Patients with high-risk DLBCL benefit from dose-dense immunochemotherapy combined with early systemic CNS prophylaxis.
ABSTRACT: Survival of patients with high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is suboptimal, and the risk of central nervous system (CNS) progression is relatively high. We conducted a phase 2 trial in 139 patients aged 18 to 64 years who had primary DLBCL with an age-adjusted International Prognostic Index (aaIPI) score of 2 to 3 or site-specific risk factors for CNS recurrence. The goal was to assess whether a dose-dense immunochemotherapy with early systemic CNS prophylaxis improves the outcome and reduces the incidence of CNS events. Treatment consisted of 2 courses of high-dose methotrexate in combination with biweekly rituximab (R), cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP-14), followed by 4 courses of R-CHOP-14 with etoposide (R-CHOEP) and 1 course of high-dose cytarabine with R. In addition, liposomal cytarabine was administered intrathecally at courses 1, 3, and 5. Coprimary endpoints were failure-free survival and CNS progression rates. Thirty-six (26%) patients experienced treatment failure. Progression occurred in 23 (16%) patients, including three (2.2%) CNS events. At 5 years of median follow-up, failure-free survival, overall survival, and CNS progression rates were 74%, 83%, and 2.3%, respectively. Treatment reduced the risk of progression compared with our previous trial, in which systemic CNS prophylaxis was given after 6 courses of biweekly R-CHOEP (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.31-0.77; P = .002) and overcame the adverse impact of an aaIPI score of 3 on survival. In addition, outcome of the patients with BCL2/MYC double-hit lymphomas was comparable to the patients without the rearrangements. The results are encouraging, with a low toxic death rate, low number of CNS events, and favorable survival rates. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01325194.
Project description:Double expression of MYC and BCL2 proteins (DE) and double-hit MYC+BCL2/BCL6 translocations (DH) were established as important biomarkers in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) by the 2016 revision of the World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms. Whether this applies to the subgroup of young patients with high risk DLBCL is not known. We previously found that in a uniform retrospective population-based cohort of patients aged 18-60 years with high-risk DLBCL, the addition of etoposide to R-CHOP chemotherapy (R-CHOEP) resulted in improved survival mainly in patients with germinal center B-cell like (GCB) immunophenotype. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic and predictive value of DE and DH in this patient cohort.Data on all young Danish patients diagnosed with de novo high-risk DLBCL 2004-2008 and treated with R-CHOP or R-CHOEP were obtained from the Danish Lymphoma database (n = 159). Tumor samples were available from 103 patients. MYC and BCL2 proteins were analyzed with quantitative immunohistochemistry (IHC) using different cut off values. MYC-, BCL2- and BCL6-translocations were examined with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).DE with MYC>75% and BCL2>85% was an independent negative prognostic marker of progression free survival (PFS) in patients treated with R-CHOP but not R-CHOEP (p<0.001), also after exclusion of patients with DH. A predictive effect of DE for response (PFS) to R-CHOEP vs. R-CHOP was almost significant (p = 0.07). DH was not prognostic in this patient cohort.In young patients with high-risk DLBCL, treatment with R-CHOEP may overcome the negative prognostic impact of DE observed in patients treated with R-CHOP.
Project description:The dissemination in the central nervous system (CNS) is an uncommon but fatal complication occurring in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Standard prophylaxis has been demonstrated to reduce CNS relapse and improve survival rates. Intrathecal (IT) liposomal cytarabine allows maintaining elevated drug levels in the cerebrospinal fluid for an extended period of time. Data on the efficacy and safety of liposomal cytarabine as CNS prophylaxis in patients with DLBCL are still insufficient. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the prophylaxis with IT liposomal cytarabine in prevention of CNS relapse in high-risk patients with DLBCL who were included in a trial of first line systemic therapy with 6 cycles of dose-dense R-CHOP every 14 days. Twenty-four (18.6 %) out of 129 patients were identified to have risk factors for CNS involvement, defined as follows: >30 % bone marrow infiltration, testes infiltration, retroperitoneal mass ≥10 cm, Waldeyer ring, or bulky cervical nodes involvement. Liposomal cytarabine (50 mg) was administered by lumbar puncture the first day of the 1st, 2nd, and 6th cycle of R-CHOP14 scheme. Among 70 IT infusions, grade 3-4 adverse events reported were headache (one patient) and nausea/vomiting (one patient). With a median follow-up of 40.1 months, no CNS involvement by DLBCL was observed in any patient. In conclusion, IT liposomal cytarabine is safe, feasible, and effective for CNS prophylaxis, causing few associated risks and little discomfort to patients with DLBCL.
Project description:Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) are a heterogeneous group of hematologic malignancies which typically respond to standard first-line chemoimmunotherapy regimens. Unfortunately, patients with refractory NHL face a poor prognosis and represent an unmet need for improved therapeutics. We present two cases of refractory CD30+ NHL who responded to novel brentuximab vedotin- (BV-) based regimens. The first is a patient with stage IV anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) with cranial nerve involvement who failed front-line treatment with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, etoposide, and prednisone (CHOEP) and second line cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, dexamethasone alternating with high-dose methotrexate (MTX), and cytarabine (hyperCVAD) with intrathecal- (IT-) MTX and IT-cytarabine, but responded when BV was substituted for vincristine (hyperCBAD). The second patient was a man with stage IV diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with leptomeningeal involvement whose disease progressed during first-line rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) and progressed despite salvage therapy with rituximab, dexamethasone, cytarabine, and cisplatin (R-DHAP) in whom addition of BV to topotecan resulted in a significant response. This report describes the first successful salvage treatments of highly aggressive, double refractory CD30+ NHL using two unreported BV-based chemoimmunotherapy regimens. Both regimens appear effective and have manageable toxicities. Further clinical trials assessing novel BV combinations are warranted.
Project description:There are limited data from prospective controlled trials regarding optimal treatment strategies in patients with primary breast diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In this phase 2 study (NCT01448096), we examined the efficacy and safety of standard immunochemotherapy and central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis using intrathecal methotrexate (IT-MTX). Thirty-three patients with newly diagnosed primary breast DLBCL received six cycles of rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) and four fixed doses of IT-MTX (12 mg). The median age was 50 years (range, 29-75), and all patients were females. According to the CNS-International Prognostic Index, most patients (n = 28) were categorized as the low-risk group. Among the 33 patients, 32 completed R-CHOP, and 31 completed IT-MTX as planned. With a median follow-up of 46.1 months (interquartile range (IQR), 31.1-66.8), the 2-year progression-free and overall survival rates were 81.3% and 93.5%, respectively. Six patients experienced treatment failures, which included the CNS in four patients (two parenchyma and two leptomeninges) and breast in two patients (one ipsilateral and one contralateral). The 2-year cumulative incidence of CNS relapse was 12.5%. Although standard R-CHOP and IT-MTX without routine radiotherapy show clinically meaningful survival outcomes, this strategy may not be optimal for reducing CNS relapse and warrants further investigation.
Project description:Background:Central nervous system (CNS) relapse of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is associated with a dismal prognosis. Here, we report an analysis of CNS relapse for patients treated within the UK NCRI phase III R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone) 14 versus 21 randomised trial. Patients and methods:The R-CHOP 14 versus 21 trial compared R-CHOP administered two- versus three weekly in previously untreated patients aged??18?years with bulky stage I-IV DLBCL (n?=?1080). Details of CNS prophylaxis were retrospectively collected from participating sites. The incidence and risk factors for CNS relapse including application of the CNS-IPI were evaluated. Results:177/984 patients (18.0%) received prophylaxis (intrathecal (IT) methotrexate (MTX) n?=?163, intravenous (IV) MTX n?=?2, prophylaxis type unknown n?=?11 and IT MTX and cytarabine n?=?1). At a median follow-up of 6.5?years, 21 cases of CNS relapse (isolated n?=?11, with systemic relapse n?=?10) were observed, with a cumulative incidence of 1.9%. For patients selected to receive prophylaxis, the incidence was 2.8%. Relapses predominantly involved the brain parenchyma (81.0%) and isolated leptomeningeal involvement was rare (14.3%). Univariable analysis demonstrated the following risk factors for CNS relapse: performance status 2, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, IPI,?>1 extranodal site of disease and presence of a 'high-risk' extranodal site. Due to the low number of events no factor remained significant in multivariate analysis. Application of the CNS-IPI revealed a high-risk group (4-6 risk factors) with a 2- and 5-year incidence of CNS relapse of 5.2% and 6.8%, respectively. Conclusion:Despite very limited use of IV MTX as prophylaxis, the incidence of CNS relapse following R-CHOP was very low (1.9%) confirming the reduced incidence in the rituximab era. The CNS-IPI identified patients at highest risk for CNS recurrence. ClinicalTrials.gov:ISCRTN number 16017947 (R-CHOP14v21); EudraCT number 2004-002197-34.
Project description:We conducted a prospective randomized phase II study to evaluate two chemotherapy regimens: (i) rituximab plus hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone (R-HCVAD) alternating with rituximab, high-dose methotrexate, and cytarabine (R-MA) and (ii) rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). This study randomized patients aged ?60 years with DLBCL and an age-adjusted international prognostic index ?2 to R-HCVAD/R-MA or R-CHOP based on a Bayesian adaptive algorithm. Interim analysis of the first 26 eligible patients showed that the complete response rate (CRR) was higher with R-HCVAD/R-MA than R-CHOP (P = 0·03); thus, R-CHOP arm was closed. In the final analysis, 49 and 10 eligible patients were treated in R-HCVAD/R-MA and R-CHOP arms respectively; CRR were 82% and 60% respectively (P = 0·13); 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 75·7% and 77·8% respectively (P = 0·53). In the R-HCVAD/R-MA arm, 3-year PFS rates in patients aged 46-60 years and ?45 years were 70·3% and 87·1% respectively (P = 0·13), and the treatment-associated early mortality rate in patients >45 years was 12%. In conclusion, R-HCVAD/R-MA is associated with excellent outcome in patients ?45 years old. However, in patients >45 years old, R-HCVAD/R-MA is associated with unacceptable mortality rates.
Project description:In this study we investigated whether the expression of cyclin D2 (CCND2) mRNA in activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL) was correlated with the efficacy of Rituximab combined with chemotherapy (R-CHOP) treatment and patient prognosis. Tissue microarray and RNAscope in situ hybridization were used to detect CCND2 mRNA expression in 117 ABC-DLBCL tumor tissues and associations between CCND2 expression and progression-free survival was analyzed. We also downloaded data from the Gene Expression Omnibus database to analyze CCND2 expression and the efficacy of R-CHOP treatment and prognosis of patients with newly diagnosed ABC-DLBCL. The positive expression rate of CCND2 mRNA in patients with ABC-DLBCL was 41%. Progression-free survival was significantly lower in patients with positive rather than those negative CCND2 expression (P = 0.005). Further, R-CHOP treatment was significantly more effective for patients with ABC-DLBCL with high CCND2 mRNA expression than those with low expression (P = 0.039). Multivariate regression analysis suggested that high CCND2 expression was an independent prognostic risk factor for progression-free survival for patients with ABC-DLBCL who achieved complete remission after R-CHOP treatment. CCND2 expression in ABC-DLBCL tumors, detected by RNA in situ hybridization, is closely related to the curative effect of R-CHOP and patient prognosis following R-CHOP treatment, and represents a potential biomarker for treatment efficacy and prognostic evaluation in patients with ABC-DLBCL.
Project description:Central nervous system (CNS) lymphomatosis is a fatal complication of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). In lymphoblastic or Burkitt lymphoma, without specific CNS prophylaxis the risk of CNS relapse is 20-30%. DLBCL has a lower risk of relapse (around 5%) but several factors increase its incidence. There is no consensus or trials to conclude which is the best CNS prophylaxis. Best results seem to be associated with the use of intravenous (iv) high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX) but with a significant toxicity. Other options are the administration of intrathecal (IT) MTX, cytarabine or liposomal cytarabine (ITLC). Our aim is to analyze the experience of the centers of the Balearic Lymphoma Group (BLG) about the toxicity and efficacy of ITLC in the prophylaxis and therapy of CNS lymphomatosis. We retrospectively reviewed cases from 2005 to 2015 (n = 58) treated with ITLC. Our toxicity results were: 33% headache, 20% neurological deficits, 11% nausea, 9% dizziness, 4% vomiting, 4% fever, 2% transient blindness and 2% photophobia. In the prophylactic cohort (n = 26) with a median follow-up of 55 months (17-81) only 3 CNS relapses (11%) were observed (testicular DLBCL, Burkitt and plasmablastic lymphoma, with a cumulative incidence of 8%, 14% and 20% respectively). In the treatment cohort (n = 32), CSF complete clearance was obtained in 77% cases. Median OS was 6 months (0-16). Death causes were lymphoma progression (19 patients, 79%), treatment toxicity (2 patients) and non-related (3 patients, 12%). Toxicity profile was good especially when concomitant dexamethasone was administered. In the prophylactic cohort the incidence of CNS relapse in DLBCL group was similar to previously reported for HDMTX and much better than IT MTX. A high number of ITLC injections was associated with better rates of CSF clearance, clinical responses, PFS and lower relapses. Survival is still poor in CNS lymphomatosis and new therapeutic approaches are still needed.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a group of short noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. It has been shown that microRNAs are independent predictors of outcome in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with the drug combination R-CHOP. Based on the measured growth inhibition of 60 human cancer cell lines (NCI60) in the presence of doxorubicine, cyclophosphamide, vincristine and etoposide as well as the baseline microRNA expression of the 60 cell lines, a microRNA based response predictor to CHOP was developed. The response predictor consisting of 20 microRNAs was blindly validated in a cohort of 116 de novo DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP or R-CHOEP as first line treatment. The predicted sensitivity based on diagnostic FFPE samples matched the clinical response, with decreasing sensitivity in poor responders (P = 0.03). When the International Prognostic Index (IPI) was included in the prediction analysis, the separation between responders and non-responders improved (P = 0.001). Thirteen patients developed relapse, and five patients predicted sensitive to their second and third line treatment survived a median 1194 days, while eight patients predicted not sensitive to their second and third line treatment survived a median 187 days (90% CI: 485 days versus 227 days). Among the latter group it was predicted that four would have been sensitive to another second line treatment than the one they received. The predictions were almost the same when diagnostic biopsies were used as when relapse biopsies were used. These preliminary findings warrant testing in a larger cohort of relapse patients to confirm whether the miRNA based predictor can select the optimal second line treatment and increase survival.
Project description:Despite a general favourable outcome in limited stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), relapses occur in about 10 to 20% of patients. Prognostic models only partially identify patients at risk for relapse. Moreover, it is not known whether the outcome after such a relapse is similar to the outcome after relapse in advanced stages. From January 2004 through December 2012, all newly diagnosed patients with stage I(E) DLBCL were retrospectively analysed from 2 clinical databases to investigate the relapse pattern and outcome in relation to initial treatment and clinical characteristics. In 126 patients (median age 64 years), histologically confirmed stage I(E) DLBCL was diagnosed. With a median follow-up of 53 months (range 5-132 months), 1 progressive disease and 18 relapses occurred. The 5-year time to tumour progression and disease-specific survival were 85% (95% CI 79-91%) and 92% (95% CI 87%-97%), respectively. We observed no significant difference in relapse localization, time to tumour progression, and disease-specific survival between patients treated with abbreviated R-CHOP plus involved field radiotherapy or with 6 to 8 cycles of R-CHOP. Analysis of relapses showed relapse >5 years after initial treatment (late relapse) in 5 of 19 patients (26%). Six of 19 patients (32%) had central nervous system relapse. Three of 11 relapsed cases available for analysis (28%) showed an MYC translocation, suggesting an overrepresentation in the relapse group. Outcome of patients with a relapse was poor with a median survival after relapse of 8 months. Only 1 patient (5%) underwent successful autologous stem cell transplantation. To improve outcome in these patients, early identification of new biological factors such as a MYC translocation or a high risk for CNS dissemination might be helpful. Moreover, treatment of any relapse after stage I disease should be taken seriously. Salvage treatment should be similar to relapses after advanced DLBCL.