Laryngeal Injury and Upper Airway Symptoms After Oral Endotracheal Intubation With Mechanical Ventilation During Critical Care: A Systematic Review.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:To systematically review the symptoms and types of laryngeal injuries resulting from endotracheal intubation in mechanically ventilated patients in the ICU. DATA SOURCES:PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library from database inception to September 2017. STUDY SELECTION:Studies of adult patients who were endotracheally intubated with mechanical ventilation in the ICU and completed postextubation laryngeal examinations with either direct or indirect visualization. DATA EXTRACTION:Independent, double-data extraction and risk of bias assessment followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Risk of bias assessment followed the Cochrane Collaboration's criteria. DATA SYNTHESIS:Nine studies (seven cohorts, two cross-sectional) representing 775 patients met eligibility criteria. The mean (SD; 95% CI) duration of intubation was 8.2 days (6.0 d; 7.7-8.7 d). A high prevalence (83%) of laryngeal injury was found. Many of these were mild injuries, although moderate to severe injuries occurred in 13-31% of patients across studies. The most frequently occurring clinical symptoms reported post extubation were dysphonia (76%), pain (76%), hoarseness (63%), and dysphagia (49%) across studies. CONCLUSIONS:Laryngeal injury from intubation is common in the ICU setting. Guidelines for laryngeal assessment and postextubation surveillance do not exist. A systematic approach to more robust investigations could increase knowledge of the association between particular injuries and corresponding functional impairments, improving understanding of both time course and prognosis for resolution of injury. Our findings identify targets for future research and highlight the long-known, but understudied, clinical outcomes from endotracheal intubation with mechanical ventilation in ICU.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Respiratory failure requiring endotracheal intubation accounts for a significant proportion of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions. Little attention has been paid to the laryngeal consequences of endotracheal intubation. Acute laryngeal injury (ALgI) after intubation occurs at the mucosal interface of the endotracheal tube and posterior larynx and although not immediately manifest at extubation, can progress to mature fibrosis, restricted glottic mobility and clinically significant ventilatory impairment. A recent prospective observational study has shown that >50% of patients intubated >24 hours in an ICU develop ALgI. Strikingly, patients with AlgI manifest significantly worse subjective breathing at 12 weeks. Current ALgI treatments are largely surgical yet offer a marginal improvement in symptoms. In this study, we will examine the ability of a postextubation medical regime (azithromycin and inhaled budesonide) to improve breathing 12 weeks after ALgI. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A prospective, single-centre, double-blinded, randomised, control trial will be conducted at Vanderbilt Medical Center. Participants will be recruited from adult patients in ICUs. Participants will undergo a bedside flexible nasolaryngoscopy for the identification of ALgI within 72 hours postextubation. In addition, participants will be asked to complete peak expiratory flow measurements immediately postintubation. Patients found to have ALgI will be randomised to the placebo control or medical therapy group (azithromycin 250 mg and budesonide 0.5 mg for 14 days). Repeat peak expiratory flow, examination of the larynx and patient-reported Clinical COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) Questionnaire, Voice Handicap Index and 12-Item Short Form Health Survey questionnaires will be conducted at 12 weeks postextubation. Consented patients will also have patient-specific, disease-specific and procedure-specific covariates abstracted from their medical record. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The Institutional Review Board (IRB) Committee of the Vanderbilt University Medical Center has approved this protocol (IRB #171066). The findings of the trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT03250975.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Endotracheal intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation are lifesaving interventions that are commonly performed in the intensive care unit (ICU). Laryngeal oedema is a known complication of intubation that may cause airway obstruction in a patient on extubation. To date, the only test available to predict this complication is the cuff leak test (CLT); however, its diagnostic accuracy and utility remains uncertain. Herein, we report the protocol for the CuffLeak and AirwayObstruction in MechanicallyVentilated ICU Patients (COMIC) pilottrial. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This will be a multicentred, pragmatic, pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT). We will enrol 100 mechanically ventilated patients in the ICU who are deemed ready for extubation. We will exclude patients at a high risk of laryngeal oedema. All enrolled patients will have a CLT done before extubation. In the intervention arm, the results of the CLT will be communicated to the bedside physician, and decision to extubate will be left to the treating team. In the control arm, respiratory therapist will not communicate the results of the CLT to the treating physician, and the patient will be extubated regardless of the CLT result. Randomisation will be done in a 1:1 allocation ratio, stratified by size of the endotracheal tube and duration of invasive mechanical ventilation.Although we will examine all clinical outcomes relevant for the future COMIC RCT, the primary outcomes of the COMIC pilottrial will be feasibility outcomes including: consent rate, recruitment rate and protocol adherence. Clinical outcomes include postextubation stridor, reintubation, emergency surgical airway, ICU mortality, in hospital mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU length of stay in days. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The Hamilton Integrated Research Ethics Board, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University Institutional Review Board and Bioethical Commission of the Jagiellonian University approved this study. The trial results will be disseminated via publication in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT03372707.
Project description:Post intubation laryngeal injuries are seen relatively commonly in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) setting. The most common intubation associated laryngeal injuries are characterised by vocal cord oedema, mucosal ulceration, laryngeal granulomas and vocal cord paralysis. Laryngeal stenosis is seen much less commonly and generally presents with posterior adhesions from prolonged intubation or anterior webbing from instrumentation. The finding of adhesions between the vocal cords at the middle third of the glottis without anterior or posterior adhesions and in the absence of previous laryngeal surgery is rare. The authors present a case of a patient with Covid-19 (SARS-CoV-2) who was discovered to have this finding following admission to the Intensive Care Unit for ventilation, tracheostomy for weaning and subsequent failure to decannulate. The patient underwent a microlaryngoscopy and frank adhesions between the middle third of the vocal cords were noted. The authors feel that the mucosal inflammatory component associated with Covid-19 was a significant contributing factor in this clinical finding. Following successful divisions of the adhesions, the patient made a full recovery.
Project description:The most important action in the resuscitation of a newborn in the delivery room is to establish effective assisted ventilation. The face mask and endotracheal tube are the devices used to achieve this goal. Laryngeal mask airways that fit over the laryngeal inlet have been shown to be effective for ventilating newborns at birth and should be considered as an alternative to facemask ventilation or endotracheal intubation among newborns weighing >2,000 g or delivered ?34 weeks' gestation. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis of supraglottic airways in neonatal resuscitation reported the results of four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) stating that fewer infants in the group using laryngeal mask airways required endotracheal intubation (1.5%) compared to the group using face masks (12.0%). However, there were methodological concerns over all the RCTs including the fact that the majority of the operators in the trials were anesthesiologists.Our hypothesis is based on the assumption that ventilating newborns needing positive pressure ventilation with a laryngeal mask airway will be more effective than ventilating with a face mask in a setting where neonatal resuscitation is performed by midwives, nurses, and pediatricians. The primary aim of this study will be to assess the effectiveness of the laryngeal mask airway over the face mask in preventing the need for endotracheal intubation.This will be an open, prospective, randomized, single center, clinical trial. In this study, 142 newborns weighing >1,500 g or delivered ?34 weeks gestation needing positive pressure ventilation at birth will be randomized to be ventilated with a laryngeal mask airway (LMA SupremeTM, LMA Company, UK - intervention group) or with a face mask (control group).Proportion of newborns needing endotracheal intubation.Apgar score at 5 minutes, time to first breath, onset of the first cry, duration of resuscitation, death or moderate to severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy within 7 days of life.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01963936 (October 11, 2013).
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Tracheal intubation is one of the most daily practiced procedures performed in intensive care unit (ICU). It is associated with severe life-threatening complications, which can lead to intubation-related cardiac arrest. Using a preshaped endotracheal tube plus stylet may have potential advantages over endotracheal tube without stylet. The stylet is a rigid but malleable introducer which fits inside the endotracheal tube and allows for manipulation of the tube shape; to facilitate passage of the tube through the laryngeal inlet. However, some complications from stylets have been reported including mucosal bleeding, perforation of the trachea or oesophagus and sore throat. The use of a stylet for first-attempt intubation has never been assessed in ICU and benefit remains to be established. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:The endotracheal tube plus stylet to increase first-attempt success during orotracheal intubation compared with endotracheal tube alone in ICU patients (STYLETO) trial is an investigator-initiated, multicentre, stratified, parallel-group unblinded trial with an electronic system-based randomisation. Patients will be randomly assigned to undergo the initial intubation attempt with endotracheal tube alone (ie,without stylet, control group) or endotracheal tube + stylet (experimental group). The primary outcome is the proportion of patients with successful first-attempt orotracheal intubation. The single, prespecified, secondary outcome is the incidence of complications related to intubation, in the hour following intubation. Other outcomes analysed will include safety, exploratory procedural and clinical outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The study project has been approved by the appropriate ethics committee 'Comité-de-Protection-des-Personnes Nord-Ouest3-19.04.26.65808 Cat2 RECHMPL19_0216/STYLETO2019-A01180-57'". Informed consent is required. The results will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at one or more scientific conferences. If combined use of endotracheal tube plus stylet facilitates tracheal intubation of ICU patients compared with endotracheal tube alone, its use will become standard practice, thereby decreasing first-attempt intubation failure rates and, potentially, the frequency of intubation-related complications. TRIAL REGISTRATION DETAILS:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04079387; Pre-results.
Project description:Air-Q intubating laryngeal mask airway (ILA) is used as a supraglottic airway device and as a conduit for endotracheal intubation. This study aims to assess the efficacy of the Air-Q ILA regarding ease of insertion, adequacy of ventilation, rate of successful intubation, haemodynamic response and airway morbidity.Sixty patients presenting for elective surgery at our Medical College Hospital were selected. Following adequate premedication, baseline vital parameters, pulse rate and blood pressure were recorded. Air-Q size 3.5 for patients 50-70 kg and size 4.5 for 70-100 kg was selected. After achieving adequate intubating conditions, Air-Q ILA was introduced. Confirming adequate ventilation, appropriate sized endotracheal tube was advanced through the Air-Q blindly to intubate the trachea. Placement of the endotracheal tube in trachea was confirmed.Air-Q ILA was successfully inserted in 88.3% of patients in first attempt and 11.7% patients in second attempt. Ventilation was adequate in 100% of patients. Intubation was successful in 76.7% of patients with Air-Q ILA. 23.3% of patients were intubated by direct laryngoscopy following failure with two attempts using Air-Q ILA. Post-intubation the change in heart rate was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). 10% of patients were noted to have a sore throat and 5% of patients had mild airway trauma.Air-Q ILA is a reliable device as a supraglottic airway ensuring adequate ventilation as well as a conduit for endotracheal intubation. It benefits the patient by avoiding the stress of direct laryngoscopy and is also superior alternative device for use in a difficult airway.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The optimal securement method of endotracheal tubes is unknown but should prevent dislodgement while minimizing complications. The use of an endotracheal tube fastener might reduce complications among critically ill adults undergoing endotracheal intubation. METHODS:In this pragmatic, single-center, randomized trial, critically ill adults admitted to the medical intensive care unit (MICU) and expected to require invasive mechanical ventilation for greater than 24?h were randomized to adhesive tape or endotracheal tube fastener at the time of intubation. The primary endpoint was a composite of any of the following: presence of lip ulcer, endotracheal tube dislodgement (defined as moving at least 2?cm), ventilator-associated pneumonia, or facial skin tears anytime between randomization and the earlier of death or 48?h after extubation. Secondary endpoints included duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS:Of 500 patients randomized over a 12-month period, 162 had a duration of mechanical ventilation less than 24?h and 40 had missing outcome data, leaving 153 evaluable patients randomized to tube fastener and 145 evaluable patients randomized to adhesive tape. Baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. The primary endpoint occurred 13 times in 12 (7.8%) patients in the tube fastener group and 30 times in 25 (17.2%) patients in the adhesive tape group (p?=?0.014) for an overall incidence of 22.0 versus 52.6 per 1000 ventilator days, respectively (p?=?0.020). Lip ulcers occurred in 4 (2.6%) versus 11 (7.3%) patients, or an incidence rate of 6.5 versus 19.5 per 1000 patient ventilator days (p?=?0.053) in the fastener and tape groups, respectively. The endotracheal tube was dislodged 7 times in 6 (3.9%) patients in the tube fastener group and 16 times in 15 (10.3%) patients in the tape group (p?=?0.03), reflecting incidences of 11.9 and 28.1 per 1000 ventilator days, respectively. Facial skin tears were similar between the groups. Mechanical ventilation duration and ICU and hospital mortality did not differ. CONCLUSION:The use of the endotracheal tube fastener to secure the endotracheal tubes reduces the rate of a composite outcome that included lip ulcers, facial skin tears, or endotracheal tube dislodgement compared to adhesive tape. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03760510. Retrospectively registered on November 30, 2018.
Project description:Endotracheal intubation success rates in the prehospital setting are variable. Our objective was to describe the challenges encountered and corrective actions taken during the process of endotracheal intubation by paramedics.Analysis of prehospital airway management using a prospective registry that was linked to an emergency medical services administrative database.Emergency medical services system serving King County, Washington, 2006-2011. Paramedics in this system have the capability to administer neuromuscular blocking agents to facilitate intubation (i.e., rapid sequence intubation).A total of 7,523 patients more than 12 years old in whom paramedics attempted prehospital endotracheal intubation.None.An intubation attempt was defined as the introduction of the laryngoscope into the patient's mouth, and the attempt concluded when the laryngoscope was removed from the mouth. Endotracheal intubation was successful on the first attempt in 77% and ultimately successful in 99% of patients (7,433 of 7,523). Paramedics used a rapid sequence intubation strategy on 54% of first attempts. Among the subset with a failed first attempt (n = 1,715), bodily fluids obstructing the laryngeal view (50%), obesity (28%), patient positioning (17%), and facial or spinal trauma (6%) were identified as challenges to intubation. A variety of adjustments were made to achieve intubation success, including upper airway suctioning (used in 43% of attempts resulting in success), patient repositioning (38%), rescue bougie use (19%), operator change (16%), and rescue rapid sequence intubation (6%). Surgical cricothyrotomy (0.4%, n = 27) and bag-valve-mask ventilation (0.8%, n = 60) were rarely performed by paramedics as final rescue airway strategies.Airway management in the prehospital setting has substantial challenges. Success can require a collection of adjustments that involve equipment, personnel, and medication often in a simultaneous fashion.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Hypoxaemia is the most common complication during endotracheal intubation of critically ill adults, and it increases the risk of cardiac arrest and death. Manual ventilation between induction and intubation has been hypothesised to decrease the incidence of hypoxaemia, but efficacy and safety data are lacking. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:The Preventing Hypoxemia with Manual Ventilation during Endotracheal Intubation trial is a prospective, multicentre, non-blinded randomised clinical trial being conducted in seven intensive care units in the USA. A total of 400 critically ill adults undergoing endotracheal intubation will be randomised 1:1 to receive prophylactic manual ventilation between induction and endotracheal intubation using a bag-valve-mask device or no prophylactic ventilation. The primary outcome is the lowest arterial oxygen saturation between induction and 2?min after successful endotracheal intubation, which will be analysed as an unadjusted, intention-to-treat comparison of patients randomised to prophylactic ventilation versus patients randomised to no prophylactic ventilation. The secondary outcome is the incidence of severe hypoxaemia, defined as any arterial oxygen saturation of less than 80% between induction and 2?min after endotracheal intubation. Enrolment began on 2 February 2017 and is expected to be complete in May 2018. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The trial was approved by the institutional review boards or designees of all participating centres. The results will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at one or more scientific conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT03026322; Pre-results.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tracheal intubation with the patient in the lateral position is difficult because the laryngeal view is compromised during direct laryngoscopy. Flexible video endoscopes may facilitate intubation even when laryngeal views are poor on direct laryngoscopy because the patients are positioned laterally. Thus, this trial aims to compare the efficacy of flexible video endoscopes to Macintosh laryngoscopes for orotracheal intubation in the lateral position and to investigate their feasibility, i.e., whether the use of the two devices in combination can secure the airway when endotracheal intubation in the lateral position has failed using one device. METHODS:This will be a prospective, randomized, single-center, clinical trial. One hundred and seventy-four patients aged 18-65 years, who have been scheduled to undergo tracheal intubation under uniform general anesthetic techniques for elective kidney surgery in the lateral decubitus position will be randomly divided into the flexible video endoscope and the Macintosh laryngoscope groups. Primary outcomes include intubation time and intubation success rate. Secondary outcomes include overall user satisfaction (graded from 1 to 10 (1 = very poor, 10 = excellent)) and perioperative side effects and complications, such as frequency of esophageal intubation, lip or dental injury, sore throat, and hoarseness. DISCUSSION:The trial will clarify the efficacy of intubation with a Macintosh laryngoscope and a flexible video endoscope in the lateral position, and whether the two devices could be used in combination to secure the airway in cases where endotracheal intubation in the lateral position has failed with one device. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Chinese Clinical Trial Register, ChiCTR- IOR-15007175 . Registered on 6 October 2015.