Plasma metabolites associated with colorectal cancer stage: Findings from an international consortium.
ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death globally, with marked differences in prognosis by disease stage at diagnosis. We studied circulating metabolites in relation to disease stage to improve the understanding of metabolic pathways related to colorectal cancer progression. We investigated plasma concentrations of 130 metabolites among 744 Stages I-IV colorectal cancer patients from ongoing cohort studies. Plasma samples, collected at diagnosis, were analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ™ p180 kit. We assessed associations between metabolite concentrations and stage using multinomial and multivariable logistic regression models. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounders as well as multiple testing using false discovery rate (FDR) correction. Patients presented with 23, 28, 39 and 10% of Stages I-IV disease, respectively. Concentrations of sphingomyelin C26:0 were lower in Stage III patients compared to Stage I patients (pFDR ?
Project description:Context and Objectives:Glucose metabolism becomes progressively impaired with older age. Fasting glucose and insulin resistance are risk factors for premature death and other adverse outcomes. We aimed to identifying plasma metabolites associated with altered glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in older community-dwelling adults. Participants and Methods:A targeted metabolomics approach was used to identify plasma metabolites associated with impaired fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour plasma glucose on oral glucose tolerance testing, and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in 472 participants who participated in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, with a mean (SD) age of 70.7 (9.9) years. Results:We measured 143 plasma metabolites. In ordinal logistic regression analyses, using a false discovery rate of 5% and adjusting for potential confounders, we found that alanine, glutamic acid, and proline were significantly associated with increased odds of abnormal fasting plasma glucose. Phosphatidylcholine (diacyl C34:4, alkyl-acyl C32:1, C32:2, C34:2, C34:3, and C36:3) was associated with decreased odds of abnormal fasting plasma glucose. Glutamic and acid phosphatidylcholine alkyl-acyl C34:2 were associated with increased and decreased odds of 2-hour plasma glucose, respectively. Glutamic acid was associated with increased odds of higher tertiles of HOMA-IR. Glycine; phosphatidylcholine (diacyl C32:0, alkyl-acyl C32:1, C32:2, C34:1, C34:2, C34:3, C36:2, C36:3, C40:5, C40:6, C42:3, C42:4, and C42:5); sphingomyelin C16:0, C24:1, and C26:1; and lysophosphatidylcholine C18:1 were associated with decreased odds of abnormal HOMA-IR. Conclusions:Targeted metabolomics identified four plasma amino acids and 16 plasma lipid species, primarily containing polyunsaturated fatty acids, that were associated with abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in older adults.
Project description:Metabolomic approaches in prospective cohorts may offer a unique snapshot into early metabolic perturbations that are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in healthy people. We investigated the association of 105 serum metabolites, including acylcarnitines, amino acids, phospholipids and hexose, with risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic stroke in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam (27,548 adults) and Heidelberg (25,540 adults) cohorts. Using case-cohort designs, we measured metabolites among individuals who were free of CVD and diabetes at blood draw but developed MI (n = 204 and n = 228) or stroke (n = 147 and n = 121) during follow-up (mean, 7.8 and 7.3 years) and among randomly drawn subcohorts (n = 2214 and n = 770). We used Cox regression analysis and combined results using meta-analysis. Independent of classical CVD risk factors, ten metabolites were associated with risk of MI in both cohorts, including sphingomyelins, diacyl-phosphatidylcholines and acyl-alkyl-phosphatidylcholines with pooled relative risks in the range of 1.21-1.40 per one standard deviation increase in metabolite concentrations. The metabolites showed positive correlations with total- and LDL-cholesterol (r ranged from 0.13 to 0.57). When additionally adjusting for total-, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and C-reactive protein, acyl-alkyl-phosphatidylcholine C36:3 and diacyl-phosphatidylcholines C38:3 and C40:4 remained associated with risk of MI. When added to classical CVD risk models these metabolites further improved CVD prediction (c-statistics increased from 0.8365 to 0.8384 in EPIC-Potsdam and from 0.8344 to 0.8378 in EPIC-Heidelberg). None of the metabolites was consistently associated with stroke risk. Alterations in sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine metabolism, and particularly metabolites of the arachidonic acid pathway are independently associated with risk of MI in healthy adults.
Project description:PURPOSE:Underlying mechanisms of the relationship between body fatness and colorectal cancer remain unclear. This study investigated associations of circulating metabolites with visceral (VFA), abdominal subcutaneous (SFA), and total fat area (TFA) in colorectal cancer patients. METHODS:Pre-surgery plasma samples from 212 patients (stage I-IV) from the ColoCare Study were used to perform targeted metabolomics. VFA, SFA, and TFA were quantified by computed tomography scans. Partial correlation and linear regression analyses of VFA, SFA, and TFA with metabolites were computed and corrected for multiple testing. Cox proportional hazards were used to assess 2-year survival. RESULTS:In patients with metastatic tumors, SFA and TFA were statistically significantly inversely associated with 16 glycerophospholipids (SFA: pFDR range 0.017-0.049; TFA: pFDR range 0.029-0.048), while VFA was not. Doubling of ten of the aforementioned glycerophospholipids was associated with increased risk of death in patients with metastatic tumors, but not in patients with non-metastatic tumors (phet range: 0.00044-0.049). Doubling of PC ae C34:0 was associated with ninefold increased risk of death in metastatic tumors (Hazard Ratio [HR], 9.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.17-37.80); an inverse association was observed in non-metastatic tumors (HR 0.17; 95% CI 0.04-0.87; phet?=?0.00044). CONCLUSION:These data provide initial evidence that glycerophospholipids in metastatic colorectal cancer are uniquely associated with subcutaneous adiposity, and may impact overall survival.
Project description:Phosphatidylinositol phosphodiesterase activated by diacylglycerol is substantially inhibited by all phospholipids containing a phosphocholine head group, including phosphatidylcholine, hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine, choline plasmalogen, lysophosphatidylcholine, lysocholine plasmalogen, sphingomyelin and sphingosylphosphocholine. The sphingosine-containing phospholipids are the most inhibitory. Phosphatidic acid does not inhibit, and phosphatidylethanolamine activates the hydrolysis still further. Sphingomyelin is highly inhibitory to a diacylglycerol-stimulated intestinal mucosal phospholipase A2, or a liver lysosomal phospholipase A1 + A2, both hydrolysing a phosphatidylcholine substrate. Sphingomyelin [20% molar (20 mol of sphingomyelin/80 mol of phosphatidylethanolamine)] activates phosphatidylethanolamine hydrolysis by intestinal mucosal phospholipase A2, and then at higher concentrations (40% molar) substantially inhibits the activity. The results are discussed in relation to possible molecular reorganizations brought about in the hydrated phospholipid substrate complex, and in particular the possible stabilizing role of sphingomyelin in the maintenance of membrane structure, and hence in the modulation of phospholipase activity.
Project description:Two classes of channel-forming proteins in the eye lens, the water channel aquaporin-0 (AQP-0) and the connexins Cx46 and Cx50, are preferentially located in different regions of lens plasma membranes (1,2). Because these membranes contain high concentrations of cholesterol and sphingomyelin, as well as phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine with unsaturated hydrocarbon chains, microdomains (rafts) form in these membranes. Here we test the hypothesis that sorting into lipid microdomains can play a role in the disposition of AQP-0 and the connexins in the plane of the membrane. For both crude membrane fractions and proteoliposomes composed of lens proteins in phosphatidylcholine/sphingomyelin/cholesterol lipid bilayers, detergent extraction experiments showed that the connexins were located primarily in detergent soluble membrane (DSM) fractions, whereas AQP-0 was found in both detergent resistant membrane and DSM fractions. Analysis of purified AQP-0 reconstituted in raft-containing bilayers showed that the microdomain location of AQP-0 depended on protein/lipid ratio. AQP-0 was located almost exclusively in DSMs at a 1:1200 AQP-0/lipid ratio, whereas approximately 50% of the protein was sequestered into detergent resistant membranes at a 1:100 ratio, where freeze-fracture experiments show that AQP-0 oligomerizes (3). Consistent with these detergent extraction results, confocal microscopy images showed that AQP-0 was sequestered into raft microdomains in the 1:100 protein/lipid membranes. Taken together these results indicate that AQP-0 and connexins can be segregated in the membrane by protein-lipid interactions as modified by AQP-0 homo-oligomerization.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Little is known about how pre-diagnostic metabolites in blood relate to risk of prostate cancer. We aimed to investigate the prospective association between plasma metabolite concentrations and risk of prostate cancer overall, and by time to diagnosis and tumour characteristics, and risk of death from prostate cancer.<h4>Methods</h4>In a case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, pre-diagnostic plasma concentrations of 122 metabolites (including acylcarnitines, amino acids, biogenic amines, glycerophospholipids, hexose and sphingolipids) were measured using targeted mass spectrometry (AbsoluteIDQ p180 Kit) and compared between 1077 prostate cancer cases and 1077 matched controls. Risk of prostate cancer associated with metabolite concentrations was estimated by multi-variable conditional logistic regression, and multiple testing was accounted for by using a false discovery rate controlling procedure.<h4>Results</h4>Seven metabolite concentrations, i.e. acylcarnitine C18:1, amino acids citrulline and trans-4-hydroxyproline, glycerophospholipids PC aa C28:1, PC ae C30:0 and PC ae C30:2, and sphingolipid SM (OH) C14:1, were associated with prostate cancer (p?<?0.05), but none of the associations were statistically significant after controlling for multiple testing. Citrulline was associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer (odds ratio (OR<sub>1SD</sub>)?=?0.73; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.62-0.86; p <sub>trend</sub>?=?0.0002) in the first 5 years of follow-up after taking multiple testing into account, but not after longer follow-up; results for other metabolites did not vary by time to diagnosis. After controlling for multiple testing, 12 glycerophospholipids were inversely associated with advanced stage disease, with risk reduction up to 46% per standard deviation increase in concentration (OR<sub>1SD</sub>?=?0.54; 95% CI 0.40-0.72; p <sub>trend</sub>?=?0.00004 for PC aa C40:3). Death from prostate cancer was associated with higher concentrations of acylcarnitine C3, amino acids methionine and trans-4-hydroxyproline, biogenic amine ADMA, hexose and sphingolipid SM (OH) C14:1 and lower concentration of glycerophospholipid PC aa C42:4.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Several metabolites, i.e. C18:1, citrulline, trans-4-hydroxyproline, three glycerophospholipids and SM (OH) C14:1, might be related to prostate cancer. Analyses by time to diagnosis indicated that citrulline may be a marker of subclinical prostate cancer, while other metabolites might be related to aetiology. Several glycerophospholipids were inversely related to advanced stage disease. More prospective data are needed to confirm these associations.
Project description:The identification of cancer biomarkers is critical for target-linked cancer therapy. The overall level of phosphatidylcholine (PC) is elevated in colorectal cancer (CRC). To investigate which species of PC is overexpressed in colorectal cancer, an imaging mass spectrometry was performed using a panel of non-neoplastic mucosal and CRC tissues. In the present study, we identified a novel biomarker, PC(16:0/16:1), in CRC using imaging mass spectrometry. Specifically, elevated levels of PC(16:0/16:1) expression were observed in the more advanced stage of CRC. Our data further showed that PC(16:0/16:1) was specifically localized in the cancer region when examined using imaging mass spectrometry. Notably, because the ratio of PC(16:0/16:1) to lyso-PC(16:0) was higher in CRC, we postulated that lyso-PC acyltransferase (LPCAT) activity is elevated in CRC. In an in vitro analysis, we showed that LPCAT4 is involved in the deregulation of PC(16:0/16:1) in CRC. In an immunohistochemical analysis, LPCAT4 was shown to be overexpressed in CRC. These data indicate the potential usefulness of PC(16:0/16:1) for the clinical diagnosis of CRC and implicate LPCAT4 in the elevated expression of PC(16:0/16:1) in CRC.
Project description:Preincubation of rat liver microsomal vesicles at 37 degrees C in the presence of [3H]cholesterol/phospholipid liposomes results in a net transfer of cholesterol from liposomes to microsomal vesicles. This transfer follows first-order kinetics. For similar concentrations of the donor vesicles, rates of transfer are about 6-8 times lower with cholesterol/sphingomyelin liposomes compared with cholesterol/phosphatidylcholine liposomes. Also, transfer of cholesterol from cholesterol/sphingomyelin liposomes to microsomal vesicles reveals a larger activation energy than for the process from cholesterol/phosphatidylcholine liposomes. There is a significant correlation between the amount of liposomal cholesterol transferred to microsomal vesicles during preincubation and the increase found with acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activity in these microsomes over their corresponding controls. If, however, liposomes made solely of phospholipids are substituted for the cholesterol/phospholipid liposomes in the preincubation system containing microsomal vesicles, then the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activity is decreased compared with the corresponding control system. Both sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine liposomes are equally effective in decreasing the enzyme activity. These results offer direct kinetic evidence for the positive correlation between cholesterol and sphingomyelin found in vivo in biological membranes.
Project description:The observation that the membranes of flagella are enriched in sterols and sphingolipids has led to the hypothesis that flagella might be enriched in raft-forming lipids. However, a detailed lipidomic analysis of flagellar membranes is not available. Novel protocols to detach and isolate intact flagella from Trypanosoma brucei procyclic forms in combination with reverse-phase liquid chromatography high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry allowed us to determine the phospholipid composition of flagellar membranes relative to whole cells. Our analyses revealed that phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, ceramide and the sphingolipids inositol phosphorylceramide and sphingomyelin are enriched in flagella relative to whole cells. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositol are strongly depleted in flagella. Within individual glycerophospholipid classes, we observed a preference for ether-type over diacyl-type molecular species in membranes of flagella. Our study provides direct evidence for a preferential presence of raft-forming phospholipids in flagellar membranes of T. brucei.
Project description:Vascular and metabolic diseases cause half of total mortality in Europe. New prognostic markers would provide a valuable tool to improve outcome. First evidence supports the usefulness of plasma lipid species as easily accessible markers for certain diseases. Here we analyzed association of plasma lipid species with mortality in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study. Plasma lipid species were quantified by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and Cox proportional hazards regression was applied to assess their association with total and cardiovascular mortality. Overall no differences were detected between total and cardiovascular mortality. Highly polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine species together with lysophosphatidylcholine species and long chain saturated sphingomyelin and ceramide species seem to be associated with a protective effect. The predominantly circulating phosphatidylcholine-based as well as phosphatidylethanolamine-based ether species and phosphatidylethanolamine species were positively associated with total and cardiovascular mortality. Saturated and monounsaturated phosphatidylcholine species, especially phosphatidylcholine 32?0 (most probably dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine) and palmitate containing sphingomyelin and ceramide species showed together with 24?1 containing sphingomyelin and ceramide species strongest positive association with mortality. A quotient of the sums of the six most protective species and the six species with the strongest positive mortality association indicated an almost 3-fold increased risk of mortality, which was higher than the hazard ratio for known risk factors in our cohort. Plasma lipid species levels and especially ratios of certain species may be valuable prognostic marker for cardiovascular and total mortality.