinases MT1-MMP and MMP9). Interestingly, glioma-stimulated microglia reciprocally enhanced glioma proliferation and migration. Most importantly, inhibition of microglial NHE1 activity via small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown or the potent NHE1-specific inhibitor HOE642 significantly attenuated microglial activation and abolished microglia-stimulated glioma migration and proliferation. Taken together, our findings provide the first evidence that NHE1 function plays an important role in glioma-microglia interactions, enhancing glioma proliferation and invasion by stimulating microglial release of soluble factors. NHE1 upregulation is a novel marker of the glioma-associated microglial activation phenotype. Inhibition of NHE1 represents a novel glioma therapeutic strategy by targeting tumor-induced microglial activation.
Project description:Tumor-cell infiltration is a major obstacle to successful therapy for brain tumors. Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs), a metzincin subfamily of six proteases, are important mediators of infiltration. The cellular source of MT-MMPs and their role in glioma biology, however, remain controversial. Thus, we comprehensively analyzed the expression of MT-MMPs in primary brain tumors. All MT-MMPs were differentially expressed in primary brain tumors. In diffuse gliomas, MT-MMP1, -3, and -4 were predominantly expressed by IDH1mutated tumor cells, while macrophages/microglia contributed significantly less to MT-MMP expression. For functional analyses, individual MT-MMPs were expressed in primary mouse p53-/- astrocytes. Invasion and migration potential of MT-MMP-transduced astrocytes was determined via scratch, matrigel invasion, and novel organotypic porcine spinal slice migration (OPoSSM) and invasion assays. Overall, MT-MMP-transduced astrocytes showed enhanced migration compared to controls. MMP14 was the strongest mediator of migration in scratch assays. However, in the OPoSSM assays, the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored MT-MMPs MMP17 and MMP25, not MMP14, mediated the highest infiltration rates of astrocytes. Our data unequivocally demonstrate for the first time that glioma cells, not microglia, are the predominant producers of MT-MMPs in glioma and can act as potent mediators of tumor-cell infiltration into CNS tissue. These proteases are therefore promising targets for therapeutic interventions.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>There is a clinical need for agents that target glioma cells for non-invasive and intraoperative imaging to guide therapeutic intervention and improve the prognosis of glioma. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-14 is overexpressed in glioma with negligible expression in normal brain, presenting MMP-14 as an attractive biomarker for imaging glioma. In this study, we designed a peptide probe containing a near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) dye/quencher pair, a positron emission tomography (PET) radionuclide, and a moiety with high affinity to MMP-14. This novel substrate-binding peptide allows dual modality imaging of glioma only after cleavage by MMP-14 to activate the quenched NIRF signal, enhancing probe specificity and imaging contrast.<h4>Methods</h4>MMP-14 expression and activity in human glioma tissues and cells were measured in vitro by immunofluorescence and gel zymography. Cleavage of the novel substrate and substrate-binding peptides by glioma cells in vitro and glioma xenograft tumors in vivo was determined by NIRF imaging. Biodistribution of the radiolabeled MMP-14-binding peptide or substrate-binding peptide was determined in mice bearing orthotopic patient-derived xenograft (PDX) glioma tumors by PET imaging.<h4>Results</h4>Glioma cells with MMP-14 activity showed activation and retention of NIRF signal from the cleaved peptides. Resected mouse brains with PDX glioma tumors showed tumor-to-background NIRF ratios of 7.6-11.1 at 4 h after i.v. injection of the peptides. PET/CT images showed localization of activity in orthotopic PDX tumors after i.v. injection of <sup>68</sup>Ga-binding peptide or <sup>64</sup>Cu-substrate-binding peptide; uptake of the radiolabeled peptides in tumors was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) by blocking with the non-labeled-binding peptide. PET and NIRF signals correlated linearly in the orthotopic PDX tumors. Immunohistochemistry showed co-localization of MMP-14 expression and NIRF signal in the resected tumors.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The novel MMP-14 substrate-binding peptide enabled PET/NIRF imaging of glioma models in mice, warranting future image-guided resection studies with the probe in preclinical glioma models.