All-trans Retinoic Acid-induced Abnormal Hippocampal Expression of Synaptic Genes SynDIG1 and DLG2 is Correlated with Anxiety or Depression-Like Behavior in Mice.
ABSTRACT: Clinical reports suggest a potential link between excess retinoids and development of depression. Although it has been shown that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) administration induces behavioral changes, further insight into how ATRA is involved is lacking. The hippocampus seems to be a major target of retinoids, and abnormal synaptic plasticity of the hippocampus is involved in depression. We examined two genes associated with synaptic function, discs large homolog 2 (DLG2), and synapse differentiation-inducing gene protein 1 (SynDIG1) in terms of hippocampal expression and correlation with behavior. Three different doses of ATRA were injected into young mice and 10 mg/kg ATRA was found to induce depression-like behavior. In the hippocampus, DLG2 mRNA was significantly decreased by ATRA. mRNA levels were positively correlated with central area duration and distance in the open-field test. Increased SynDIG1 mRNA levels were observed. There was a negative correlation between SynDIG1 mRNA levels and mobility time in the forced swimming test. Retinoic acid receptor ? mRNA was significantly positively correlated with DLG2 and negatively correlated with SynDIG1. To summarize, ATRA administration induced anxiety- and depression-like behavior accompanied by a decreased expression of DLG2 and an increased expression of SynDIG1. Moreover, DLG2 was correlated with anxiety-like behavior and SynDIG1 was correlated with depression-like behavior. These results might constitute a novel target underlying ATRA-induced anxiety- and depression-like behavior.
Project description:Leptin plays a key role in the pathogenesis of obesity and depression via the long form of leptin receptor (LepRb). An animal model of comorbid obesity and depression induced by high-fat diet (HFD) combined with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) was developed to study the relationship between depression/anxiety-like behavior, levels of plasma leptin and LepRb in the brains between four groups of rats, the combined obesity and CUMS (Co) group, the obese (Ob) group, the CUMS group and controls. Our results revealed that the Co group exhibited most severe depression-like behavior in the open field test (OFT), anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze test (EMT) and cognitive impairment in the Morris water maze (MWM). The Ob group had the highest weight and plasma leptin levels while the Co group had the lowest levels of protein of LepRb in the hypothalamus and hippocampus. Furthermore, depressive and anxiety-like behaviors as well as cognitive impairment were positively correlated with levels of LepRb protein and mRNA in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. The down-regulation of leptin/LepRb signaling might be associated with depressive-like behavior and cognitive impairment in obese rats facing chronic mild stress.
Project description:Retinoids, vitamin A derivatives, are important regulators of the growth and differentiation of skin cells. Although retinoids are therapeutically used for several skin ailments, little is known about their effects on P2 receptors, known to be involved in various functions in the skin. DNA array analysis showed that treatment of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) with all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), an agonist to RAR (retinoic acid receptor), enhanced the expression of mRNA for the P2Y2 receptor, a metabotropic P2 receptor that is known to be involved in the proliferation of the epidermis. The expression of other P2 receptors in NHEKs was not affected by ATRA. ATRA increased the mRNA for the P2Y2 receptor in a concentration-dependent fashion (1 nM to 1 muM). Am80, a synthesized agonist to RAR, showed a similar enhancement, whereas 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cisRA), an agonist to RXR (retinoid X receptor), enhanced P2Y2 gene expression to a lesser extent. Ca(2+) imaging analysis showed that ATRA also increased the function of P2Y2 receptors in NHEKs. Retinoids are known to enhance the turnover of the epidermis by increasing both proliferation and terminal differentiation. The DNA microarray analysis also revealed that ATRA upregulates various genes involved in the differentiation of NHEKs. Our present results suggest that retinoids, at least in part, exert their proliferative effects by upregulating P2Y2 receptors in NHEKs. This effect of retinoids may be closely related to their therapeutic effect against various ailments or aging events in skins such as over-keratinization, pigmentation and re-modeling.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Individuals who experience myocardial infarction (MI) often experience anxiety. Green tea has potent antioxidative properties and, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which is a primary component of tea polyphenols, has advantageous effects on anxiety and depression. However, its mechanism of action regarding the inhibition of anxiety-like symptoms after MI remains unclear. This study examined whether EGCG alleviated anxiety-like behavior in MI rats and its possible mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Rats were administered a daily gavage of EGCG (50 mg/kg) 7 days before and 14 consecutive days after the MI procedure. The open-field test and light/dark shuttle box were performed to evaluate anxiety-like behavior. Serum and hippocampus interleukin (IL)-6 levels were tested using ELISA. Caspase 3, caspase 8, caspase 9 and bcl-2 messenger RNA levels in the hippocampus were determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and STAT3 protein was detected by Western blot. RESULTS:Results of the open field test and light/dark shuttle box task demonstrated that the MI procedure induced anxiety-like behavior in the animals, and this impairment was improved by EGCG. Daily EGCG administration significantly decreased the level of IL-6 both in serum and hippocampus after MI. The administration of EGCG also significantly moderated the expression of caspases 3, 8, and 9 mRNA, which was related to apoptosis in the hippocampus. Furthermore, EGCG also downregulated the expression of STAT3, which was related to the activity of IL-6. These results suggest that EGCG alleviated anxiety-like behavior by inhibiting increases in neuroinflammation and apoptosis in the rat hippocampus. In addition, EGCG reversed alterations of IL-6 and STAT3 in the brain to alleviate apoptosis in the hippocampus. CONCLUSIONS:Thus, EGCG reversed anxiety-like behavior through an anti-inflammation effect to alleviate apoptosis in neurons and may be a useful therapeutic material for anxiety-like behavior after MI.
Project description:Modification of the strength of excitatory synaptic connections is a fundamental mechanism by which neural circuits are refined during development and learning. Synapse Differentiation Induced Gene 1 (SynDIG1) has been shown to play a key role in regulating synaptic strength in vitro. Here, we investigated the role of SynDIG1 in vivo in mice with a disruption of the SynDIG1 gene rather than use an alternate loxP-flanked conditional mutant that we find retains a partial protein product. The gene-trap insertion with a reporter cassette mutant mice shows that the SynDIG1 promoter is active during embryogenesis in the retina with some activity in the brain, and postnatally in the mouse hippocampus, cortex, hindbrain, and spinal cord. Ultrastructural analysis of the hippocampal CA1 region shows a decrease in the average PSD length of synapses and a decrease in the number of synapses with a mature phenotype. Intriguingly, the total synapse number appears to be increased in SynDIG1 mutant mice. Electrophysiological analyses show a decrease in AMPA and NMDA receptor function in SynDIG1-deficient hippocampal neurons. Glutamate stimulation of individual dendritic spines in hippocampal slices from SynDIG1-deficient mice reveals increased short-term structural plasticity. Notably, the overall levels of PSD-95 or glutamate receptors enriched in postsynaptic biochemical fractions remain unaltered; however, activity-dependent synapse development is strongly compromised upon the loss of SynDIG1, supporting its importance for excitatory synapse maturation. Together, these data are consistent with a model in which SynDIG1 regulates the maturation of excitatory synapse structure and function in the mouse hippocampus in vivo.
Project description:BACKGROUND:DLG2, also known as postsynaptic density protein-93 (PSD-93) or chapsyn-110, is an excitatory postsynaptic scaffolding protein that interacts with synaptic surface receptors and signaling molecules. A recent study has demonstrated that mutations in the DLG2 promoter region are significantly associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although DLG2 is well known as a schizophrenia-susceptibility gene, the mechanisms that link DLG2 gene disruption with ASD-like behaviors remain unclear. METHODS:Mice lacking exon 14 of the Dlg2 gene (Dlg2-/- mice) were used to investigate whether Dlg2 deletion leads to ASD-like behavioral abnormalities. To this end, we performed a battery of behavioral tests assessing locomotion, anxiety, sociability, and repetitive behaviors. In situ hybridization was performed to determine expression levels of Dlg2 mRNA in different mouse brain regions during embryonic and postnatal brain development. We also measured excitatory and inhibitory synaptic currents to determine the impacts of Dlg2 deletion on synaptic transmission in the dorsolateral striatum. RESULTS:Dlg2-/- mice showed hypoactivity in a novel environment. They also exhibited decreased social approach, but normal social novelty recognition, compared with wild-type animals. In addition, Dlg2-/- mice displayed strong self-grooming, both in home cages and novel environments. Dlg2 mRNA levels in the striatum were heightened until postnatal day 7 in mice, implying potential roles of DLG2 in the development of striatal connectivity. In addition, the frequency of excitatory, but not inhibitory, spontaneous postsynaptic currents in the Dlg2-/- dorsolateral striatum was significantly reduced. CONCLUSION:These results suggest that homozygous Dlg2 deletion in mice leads to ASD-like behavioral phenotypes, including social deficits and increased repetitive behaviors, as well as reductions in excitatory synaptic input onto dorsolateral spiny projection neurons, implying that the dorsal striatum is one of the brain regions vulnerable to the developmental dysregulation of DLG2.
Project description:Investigating the molecular basis and correlates of anxiety-related and depression-like behaviors, we generated a mouse model consisting of high (HAB) and low (LAB) anxiety-related behavior mice. We utilized the elevated plus-maze for testing the genetic predisposition to anxiety-related behavior and, consequently, used this as selection criterion for the inbreeding of our animals. In depression-related tests, HAB mice display a more passive, depression-like coping strategy than LAB mice, resembling clinical comorbidity of anxiety and depression as observed in psychiatric patients. Using a microarray approach, the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the basolateral/lateral (BLA), the medial (MeA) and central amygdala (CeA), the nucleus accumbens (NAc), the cingulate cortex (Cg) and the supraoptic nucleus (SON) – centers of the central nervous anxiety and fear circuitries – were investigated and screened for differences between HAB and LAB mice. Analysis was performed from six animals per line (HAB and LAB, respectively) pooled per brain region in ten technical replicates, thereof five with a dye-swapped design giving a total of 70 array slides analyzed. The LAB mouse line is referred to as reference.
Project description:Investigating the molecular basis and correlates of anxiety-related and depression-like behaviors, we generated a mouse model consisting of high (HAB), normal (NAB) and low (LAB) anxiety-related behavior mice. We utilized the elevated plus-maze for testing the genetic predisposition to anxiety-related behavior and, consequently, used this as selection criterion for the inbreeding of our animals. In depression-related tests, HAB mice display a more passive, depression-like coping strategy than LAB mice, resembling clinical comorbidity of anxiety and depression as observed in psychiatric patients. Using a microarray approach, the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the basolateral (BLA) and central amygdala (CeA), the cingulate cortex (Cg) and the dentate gyrus (DG) – centers of the central nervous anxiety and fear circuitries – were investigated and screened for differences between HAB, NAB and LAB mice. Analysis was performed from four to six animals per line (HAB, NAB and LAB from generation 25, respectively) per brain region, giving a total of 78 individual arrays analyzed. The LAB mouse line is referred to as reference.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Chronic stress exposure increases the risk of developing various neuropsychiatric illnesses. The behavioral sequelae of stress correlate with dendritic hypertrophy and glutamate-related synaptic remodeling at basolateral amygdala projection neurons (BLA PNs). Yet, though BLA PNs are functionally heterogeneous with diverse corticolimbic targets, it remains unclear whether stress differentially impacts specific output circuits. METHODS:Confocal imaging was used to reconstruct the morphology of mouse BLA PNs with the aid of retrograde tracing and biocytin staining. The synaptic activity in these neurons was measured with in vitro electrophysiology, and anxiety-like behavior of the mice was assessed with the elevated plus maze and open field test. RESULTS:Chronic restraint stress (CRS) produced dendritic hypertrophy across mouse BLA PNs, regardless of whether they did (BLA?dorsomedial prefrontal cortex [dmPFC]) or did not (BLA?dmPFC) target dmPFC. However, CRS increased the size of dendritic spine heads and the number of mature, mushroom-shaped spines only in BLA?dmPFC PNs, sparing neighboring BLA?dmPFC PNs. Moreover, the excitatory glutamatergic transmission was also selectively increased in BLA?dmPFC PNs, and this effect correlated with CRS-induced increases in anxiety-like behavior. Segregating BLA?dmPFC PNs based on their targeting of ventral hippocampus (BLA?ventral hippocampus) or nucleus accumbens (BLA?nucleus accumbens) revealed that CRS increased spine density and glutamatergic signaling in BLA?ventral hippocampus PNs in a manner that correlated with anxiety-like behavior. CONCLUSIONS:Chronic stress caused BLA PN neuronal remodeling with a previously unrecognized degree of circuit specificity, offering new insight into the pathophysiological basis of depression, anxiety disorders, and other stress-related conditions.
Project description:Retinoids (natural forms and synthetic derivatives of vitamin A) are used as therapeutic agents for numerous skin diseases such as keratinization disorders (e.g. ichthyoses) and psoriasis. Two endogenous ligands for retinoic acid receptors exist, retinoic acid (atRA) and 3,4-didehydroretinoic acid (ddRA). In primary human epidermal keratinocytes many transcriptional targets for atRA are known, whereas the targets for ddRA are unknown. In an attempt to determine the targets, we compared the effect of atRA and ddRA on transcriptional profiles in undifferentiated and differentiating human primary keratinocytes. First, as expected, many genes were induced or suppressed in response to keratinocyte differentiation. Furthermore, the two retinoids affected substantially more genes in differentiated keratinocytes (>350) than in proliferating keratinocytes (?20). In differentiating keratinocytes markers of cornification were suppressed suggesting a de-differentiating effect by the two retinoids. When comparing the expression profile of atRA to that of ddRA, no differently regulated genes were found. The array analysis also found that a minor number of miRNAs and a large number of non-coding transcripts were changed during differentiation and in response to the two retinoids. Furthermore, the expression of all, except one, genes known to cause autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) were found to be induced by differentiation. These results comprehensively document that atRA and ddRA exert similar transcriptional changes in keratinocytes and also add new insights into the molecular mechanism influenced by retinoids in the epidermis. Furthermore, it suggests which ARCI patients could benefit from therapy with retinoids.
Project description:Increased vitamin A (retinol) intake has been suggested to increase bone fragility. In the present study, we investigated effects of retinoids on bone resorption in cultured neonatal mouse calvarial bones and their interaction with glucocorticoids (GC). All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), retinol, retinalaldehyde, and 9-cis-retinoic acid stimulated release of (45)Ca from calvarial bones. The resorptive effect of ATRA was characterized by mRNA expression of genes associated with osteoclast differentiation, enhanced osteoclast number, and bone matrix degradation. In addition, the RANKL/OPG ratio was increased by ATRA, release of (45)Ca stimulated by ATRA was blocked by exogenous OPG, and mRNA expression of genes associated with bone formation was decreased by ATRA. All retinoid acid receptors (RAR?/?/?) were expressed in calvarial bones. Agonists with affinity to all receptor subtypes or specifically to RAR? enhanced the release of (45)Ca and mRNA expression of Rankl, whereas agonists with affinity to RAR?/? or RAR? had no effects. Stimulation of Rankl mRNA by ATRA was competitively inhibited by the RAR? antagonist GR110. Exposure of calvarial bones to GC inhibited the stimulatory effects of ATRA on (45)Ca release and Rankl mRNA and protein expression. This inhibitory effect was reversed by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist RU 486. Increased Rankl mRNA stimulated by ATRA was also blocked by GC in calvarial bones from mice with a GR mutation that blocks dimerization (GR(dim) mice). The data suggest that ATRA enhances periosteal bone resorption by increasing the RANKL/OPG ratio via RAR? receptors, a response that can be inhibited by monomeric GR.