Enhanced Yield of Bioactivities from Onion (Allium cepa L.) Skin and Their Antioxidant and Anti-?-Amylase Activities.
ABSTRACT: There is increasing concern for reduction of the ecological impacts of industrial waste caused by fruits and vegetables. To reduce costs of onion waste disposal while obtaining value-added products, onion skin can be used to extract quercetin, a natural flavonoid with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. The aim was to optimize quercetin extraction from brown onion (Allium cepa L.) skin through investigation of the effects of different parameters on quercetin yield. Operational parameters for conventional maceration extraction and for ultrasound-assisted extraction were compared: solvent type, mass-to-liquid ratio, extraction time and temperature. Antioxidant capacity was determined using DPPH· radical scavenging assays and quercetin yield using HPLC/DAD. Anti-?-amylase activity of onion skin extracts was investigated using ?-amylase inhibition assays. Optimal extraction conditions of quercetin from onion skin were obtained with maceration extraction, 50% ethanol, 1:100 mass-to-liquid ratio, 25 °C, for 15 min. Under these conditions, the antioxidant capacity (expressed as quercetin equivalents) was 18.7 mg/g and the mass fraction of quercetin was 7.96 mg/g. The onion skin extracts showed a dose-dependent relationship between dry extract concentration and ?-amylase inhibition, which confirms that this onion skin extract can be considered as an anti-diabetes agent.
Project description:Food waste is a serious problem for food processing industries, especially when it represents a loss of a valuable source of nutrients and phytochemicals. Increasing consumer demand for processed food poses the problem of minimizing waste by conversion into useful products. In this regard, onion (<i>Allium cepa</i>) waste consisting mainly of onion skin is rich in bioactive phenolic compounds. Here, we characterized the flavonoid profiles and biological activities of onion skin wastes of two traditional varieties with protected geographical indication (PGI), the red "Rossa di Tropea" and the coppery "Ramata di Montoro", typically cultivated in a niche area in southern Italy. The phytochemical profiles of exhaustive extracts, characterized by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet (UV) detection and high-resolution mass spectrometry, revealed that flavonols and anthocyanins were the characteristic metabolite classes of onion skins. Quercetin, quercetin glucosides and their dimer and trimer derivatives, and, among anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-glucoside, were the most abundant bioactive compounds. The potential of onion skins was evaluated by testing several biological activities: ABTS/oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and in vitro alpha-glucosidase assays were performed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-diabetic properties of the extracts and of their main compounds, respectively, and proliferative activity was evaluated by MTT assay on human fibroblasts. In the present study, by observing various biological properties of "Rossa di Tropea" and "Ramata di Montoro" onion-dried skins, we clearly indicated that this agricultural waste can provide bioactive molecules for multiple applications, from industrial to nutraceutical and cosmetical sectors.
Project description:Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) are experiencing growing interest as substitutes of polluting organic solvents for their low or absent toxicity and volatility. Moreover, they can be formed with natural bioavailable and biodegradable molecules; they are synthesized in absence of hazardous solvents. DESs are, inter alia, successfully used for the extraction/preconcentration of biofunctional molecules from complex vegetal matrices. Onion skin is a highly abundant waste material which represents a reservoir of molecules endowed with valuable biological properties such as quercetin and its glycosylated forms. An efficient extraction of these molecules from dry onion skin from "Dorata di Parma" cultivar was obtained with water dilution of acid-based DESs. Glycolic acid (with betaine 2/1 molar ratio and L-Proline 3/1 molar ratio as counterparts) and of <i>p</i>-toluensulphonic acid (with benzyltrimethylammonium methanesulfonate 1/1 molar ratio)-based DESs exhibited more than 3-fold higher extraction efficiency than methanol (14.79 µg/mL, 18.56 µg/mL, 14.83 µg/mL vs. 5.84 µg/mL, respectively). The extracted quercetin was also recovered efficaciously (81% of recovery) from the original extraction mixture. The proposed extraction protocol revealed to be green, efficacious and selective for the extraction of quercetin from onion skin and it could be useful for the development of other extraction procedures from other biological matrixes.
Project description:Onion waste disposal issue could be solved by using onion skin as food ingredient. Therefore, the aim of present study is the estimation of flavonoid concentration, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activities of onion skin of fifteen Indian cultivars. Flavonoid quantification was achieved by high performance liquid chromatography, which showed highest concentration of quercetin, quercetin 3-β-D-glucoside, luteolin and kaempferol in cv. 'NHRDF Red' (11,885.025 mg/kg), 'Hissar-2' (1432.875 mg/kg), 'Pusa Riddhi' (1669.925 mg/kg) and 'Bhima Shakti' (709.975 mg/kg), respectively in dry weight. Highest TPC and TFC were found in cv. 'NHRDF Red' while lowest were measured in cv. 'Bhima Shubhra'. DPPH assay (%), ABTS assay (%) and FRAP assay (µmol gallic acid/g) were showed maximum antioxidant capacity for cv. 'NHRDF Red' whereas least obtained for cv. 'Bhima Shubhra'. Skin of cv. 'Hissar-2' and 'NHRDF Red' are the best source of flavonoids and natural antioxidants.
Project description:The effective management of agro-industry organic waste for developing high-commercial-value products is a promising facet of the circular economy. Annually, more than 550,000 tons of waste that is potentially rich in biologically active substances is generated worldwide while processing onions (<i>Allium cepa</i> L.). The antioxidant potential of red, yellow, and white onion husks was studied using FRAP, ORAC, chemiluminescence, and UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS analysis methods. The extraction of phenolic compounds from onion husks was more effective when using an aqueous solution of 70% ethanol as compared with water. Ethanolic extract from red onion husks exhibited the highest TAC<sub>ORAC</sub> and TAC<sub>FRAP</sub> values, averaging 2017.34 µmol-equiv. Trolox/g raw material and 2050.23 µmol-equiv. DQ/g raw material, respectively, while the white onion exhibited much lower levels of antioxidants. According to the chemiluminescence results, it was determined that the red and yellow onion husks contained antioxidants of three types of power, while white onion husks only contained medium and weak types. The highest content of flavonoids was found in red onion husks, averaging 1915.90 ± 9.92 µg-eq. DQ/g of raw material and 321.42 ± 2.61 µg-eq. DQ/g of raw material for ethanol and water, respectively, while yellow onion husks exhibited 544.06 ± 2.73 µg-eq. DQ/g of raw material and 89.41 ± 2.08 for ethanol and water, respectively. Quercetin and its glycosides were the most representative flavonoids, and a number of substances with different pharmacological and biological properties were also identified.
Project description:Onions are one of the most widely grown vegetable crops. As production increases, so does the generation of waste from various parts of the onion, raising the need for efficient ecological disposal and use of such waste products. However, onion waste products are a rich source of antioxidants with a range of biological properties, therefore, they could potentially be used in food and pharmaceutical industries. In the present study, we identified the main flavonols and anthocyanins in peel extracts of <i>Allium × cornutum</i> Clement ex Visiani, 1842, and two varieties of <i>Allium cepa</i> L. and tested their antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative properties. Quercetin 3,4'-diglucolside, quercetin 4'-monoglucoside and quercetin are the most abundant flavonols in all onion extracts detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The composition of anthocyanins varied in all extracts. 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays showed that the triploid onion <i>A. × cornutum</i> had the highest antioxidant power. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity by broth microdilution assay also showed that <i>A. × cornutum</i> had higher antimicrobial activity compared to the red and yellow onion varieties. Comparable antiproliferative activity was confirmed for all onion extracts tested on three cancer cell lines: Hela (cervical cancer cell line), HCT116 (human colon cancer cell line) and U2OS (human osteosarcoma cell line). The most abundant onion flavonols (quercetin 3,4'-diglucoside and quercetin 4'-monoglucoside) showed weaker antimicrobial as well as antiproliferative properties compared to the extracts, leading to the conclusion that other phytochemicals besides flavonols contribute to the biological activity of onion peel extracts. The results demonstrate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of onion peels, which have promising potential as cancer cell proliferation inhibitors.
Project description:The onion non-edible outside layers represent a widely available waste material deriving from its processing and consumption. As onion is a vegetable showing many beneficial properties for human health, a study aiming to evaluate the use of extract deriving from the non-edible outside layers was planned. An eco-friendly extraction method was optimized using a hydroalcoholic solution as solvent. The obtained extract was deeply characterized by in vitro methods and then formulated in autoadhesive, biocompatible and pain-free hydrogel polymeric films. The extract, very soluble in water, showed antioxidant, radical scavenging, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities, suggesting a potential dermal application for wounds treatment. In vitro studies showed a sustained release of the extract from the hydrogel polymeric film suitable to reach concentrations necessary for both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. Test performed on human keratinocytes showed that the formulation is safe suggesting that the projected formulation could be a valuable tool for wound treatment.
Project description:The capsicum seed core and cabbage outer leaves are common wastes generated in the vegetable processing industry. We explored the in vitro health-promoting activity of these waste products for valorization. Freeze-dried and pulverized cabbage wastes had a high bile acid binding capacity and the capsicum wastes inhibited glucose dialysis more effectively. Methanolic extracts prepared with conventional solvent extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction were analyzed to determine their 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, in vitro ?-amylase inhibitory, in vitro lipase inhibitory, and prebiotic activity. Crude extracts of cabbage and capsicum wastes were screened using GC-MS analysis. The cabbage waste extracts showed high antioxidant activities but did not inhibit ?-amylase. The capsicum waste extracts inhibited both lipase and ?-amylase activities and supported the growth of the probiotic bacterium, Lactobacilli brevis. Volatile compounds of the vegetables consisted mainly of phenols and fatty acid esters. In all assays except the ?-amylase inhibition assay, the extracts prepared with ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction showed higher activity than those prepared using the conventional method. The capsicum seed core and cabbage outer leaves are potential sources of phytochemicals and antioxidant fibers. Capsicum waste extract supported probiotic bacterial growth without a lag phase. These waste products may be processed into high-value functional ingredients.
Project description:Horticultural plant materials not usually used from onion, carrot, beetroot, sea buckthorn, black and red currants as well as a wastewater powder from olive oil production were analyzed for total phenols content (FC), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), radical scavenging capacity (ABTS), and for major phenolic compounds by HPLC-MS. Antioxidant capacity and phenol content varied significantly between species and cultivars, with extracts of sea buckthorn leaves being superior. In different species, different phenolic compounds were closely associated with FRAP, ABTS and FC. For instance, hydrolysable tannins were major antioxidants in sea buckthorn whereas quercetin was the major antioxidant in onion peel and skin. This study shows that horticultural plant materials usually left in the field or waste materials from processing may have high antioxidant properties, and that extracts of these materials therefore could be of potential interest for development of antioxidant food additives.
Project description:This study aims at investigating the contribution of two classes of compounds, flavonoids and iridoids, to the bioactivity of Arbutus unedo L. leaves and fruits. The impact of different extraction procedures on phytochemicals content and hypoglycemic, antioxidant, and nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activities of A. unedo fresh and dried plant materials was investigated. Ellagic acid 4-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, and norbergenin were identified for the first time in this genus by using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS). Three iridoids (gardenoside, geniposide, unedoside) are specifically identified in the leaves. Interestingly, asperuloside was extracted only from dried fruits by ethanol with Soxhlet apparatus. Extracts were screened for their potential antioxidant activities by using the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Activity Power (FRAP), and ?-carotene bleaching tests. Based on the Global Antioxidant Score (GAS) calculation, the most promising antioxidant extract was obtained by hydroalcoholic maceration of dried leaves that showed half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.42 and 0.98 ?g/mL in ABTS and DPPH assays, respectively. The hypoglycaemic activity was investigated by ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibition tests. Extracts obtained by ethanol ultrasound extraction of fresh leaves and hydroalcoholic maceration of fresh fruits (IC50 of 19.56 and 28.42 ?g/mL, respectively) are more active against ?-glucosidase than the positive control acarbose (IC50 of 35.50 ?g/mL). Fruit extracts exhibited the highest anti-inflammatory activity.
Project description:Therapeutic treatments with <i>Artemisia annua</i> have a long-established tradition in various diseases due to its antibacterial, antioxidant, antiviral, anti-malaria and anti-cancer effects. However, in relation to the latter, virtually all reports focused on toxic effects of <i>A. annua</i> extracts were obtained mostly through conventional maceration methods. In the present study, an innovative extraction procedure from <i>A. annua</i>, based on pressurised cyclic solid-liquid (PCSL) extraction, resulted in the production of a new phytocomplex with enhanced anti-cancer properties. This extraction procedure generated a pressure gradient due to compressions and following decompressions, allowing to directly perform the extraction without any maceration. The toxic effects of <i>A. annua</i> PCSL extract were tested on different cells, including three cancer cell lines. The results of this study clearly indicate that the exposure of human, murine and canine cancer cells to serial dilutions of PCSL extract resulted in higher toxicity and stronger propensity to induce apoptosis than that detected by subjecting the same cells to <i>Artemisia</i> extracts obtained through canonical extraction by maceration. Collected data suggest that PCSL extract of <i>A. annua</i> could be a promising and economic new therapeutic tool to treat human and animal tumours.