Identification and analysis of CYP450 and UGT supergene family members from the transcriptome of Aralia elata (Miq.) seem reveal candidate genes for triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Members of the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) gene superfamily have been shown to play essential roles in regulating secondary metabolite biosynthesis. However, the systematic identification of CYP450s and UGTs has not been reported in Aralia elata (Miq.) Seem, a highly valued medicinal plant. RESULTS:In the present study, we conducted the RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis of the leaves, stems, and roots of A. elata, yielding 66,713 total unigenes. Following annotation and KEGG pathway analysis, we were able to identify 64 unigenes related to triterpenoid skeleton biosynthesis, 254 CYP450s and 122 UGTs, respectively. A total of 150 CYP450s and 92 UGTs encoding >?300 amino acid proteins were utilized for phylogenetic and tissue-specific expression analyses. This allowed us to cluster 150 CYP450s into 9 clans and 40 families, and then these CYP450 proteins were further grouped into two primary branches: A-type (53%) and non-A-type (47%). A phylogenetic analysis of 92 UGTs and other plant UGTs led to clustering into 16 groups (A-P). We further assessed the expression patterns of these CYP450 and UGT genes across A. elata tissues, with 23 CYP450 and 16 UGT members being selected for qRT-PCR validation, respectively. From these data, we identified CYP716A295 and CYP716A296 as the candidate genes most likely to be associated with oleanolic acid synthesis, while CYP72A763 and CYP72A776 were identified as being the most likely to play roles in hederagenin biosynthesis. We also selected five unigenes as the best candidates for oleanolic acid 3-O-glucosyltransferase. Finally, we assessed the subcellular localization of three CYP450 proteins within Arabidopsis protoplasts, highlighting the fact that they localize to the endoplasmic reticulum. CONCLUSIONS:This study presents a systematic analysis of the CYP450 and UGT gene family in A. elata and provides a foundation for further functional characterization of these two multigene families.
Project description:Dioscorea zingiberensis is a perennial herb native to China. The rhizome of D. zingiberensis has long been used as a traditional Chinese medicine to treat rheumatic arthritis. Dioscin is the major bioactive ingredient conferring the medicinal property described in Chinese pharmacopoeia. Several previous studies have suggested cholesterol as the intermediate to the biosynthesis of dioscin, however, the biosynthetic steps to dioscin after cholesterol remain unknown. In this study, a comprehensive D. zingiberensis transcriptome derived from its leaf and rhizome was constructed. Based on the annotation using various public databases, all possible enzymes in the biosynthetic steps to cholesterol were identified. In the late steps beyond cholesterol, cholesterol undergoes site-specific oxidation by cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and glycosylation by UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) to yield dioscin. From the D. zingiberensis transcriptome, a total of 485 unigenes were annotated as CYPs and 195 unigenes with a sequence length above 1000 bp were annotated as UGTs. Transcriptomic comparison revealed 165 CYP annotated unigenes correlating to dioscin biosynthesis in the plant. Further phylogenetic analysis suggested that among those CYP candidates four of them would be the most likely candidates involved in the biosynthetic steps from cholesterol to dioscin. Additionally, from the UGT annotated unigenes, six of them were annotated as 3-O-UGTs and two of them were annotated as rhamnosyltransferases, which consisted of potential UGT candidates involved in dioscin biosynthesis. To further explore the function of the UGT candidates, two 3-O-UGT candidates, named Dz3GT1 and Dz3GT2, were cloned and functionally characterized. Both Dz3GT1 and Dz3GT2 were able to catalyze a C3-glucosylation activity on diosgenin. In conclusion, this study will facilitate our understanding of dioscin biosynthesis pathway and provides a basis for further mining the genes involved in dioscin biosynthesis.
Project description:Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) has received a significant amount of attention as a medicinal plant in China. Flavonoids are the dominant active medical compounds. UDP-glycosyltransferase plays an essential role in the biosynthesis and storage of flavonoids in safflower. In this study, 45 UGT unigenes were screened from our transcriptomic database of safflower. Among them, 27 UGT unigenes were predicted to own a complete open reading frame with various pI and Mw. The phylogenetic tree showed that CtUGT3 and CtUGT16 were classified under the UGT71 subfamily involved in metabolite process, whereas CtUGT25 has high identities with PoUGT both catalyzing the glycosylation of flavonoids and belonging to the UGT90 subfamily. cDNA microarray exhibited that the three UGT genes displayed temporal difference in two chemotype safflower lines. To functionally characterize UGT in safflower, CtUGT3, CtUGT16 and CtUGT25 were cloned and analyzed. Subcellular localization suggested that the three UGTs might be located in the cell cytoplasm and chloroplast. The expression pattern showed that the three UGTs were all suppressed in two lines responsive to methyl jasmonate induction. The co-expression relation of expression pattern and metabolite accumulation demonstrated that CtUGT3 and CtUGT25 were positively related to kaempferol-3-O-?-D-glucoside and CtUGT16 was positively related to quercetin-3-O-?-D-glucoside in yellow line, whereas CtUGT3 and CtUGT25 were positively related to quercetin-3-O-?-D-glucoside in white line. This study indicates that the three CtUGTs play a significant and multiple role in flavonoids biosynthesis with presenting different functional characterization in two safflower lines.
Project description:Herbgenomics provides a global platform to explore the genetics and biology of herbs on the genome level. Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is an important medicinal plant with numerous pharmaceutical effects. Previous reports mainly discussed the transcriptome of ginseng at the organ level. However, based on mass spectrometry imaging analyses, the ginsenosides varied among different tissues. In this work, ginseng root was separated into three tissues-periderm, cortex and stele-each for five duplicates. The chemical analysis and transcriptome analysis were conducted simultaneously. Gene-encoding enzymes involved in ginsenosides biosynthesis and modification were studied based on gene and molecule data. Eight widely-used ginsenosides were distributed unevenly in ginseng roots. A total of 182,881 unigenes were assembled with an N50 contig size of 1374 bp. About 21,000 of these unigenes were positively correlated with the content of ginsenosides. Additionally, we identified 192 transcripts encoding enzymes involved in two triterpenoid biosynthesis pathways and 290 transcripts encoding UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs). Of these UGTs, 195 UGTs (67.2%) were more highly expressed in the periderm, and that seven UGTs and one UGT were specifically expressed in the periderm and stele, respectively. This genetic resource will help to improve the interpretation on complex mechanisms of ginsenosides biosynthesis, accumulation, and transportation.
Project description:Aralia elata buds contain many nutrients and have a pleasant taste with a unique flavour. Previous studies mainly focused on triterpene saponins in the root bark of this species, but little information existed concerning other chemical components, especially in the buds. To better understand the nutritional value of A. elata, we compared total flavonoids, total saponins, phenolic compounds and mineral element contents in the buds of A. elata collected from eight different geographical regions (S1: Benxi; S2: Linjiang; S3: Pingwu; S4: Enshi; S5: Changbaishan; S6: Shangzhi; S7: Xiaoxinganling and S8: Harbin) in China. The results showed that the basic composition in the buds presented a wide variation, with ash (8.76-10.35%), crude fibre (5.38-11.07%), polysaccharides (33.85-46.79 mg g-1), total flavonoid content (TFC, 4.06-48.63 mg g-1) and total saponins (13.62-27.85 mg g-1). UPLC combined with the LC-MS/MS method was used for the phenolic compounds analysis, and 11 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in the eight samples. The total phenolic content in Enshi (S4) was significantly higher than others, and quercetin was the predominant phenolic compound in this sample. We used ICP-OES to identify and quantify nine mineral elements in the buds. The Fe and Cu contents in S5 were much higher than that of others. We obtained maximum Mg, Mn, Co and Ni contents in S4, and found rich Zn content in S7. Moreover, the maximum estimated quantities of Ca and Sr were found in S8. This study indicated that the chemical composition in the buds of A. elata was obviously affected by geographical origin. Our results provided an essential theoretical basis of quality evaluation of A. elata buds in the food production field.
Project description:Scoparia dulcis biosynthesize bioactive diterpenes, such as scopadulcic acid B (SDB), which are known for their unique molecular skeleton. Although the biosynthesis of bioactive diterpenes is catalyzed by a sequence of class II and class I diterpene synthases (diTPSs), the mechanisms underlying this process are yet to be fully identified. To elucidate these biosynthetic machinery, we performed a high-throughput RNA-seq analysis, and de novo assembly of clean reads revealed 46,332 unique transcripts and 40,503 two unigenes. We found diTPSs genes including a putative syn-copalyl diphosphate synthase (SdCPS2) and two kaurene synthase-like (SdKSLs) genes. Besides them, total 79 full-length of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) genes were also discovered. The expression analyses showed selected CYP450s associated with their expression pattern of SdCPS2 and SdKSL1, suggesting that CYP450 candidates involved diterpene modification. SdCPS2 represents the first predicted gene to produce syn-copalyl diphosphate in dicots. In addition, SdKSL1 potentially contributes to the SDB biosynthetic pathway. Therefore, these identified genes associated with diterpene biosynthesis lead to the development of genetic engineering focus on diterpene metabolism in S. dulcis.