A randomised controlled crossover trial investigating the short-term effects of different types of vegetables on vascular and metabolic function in middle-aged and older adults with mildly elevated blood pressure: the VEgetableS for vaScular hEaLth (VESSEL) study protocol.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:A diet rich in fruits and vegetables is recommended for cardiovascular health. However, the majority of Australians do not consume the recommended number of vegetable servings each day. Furthermore, intakes of vegetables considered to have the greatest cardiovascular benefit are often very low. Results from prospective observational studies indicate that a higher consumption of cruciferous vegetables (e.g. broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower) is associated with lower cardiovascular disease risk. This may be due to the presence of specific nutrients and bioactive compounds found almost exclusively, or at relatively high levels, in cruciferous vegetables. Therefore, the aim of this randomised controlled crossover trial is to determine whether regular consumption of cruciferous vegetables results in short-term improvement in measures related to cardiovascular disease risk, including ambulatory blood pressure, arterial stiffness, glycaemic control, and circulating biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation. METHODS:Twenty-five participants (50-75?years) with mildly elevated blood pressure (systolic blood pressure 120-160?mmHg) will complete two 2-week intervention periods in random order, separated by a 2-week washout period. During the intervention period, participants will consume 4 servings (~?300?g) of cruciferous vegetables per day as a soup (~?500-600?mL/day). The 'control' soup will consist of other commonly consumed vegetables (potato, sweet potato, carrot, pumpkin). Both soups will be approximately matched for energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate content. All measurements will be performed at the beginning and end of each intervention period. DISCUSSION:The findings of this study will provide evidence regarding the potential cardiometabolic health benefits of cruciferous vegetables, which may contribute to the revision of dietary and clinical guidelines. TRIAL REGISTRATION:The trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry on 19th September 2019 (ACTRN12619001294145).
Project description:Background:The low consumption of fruits and vegetables among children is a global challenge. Foods recognition, nutrition knowledge and attitude are factors that influence children's dietary practices. This study aims to assess the preference, attitude, recognition and knowledge of fruits and vegetables intake among Malay children. Methods:A cross-sectional study was conducted among Malay children from five primary schools in Kuala Lumpur using self-administered questionnaires. Results:A total of 134 Malay children (70 males and 64 females) with a mean (SD) age of 10.3 (1.0) years were recruited. Majority of the children had a father (61.9%) and a mother (56.0%) with secondary school education and earned below RM3,900 (70.9%) per month. The most preferred fruits and vegetable were bananas (91.9%) and carrots (71.4%), while the most recognised was oranges (100.0%) and tomatoes (96.3%). The children demonstrated an overall moderate level of attitude, recognition and knowledge with mean (SD) scores of 70.3 (19.9), 76.8 (18.1) and 73.6 (17.5), respectively, towards fruits and vegetables intake. Majority of the children (53.0%) were not aware of the daily recommended servings of fruits and vegetables, while 40.0% of children expressed a low attitude towards eating a variety of fruits and vegetables. The willingness to try a new type of vegetables and consume more vegetables was lower (68.7%) compared to fruits (75.4%). Conclusion:The preferences and recognition of fruits were higher compared to vegetables among the children. The children demonstrated a moderate level of attitude, recognition and knowledge towards fruits and vegetables consumption. Efforts to educate children on the recommended number of servings per day and improve their acceptability of vegetables should be implemented to promote the increase in fruits and vegetables consumption among children.
Project description:Intake of cruciferous vegetables, a rich source of dietary isothiocyanates, has been inversely associated with risk of bladder cancer. Due to the potent antiproliferative effects of dietary isothiocyanates on bladder cancer in in vitro and in vivo models, cruciferous vegetable intake may also play a role in survival among patients with bladder cancer.Using information obtained from the Roswell Park Cancer Institute Tumor Registry, patient medical records, and routinely collected questionnaire data, we examined potential associations between intake of cruciferous vegetables and survival among bladder cancer patients. As cooking can substantially reduce or destroy isothiocyanates, consumption of raw versus cooked cruciferous vegetables was examined separately. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models.A total of 239 bladder cancer patients were included in the study. After an average of 8 years of follow-up, 179 deaths occurred, with 101 deaths attributable to bladder cancer. After adjustment for other prognostic factors, a strong and significant inverse association was observed between bladder cancer mortality and broccoli intake, in particular raw broccoli intake (> or =1 versus <1 serving per month; HR for overall death, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.39-0.83; HR for disease-specific death, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.25-0.74). There were no significant associations for total vegetables, total fruits, or other individual cruciferous vegetables.Considering the strong preclinical evidence, intake of broccoli may improve bladder cancer survival.Further prospective investigation is warranted to confirm the potential role of cruciferous vegetables in bladder cancer prognosis.
Project description:SCOPE:Observational studies have associated consumption of cruciferous vegetables with reduced risk of prostate cancer. This effect has been associated with the degradation products of glucosinolates-thioglycosides that accumulate within crucifers. The possible role of S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide, a metabolite that also accumulates in cruciferous vegetables, and its derivatives, in cancer prevention is relatively unexplored compared to glucosinolate derivatives. The hypothesis that consuming a broccoli soup results in the accumulation of sulfate (a SMCSO derivative) and other broccoli-derived metabolites in prostate tissue is tested. METHODS AND RESULTS:Eighteen men scheduled for transperineal prostate biopsy were recruited into a 4-week parallel single blinded diet supplementation study (NCT02821728). Nine men supplemented their diet with three 300 mL portions of a broccoli soup each week for four weeks prior to surgery. Analyses of prostate biopsy tissues reveal no detectable levels of glucosinolates and derivatives. In contrast, SMCSO is detected in prostate tissues of the participants, with significantly higher levels in tissue of men in the supplementation arm. SMCSO was also found in blood and urine samples from a previous intervention study with the identical broccoli soup. CONCLUSION:The consequences of SMCSO accumulation in prostate tissues and its potential role in prevention of prostate cancer remains to be investigated.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Epidemiological evidence suggests that consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer progression, largely attributed to the biological activity of glucosinolate degradation products, such as sulforaphane derived from glucoraphanin. Because there are few therapeutic interventions for men on active surveillance for prostate cancer to reduce the risk of cancer progression, dietary approaches are an appealing option for patients. OBJECTIVE:We evaluated whether consumption of a glucoraphanin-rich broccoli soup for 1 y leads to changes in gene expression in prostate tissue of men with localized prostate cancer. METHODS:Forty-nine men on active surveillance completed a 3-arm parallel randomized double-blinded intervention study for 12 mo and underwent transperineal template biopsy procedures and dietary assessment at the start and end of the study. Patients received a weekly 300 mL portion of soup made from a standard broccoli (control) or from 1 of 2 experimental broccoli genotypes with enhanced concentrations of glucoraphanin, delivering 3 and 7 times that of the control, respectively. Gene expression in tissues from each patient obtained before and after the dietary intervention was quantified by RNA sequencing followed by gene set enrichment analyses. RESULTS:In the control arm, there were several hundred changes in gene expression in nonneoplastic tissue during the 12 mo. These were associated with an increase in expression of potentially oncogenic pathways including inflammation processes and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Changes in gene expression and associated oncogenic pathways were attenuated in men on the glucoraphanin-rich broccoli soup in a dose-dependent manner. Although the study was not powered to assess clinical progression, an inverse association between consumption of cruciferous vegetables and cancer progression was observed. CONCLUSION:Consuming glucoraphanin-rich broccoli soup affected gene expression in the prostate of men on active surveillance, consistent with a reduction in the risk of cancer progression. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01950143.
Project description:We evaluated the relation of fruit and vegetable consumption, including specific fruits and vegetables, with incident breast cancer characterized by menopausal status, hormone receptor status and molecular subtypes. Fruit and vegetable consumption, cumulatively averaged across repeated, validated questionnaires, was examined in relation to risk of invasive breast cancer among 182,145 women initially aged 27-59 years in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, 1980-2012) and NHSII (1991-2013). Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for known risk factors, was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and assessed tumors by hormone receptor status and molecular subtypes. We prospectively documented 10,911 invasive breast cancer cases. Greater intake of total fruits and vegetables, especially cruciferous and yellow/orange vegetables, was associated with significantly lower breast cancer risk (>5.5 vs. ?2.5 servings/day HR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.83-0.96; ptrend = 0.006). Intake of total vegetables was especially associated with lower risk of estrogen receptor negative tumors (HR per 2 additional servings/day as a continuous variable = 0.84, 95%CI = 0.77-0.93; pheterogeneity = 0.02). Among molecular subtypes, higher intake of total fruits and vegetables (HR per 2 additional servings/day as a continuous variable) was most strongly associated with lower risk of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-enriched (HR = 0.79, 95%CI = 0.67-0.93), basal-like (HR = 0.84, 95%CI = 0.72-0.97) and luminal A (HR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0.89-0.99), but not with luminal B tumors (pheterogeneity = 0.03). In conclusion, our findings support that higher intake of fruits and vegetables, and specifically cruciferous and yellow/orange vegetables, may reduce the risk of breast cancer, especially those that are more likely to be aggressive tumors.
Project description:No study to date has prospectively evaluated the association between pre-diagnostic cruciferous vegetables intake and lung cancer survival among women. This analysis included 547 incident lung cancer cases identified from the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS) during the follow-up period of 1997-2011. Dietary intake was assessed for all SWHS participants at enrollment and reassessed 2-3 years later. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with adjustment for potential confounders. Of the 547 lung cancer patients, 412 patients died during the follow-up. A total of 393 (95.4%) deaths from lung cancer were documented with median survival time of 10.3 months (interquartile range, 3.6-21.1 months). High cruciferous vegetables intake was significantly associated with improved lung cancer-specific survival after adjusting for all nonclinical prognostic factors (n?=?547, HR?=?0.69; 95%CI?=?0.49-0.95; P trend?=?0.02) for the highest versus lowest quartile. A slightly stronger association of cruciferous vegetables intake with lung cancer-specific survival was observed in analyses restricted to patients with known clinical prognostic factors (n?=?331, HR?=?0.63; 95%CI?=?0.41-0.97; P trend?=?0.03) or never smokers (n?=?308, HR?=?0.58; 95%CI?=?0.37-0.91; P trend?=?0.02). In conclusion, pre-diagnostic cruciferous vegetables intake is associated with better survival of lung cancer in Chinese women.
Project description:In the human gut, commensal bacteria metabolize food components that typically serve as energy sources. These components have the potential to influence gut bacterial community composition. Cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli and cabbage, contain distinctive compounds that can be utilized by gut bacteria. For example, glucosinolates can be hydrolyzed by certain bacteria, and dietary fibers can be fermented by a range of species. We hypothesized that cruciferous vegetable consumption would alter growth of certain bacteria, thereby altering bacterial community composition. We tested this hypothesis in a randomized, crossover, controlled feeding study. Fecal samples were collected from 17 participants at the end of 2 14-d intake periods: a low-phytochemical, low-fiber basal diet (i.e. refined grains without fruits or vegetables) and a high ("double") cruciferous vegetable diet [basal diet + 14 g cruciferous vegetables/(kg body weightd)]. Fecal bacterial composition was analyzed by the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (tRFLP) method using the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene and nucleotide sequencing. Using blocked multi-response permutation procedures analysis, we found that overall bacterial community composition differed between the 2 consumption periods (delta = 0.603; P = 0.011). The bacterial community response to cruciferous vegetables was individual-specific, as revealed by nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination analysis. Specific tRFLP fragments that characterized each of the diets were identified using indicator species analysis. Putative species corresponding to these fragments were identified through gene sequencing as Eubacterium hallii, Phascolarctobacterium faecium, Burkholderiales spp., Alistipes putredinis, and Eggerthella spp. In conclusion, human gut bacterial community composition was altered by cruciferous vegetable consumption, which could ultimately influence gut metabolism of bioactive food components and host exposure to these compounds.
Project description:Observational and experimental studies suggest that diets rich in cruciferous vegetables and glucosinolates may reduce the risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD).We tested the hypothesis that a 12-wk dietary intervention with high-glucoraphanin (HG) broccoli would modify biomarkers of CVD risk and plasma metabolite profiles to a greater extent than interventions with standard broccoli or peas.Subjects were randomly assigned to consume 400 g standard broccoli, 400 g HG broccoli, or 400 g peas each week for 12 wk, with no other dietary restrictions. Biomarkers of CVD risk and 347 plasma metabolites were quantified before and after the intervention.No significant differences in the effects of the diets on biomarkers of CVD risk were found. Multivariate analyses of plasma metabolites identified 2 discrete phenotypic responses to diet in individuals within the HG broccoli arm, differentiated by single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the PAPOLG gene. Univariate analysis showed effects of sex (P < 0.001), PAPOLG genotype (P < 0.001), and PAPOLG genotype × diet (P < 0.001) on the plasma metabolic profile. In the HG broccoli arm, the consequence of the intervention was to reduce variation in lipid and amino acid metabolites, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, and acylcarnitines between the 2 PAPOLG genotypes.The metabolic changes observed with the HG broccoli diet are consistent with a rebalancing of anaplerotic and cataplerotic reactions and enhanced integration of fatty acid ?-oxidation with TCA cycle activity. These modifications may contribute to the reduction in cancer risk associated with diets that are rich in cruciferous vegetables. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01114399.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Psychological well-being is associated with longevity and reduced risk of disease, but possible mechanisms are understudied. Health behaviors like eating fruits and vegetables may link psychological well-being with better health; however, most evidence is cross-sectional. PURPOSE:This study investigated psychological well-being's longitudinal association with fruit and vegetable consumption across as many as 7 years. METHOD:Participants were 6,565 older adults from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, which includes men and women aged 50 years or older. Psychological well-being was assessed with 17 items from the Control, Autonomy, Satisfaction, Pleasure Scale. Fruit and vegetable consumption was initially assessed during 2006-2007 and then approximately every 2 years through 2012-2013. Covariates included sociodemographic factors, health status, and other health behaviors. RESULTS:Mixed linear models showed that higher baseline levels of psychological well-being were associated with more fruit and vegetable consumption at baseline (? = 0.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.02, 0.08]) and that fruit and vegetable consumption declined across time (? = -0.01, 95% CI [-0.02, -0.004]). Psychological well-being interacted significantly with time such that individuals with higher baseline psychological well-being had slower declines in fruit and vegetable consumption (? = 0.01, 95% CI [0.01, 0.02]). Among individuals who initially met recommendations to consume 5 or more servings of fruits and vegetables (N = 1,719), higher baseline psychological well-being was associated with 11% reduced risk of falling below recommended levels during follow-up (hazard ratio = 0.89, 95% CI [0.83, 0.95]). CONCLUSIONS:Findings suggest that psychological well-being may be a precursor to healthy behaviors such as eating a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. (PsycINFO Database Record
Project description:The phenolic profiles of 12 cruciferous vegetables (pakchoi, choysum, Chinese cabbage, kailan, Brussels sprout, cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, rocket salad, red cherry radish, daikon radish, and watercress) were studied with UHPLC-MS/MS. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (TPC) were also evaluated. A total of 74 phenolic compounds were identified, including 16 hydroxycinnamic acids and derivatives, and 58 flavonoids and derivatives. The main flavonoids identified were glycosylated quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin, and the main hydroxycinnamic acids were ferulic, sinapic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the distribution of phenolic compounds in different genera of cruciferous vegetables was in accordance with their conventional taxonomy. The DPPH, ORAC and TPC values ranged from 1.11 to 9.54 µmoles Trolox equivalent/g FW, 5.34 to 32.92 µmoles Trolox equivalent/g FW, and 0.16 to 1.93 mg gallic acid equivalent/g FW respectively. Spearman’s correlation showed significant (p < 0.05) positive correlations between TPC, flavonoids and antioxidant activity.