Improved reperfusion following alternative surgical approach for experimental stroke in mice.
ABSTRACT: Background: Following ischemic stroke, recanalisation and restoration of blood flow to the affected area of the brain is critical and directly correlates with patient recovery. In vivo models of ischemic stroke show high variability in outcomes, which may be due to variability in reperfusion. We previously reported that a surgical refinement in the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of stroke, via repair of the common carotid artery (CCA), removes the reliance on the Circle of Willis for reperfusion and reduced infarct variability. Here we further assess this refined surgical approach on reperfusion characteristics following transient MCAO in mice. Methods: Mice underwent 60 min of MCAO, followed by either CCA repair or ligation at reperfusion. All mice underwent laser speckle contrast imaging at baseline, 24 h and 48 h post-MCAO. Results: CCA ligation reduced cerebral perfusion in the ipsilateral hemisphere compared to baseline (102.3 ± 4.57%) at 24 h (85.13 ± 16.09%; P < 0.01) and 48 h (75.04 ± 12.954%; P < 0.001) post-MCAO. Repair of the CCA returned perfusion to baseline (94.152 ± 2.44%) levels and perfusion was significantly improved compared to CCA ligation at both 24 h (102.83 ± 8.41%; P < 0.05) and 48 h (102.13 ± 9.34%; P < 0.001) post-MCAO. Conclusions: Our findings show CCA repair, an alternative surgical approach for MCAO, results in improved ischemic hemisphere perfusion during the acute phase.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Animal models are essential to study the pathophysiological changes associated with focal occlusive stroke and to investigate novel therapies. Currently used rodent models have yielded little clinical success, however large animal models may provide a more suitable alternative to improve clinical translation. We sought to develop a model of acute proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA) ischemic stroke in sheep, including both permanent occlusion and transient occlusion with reperfusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 18 adult male and female Merino sheep were randomly allocated to one of three groups (n?=?6/gp): 1) sham surgery; 2) permanent proximal MCA occlusion (MCAO); or 3) temporary MCAO with aneurysm clip. All animals had invasive arterial blood pressure, intracranial pressure and brain tissue oxygen monitoring. At 4 h following vessel occlusion or sham surgery animals were killed by perfusion fixation. Brains were processed for histopathological examination and infarct area determination. 6 further animals were randomized to either permanent (n?=?3) or temporary MCAO (n?=?3) and then had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 4 h after MCAO. RESULTS: Evidence of ischemic injury in an MCA distribution was seen in all stroke animals. The ischemic lesion area was significantly larger after permanent (28.8%) compared with temporary MCAO (14.6%). Sham animals demonstrated no evidence of ischemic injury. There was a significant reduction in brain tissue oxygen partial pressure after permanent vessel occlusion between 30 and 210 mins after MCAO. MRI at 4 h demonstrated complete proximal MCA occlusion in the permanent MCAO animals with a diffusion deficit involving the whole right MCA territory, whereas temporary MCAO animals demonstrated MRA evidence of flow within the right MCA and smaller predominantly cortical diffusion deficits. CONCLUSIONS: Proximal MCAO can be achieved in an ovine model of stroke via a surgical approach. Permanent occlusion creates larger infarct volumes, however aneurysm clip application allows for reperfusion.
Project description:Perfusion imaging is crucial in imaging of ischemic stroke to determine 'tissue at risk' for infarction. In this study we compared the volumetric quantification of the perfusion deficit in two rat middle-cerebral-artery occlusion (MCAO) models using two gadolinium-based contrast agents (P1152 (Guerbet) and Magnevist (Bayer-Schering, Pittsburgh, PA, USA)) as compared with our well established continuous arterial spin labeling (CASL) perfusion imaging technique. Animals underwent either permanent MCAO or transient MCAO with 80-min reperfusion. Imaging was performed at four different time points after MCAO. A region-of-interest (ROI) analysis of the subregions of the ischemic zone (core, penumbra, transient reversal (TR), and sustained reversal (SR)) using P1152 showed significant reduction in blood flow in the core and TR subregions relative to the penumbral and SR subregions while occluded. After reperfusion, a significant increase in blood flow was recorded at all time points after reperfusion in all regions except TR. From the ROI analysis the threshold for the penumbra was determined to be -62+/-11% and this value was subsequently used for quantification of the volumetric deficit. The ischemic volume as defined by dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC), was only statistically different from the CASL-derived ischemic volume when using Magnevist at post-reperfusion time points.
Project description:Cerebral blood flow and oxygenation in the first few hours after reperfusion following ischemic stroke are critical for therapeutic interventions but are not well understood. We investigate changes in oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) concentration in the cortex during and after ischemic stroke, using multispectral optical imaging in anesthetized mice, a remote filament to induce either 30 minute middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo), sham surgery or anesthesia alone. Immunohistochemistry establishes cortical injury and correlates the severity of damage with the change of oxygen perfusion. All groups were imaged for 6 hours after MCAo or sham surgery. Oxygenation maps were calculated using a pathlength scaling algorithm. The MCAo group shows a significant drop in HbO2 during occlusion and an initial increase after reperfusion. Over the subsequent 6 hours HbO2 concentrations decline to levels below those observed during stroke. Platelets, activated microglia, interleukin-1?, evidence of BBB breakdown and neuronal stress increase within the stroked hemisphere and correlate with the severity of the delayed reperfusion deficit but not with the ?HbO2 during stroke. Despite initial restoration of HbO2 after 30 min MCAo there is a delayed compromise that coincides with inflammation and could be a target for improved stroke outcome after thrombolysis.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Dehydration is common among ischemic stroke patients and is associated with early neurological deterioration and poor outcome. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that dehydration status is associated with decreased cerebral perfusion and aggravation of ischemic brain injury. <b>Methods:</b> Diffusion-weighted imaging and arterial spin labeling perfusion MR imaging were performed on rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) by using a 9.4T MR imaging scanner to measure the volume of infarction and relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) after infarction. Twenty-five rats were assigned to either a dehydration group or normal hydration group, and dehydration status was achieved by water deprivation for 48 h prior to MCAO. <b>Results:</b> The volume of the infarction was significantly larger for the dehydration group at the 4th h after MCAO (<i>p</i> = 0.040). The progression in the infarct volume between the 1st and 4th h was also larger in the dehydration group (<i>p</i> = 0.021). The average rCBF values of the contralateral normal hemispheres at the 1st and the 4th h were significantly lower in the dehydration group (<i>p</i> = 0.027 and 0.040, respectively). <b>Conclusions:</b> Our findings suggested that dehydration status is associated with the progression of infarct volume and decreases in cerebral blood flow during the acute stage of ischemic stroke. This preliminary study provided an imaging clue that more intensive hydration therapies and reperfusion strategies are necessary for the management of acute ischemic stroke patients with dehydration status.
Project description:In order to improve clinical trial design and translation of normobaric oxygen (NBO) treatment of ischemic stroke, NBO treatment parameters need to be better understood. This study investigated NBO treatment efficacy at two different stroke severities and two NBO treatment durations in rats. For the 60-min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), NBO treatment for 25 min and 150 min were studied. For the 90-min MCAO, NBO treatment for 55 min and 150 min were studied. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) and T2 MRI were acquired during occlusion prior to treatment, after reperfusion, and 48h after MCAO. The effects of NBO treatment on lesion volumes, and CBF, ADC and T2 of ischemic core, perfusion-diffusion mismatch and normal tissue were analyzed longitudinally. The major findings were: i) NBO treatment was effective in both groups of stroke severities, salvaging similar percentage of initial abnormal ADC tissue, and ii) NBO treatments continued after reperfusion were more beneficial than NBO treatment during occlusion alone for both MCAO groups. These findings underscore the importance of the effects of NBO duration and stroke severity on treatment outcomes.
Project description:The lack of efficient neuroprotective strategies for neonatal stroke could be ascribed to pathogenic ischemic processes differentiating adults and neonates. We explored this hypothesis using a rat model of neonatal ischemia induced by permanent occlusion of the left distal middle cerebral artery combined with 50 min of occlusion of both common carotid arteries (CCA). Postconditioning was performed by repetitive brief release and occlusion (30 s, 1 and/or 5 min) of CCA after 50 min of CCA occlusion. Alternative reperfusion was generated by controlled release of the bilateral CCA occlusion. Blood-flow velocities in the left internal carotid artery were measured using color-coded pulsed Doppler ultrasound imaging. Cortical perfusion was measured using laser Doppler. Cerebrovascular vasoreactivity was evaluated after inhalation with the hypercapnic gas or inhaled nitric oxide (NO). Whatever the type of serial mechanical interruptions of blood flow at reperfusion, postconditioning did not reduce infarct volume after 72 hours. A gradual perfusion was found during early re-flow both in the left internal carotid artery and in the cortical penumbra. The absence of acute hyperemia during early CCA re-flow, and the lack of NO-dependent vasoreactivity in P7 rat brain could in part explain the inefficiency of ischemic postconditioning after ischemia-reperfusion.
Project description:Ischemia/hypoxia induces de novo expression of the sulfonylurea receptor 1-regulated NC(Ca-ATP) channel. In rodent models of ischemic stroke, early postevent administration of the sulfonylurea, glibenclamide, is highly effective in reducing edema, mortality, and lesion volume, and in patients with diabetes presenting with ischemic stroke, pre-event plus postevent use of sulfonylureas is associated with better neurological outcome. However, the therapeutic window for treatment with glibenclamide has not been studied.We examined the effect of low-dose (nonhypoglycemogenic) glibenclamide in 3 rat models of ischemic stroke, all involving proximal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo): a thromboembolic model, a permanent suture occlusion model, and a temporary suture occlusion model with reperfusion (105 minutes occlusion, 2-day reperfusion). Treatment was started at various times up to 6 hours post-MCAo. Lesion volumes were measured 48 hours post-MCAo using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride.Glibenclamide reduced total lesion volume by 53% in the thromboembolic MCAo model at 6 hours, reduced corrected cortical lesion volume by 51% in the permanent MCAo model at 4 hours, and reduced corrected cortical lesion volume by 41% in the temporary MCAo model at 5.75 hours (P<0.05 for all 3). Analysis of pooled data from the permanent MCAo and temporary MCAo series indicated a sigmoidal relationship between hemispheric swelling and corrected cortical lesion volume with the half-maximum cortical lesion volume being observed with 10% hemispheric swelling.Low-dose glibenclamide has a strong beneficial effect on lesion volume and has a highly favorable therapeutic window in several models of ischemic stroke.
Project description:Metallothionein-II (MT-II) is an ubiquitously expressed small-molecular-weight protein and highly induced in various species and tissues upon stress, inflammation, and ischemia. MT-deficiency exacerbates ischemic injury in rodent stroke models in vitro and in vivo. However, there is conflicting data on the potential neuroprotective effect of exogenously applied metallothionein. Thus, we applied MT-II in an in vitro stroke model and intraperitoneally (i.p.) in two in vivo standard models of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) (a 'stringent' one [60 min MCAO/48 h reperfusion] and a 'mild' one [30 min MCAO/72 h reperfusion]), as well as i.v. together with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) to evaluate if exogenous MT-II-application protects against ischemic stroke. Whereas MT-II did not protect against 60 min MCAO, there was a significant reduction of direct and indirect infarct volumes and neurological deficit in the MT-II (i.p.) treated animals in the 'mild' model at 3d after MCAO. Furthermore, MT-II also improved survival of the mice after MCAO, suppressed TNF-? mRNA induction in ischemic brain tissue, and protected primary neuronal cells against oxygen-glucose-deprivation in vitro. Thus, exogenous application of MT-II protects against ischemic injury in vitro and in vivo. However, long-term studies with different species and larger sampling sizes are required before a clinical use can be envisaged.
Project description:Follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1), an extracellular glycoprotein, has been reported to decrease apoptosis in ischemic cardiac diseases, but its effect in ischemic stroke has not been examined. We hypothesized that recombinant FSTL1 attenuates neuronal apoptosis through its receptor disco-interacting protein 2 homolog A (DIP2A) and the Akt pathway after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats.One hundred forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 2 hours of MCAO followed by reperfusion. In a subset of animals, the time course and location of FSTL1 and DIP2A were detected by Western blot and immunofluorescence double staining. Another set of animals were intracerebroventricularly given either recombinant FSTL1 1 hour after reperfusion or FSTL1-small interfering RNA (siRNA) 48 hours before reperfusion. Additionally, DIP2A was knockdown by siRNA in some animals. Infarction volume and neurological deficits were measured, and the expression of FSTL1, DIP2A, phosphorylated Akt, cleaved caspase-3, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling were quantified using Western blot.The expression of FSTL1 and DIP2A was increased in neurons and peaked 24 hours after MCAO. Recombinant FSTL1 reduced brain infarction and improved neurological deficits 24 and 72 hours after MCAO via activation of its receptor DIP2A and downstream phosphorylation of Akt. These effects were reversed by DIP2A-siRNA and FSTL1-siRNA.Recombinant FSTL1 decreases neuronal apoptosis and improves neurological deficits through phosphorylation of Akt by activation of its receptor DIP2A after MCAO in rats. Thus, FSTL1 may have potentials as a treatment for patients with ischemic stroke.
Project description:Stroke is one of the main causes of disease‑related mortality worldwide. Buyang Huanwu Decoction (BHD) has been used to protect against stroke and stroke‑induced disability for several years in China. Studies have shown that BHD can relieve neuronal damage in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the mechanism remains unclear. A middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO‑R) model was used in the present study. The animals were treated with BHD (5, 10 and 20 g/kg) or rapamycin. Infarct size and modified neurological severity score were calculated on day 5 following MCAO‑R surgery. Cellular changes around the ischemic penumbra were revealed by hematoxylin and eosin and Nissl staining. The protein expression levels of nestin, brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), doublecortin on the X chromosome (DCX) and autophagy‑related proteins (beclin 1, LC3‑II and p62) in the peri‑ischemic area of the brain were detected. The results demonstrated that post‑surgical treatment with BHD reduced the brain infarct size and improved neurological deficits in MCAO‑R rats. BHD protected against MCAO‑R‑induced neuronal impairment and promoted neurogenesis, increased the protein expression of nestin, BDNF and DCX and markedly enhanced autophagy by increasing beclin 1 and LC3‑II and decreasing p62. Meanwhile, BHD promoted the expression of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an important regulator of autophagy. In conclusion, the present study suggested that post‑surgical treatment with BHD could protect rat brains from I/R injury, potentially through the SIRT1/autophagy pathway.