Temporal subtraction of low-dose and relatively thick-slice CT images with large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping and adaptive voxel matching for detection of bone metastases: A STARD-compliant article.
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the improvement of radiologist performance in detecting bone metastases at follow up low-dose computed tomography (CT) by using a temporal subtraction (TS) technique based on an advanced nonrigid image registration algorithm.Twelve patients with bone metastases (males, 5; females, 7; mean age, 64.8?±?7.6 years; range 51-81 years) and 12 control patients without bone metastases (males, 5; females, 7; mean age, 64.8?±?7.6 years; 51-81 years) were included, who underwent initial and follow-up CT examinations between December 2005 and July 2016. Initial CT images were registered to follow-up CT images by the algorithm, and TS images were created. Three radiologists independently assessed the bone metastases with and without the TS images. The reader averaged jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristics figure of merit was used to compare the diagnostic accuracy.The reader-averaged values of the jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristics figures of merit (?) significantly improved from 0.687 for the readout without TS and 0.803 for the readout with TS (P value = .031. F statistic = 5.24). The changes in the absolute value of CT attenuations in true-positive lesions were significantly larger than those in false-negative lesions (P?
Project description:RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES:This study aims to estimate observer performance for a range of dose levels for common computed tomography (CT) examinations (detection of liver metastases or pulmonary nodules, and cause of neurologic deficit) to prioritize noninferior dose levels for further analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Using CT data from 131 examinations (abdominal CT, 44; chest CT, 44; head CT, 43), CT images corresponding to 4%-100% of the routine clinical dose were reconstructed with filtered back projection or iterative reconstruction. Radiologists evaluated CT images, marking specified targets, providing confidence scores, and grading image quality. Noninferiority was assessed using reference standards, reader agreement rules, and jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic figures of merit. Reader agreement required that a majority of readers at lower dose identify target lesions seen by the majority of readers at routine dose. RESULTS:Reader agreement identified dose levels lower than 50% and 4% to have inadequate performance for detection of hepatic metastases and pulmonary nodules, respectively, but could not exclude any low dose levels for head CT. Estimated differences in jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic figures of merit between routine and lower dose configurations found that only the lowest dose configurations tested (ie, 30%, 4%, and 10% of routine dose levels for abdominal, chest, and head CT examinations, respectively) did not meet criteria for noninferiority. At lower doses, subjective image quality declined before observer performance. Iterative reconstruction was only beneficial when filtered back projection did not result in noninferior performance. CONCLUSION:Opportunity exists for substantial radiation dose reduction using existing CT technology for common diagnostic tasks.
Project description:We developed an original, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) software that subtracts the initial thoracic vertebral three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) image from the follow-up 3D-CT image. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of this CAD software during screening for vertebral metastases on follow-up CT images of primary lung cancer patients.The interpretation experiment included 30 sets of follow-up CT scans in primary lung cancer patients and was performed by two readers (readers A and B), who each had 2.5 years' experience reading CT images. In 395 vertebrae from C6 to L3, 46 vertebral metastases were identified as follows: osteolytic metastases (n = 17), osteoblastic metastases (n = 14), combined osteolytic and osteoblastic metastases (n = 6), and pathological fractures (n = 9). Thirty-six lesions were in the anterior component (vertebral body), and 10 lesions were in the posterior component (vertebral arch, transverse process, and spinous process). The area under the curve (AUC) by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and the sensitivity and specificity for detecting vertebral metastases were compared with and without CAD for each observer.Reader A detected 47 abnormalities on CT images without CAD, and 33 of them were true-positive metastatic lesions. Using CAD, reader A detected 57 abnormalities, and 38 were true positives. The sensitivity increased from 0.717 to 0.826, and on ROC curve analysis, AUC with CAD was significantly higher than that without CAD (0.849 vs. 0.902, p = 0.021). Reader B detected 40 abnormalities on CT images without CAD, and 36 of them were true-positive metastatic lesions. Using CAD, reader B detected 44 abnormalities, and 39 were true positives. The sensitivity increased from 0.783 to 0.848, and AUC with CAD was nonsignificantly higher than that without CAD (0.889 vs. 0.910, p = 0.341). Both readers detected more osteolytic and osteoblastic metastases with CAD than without CAD.Our temporal 3D-CT subtraction CAD software easily detected vertebral metastases on the follow-up CT images of lung cancer patients regardless of the osteolytic or osteoblastic nature of the lesions.
Project description:PURPOSE:To compare gadoxetic acid alone and combined gadoxetic acid/gadofosveset trisodium-enhanced liver MRI for detection of metastases and differentiation of metastases from haemangiomas. METHODS:Ninety-one patients underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI before and after additional injection of gadofosveset. First, two readers retrospectively identified metastases on gadoxetic acid alone enhanced delayed hepatobiliary phase T1-weighted images together with all other MR images (dynamic images, T2-weighted images, diffusion-weighted images). Second, readers assessed additional T1-weighted images obtained after administration of gadofosveset trisodium. For both interpretations, readers rated lesion conspicuity and confidence in differentiating metastases from haemangiomas. Results were compared using alternative free-response receiver-operating characteristic (AFROC) and conventional ROC methods. Histology and follow-up served as reference standard. RESULTS:There were 145 metastases and 16 haemangiomas. Both readers detected more metastases using combined gadoxetic acid/gadofosveset (reader 1?=?130; reader 2?=?124) compared to gadoxetic acid alone (reader 1?=?104; reader 2?=?103). Sensitivity of combined gadoxetic acid/gadofosveset (reader 1?=?90 %; reader 2?=?86 %) was higher than that of gadoxetic acid alone (reader 1?=?72 %; reader 2?=?71 %, both P?<?0.01). AFROC-AUC was higher for the combined technique (0.92 vs. 0.86, P?<?0.001). Sensitivity for correct differentiation of metastases from haemangiomas was higher for the combined technique (reader 1?=?98 %; reader 2?=?99 % vs. reader 1?=?86 %; reader 2?=?91 %, both P?<?0.01). ROC-AUC was significantly higher for the combined technique (reader 1?=?1.00; reader 2?=?1.00 vs. reader 1?=?0.87; reader 2?=?0.92, both P?<?0.01). CONCLUSION:Combined gadoxetic acid/gadofosveset-enhanced MRI improves detection and characterization of liver metastases compared to gadoxetic acid alone. KEY POINTS:• Combined gadoxetic acid and gadofosveset-enhanced liver MRI significantly improves detection of metastases. • The combined enhancement technique improves the accuracy to differentiate metastases from haemangiomas. • Prospective studies need to determine the clinical impact of the combined technique.
Project description:PURPOSE:To investigate the added value and diagnostic accuracy of 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT versus bone scintigraphy (BS) for bone metastasis detection at the primary staging of prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS:Inclusion criteria involved consecutive patients with newly diagnosed intermediate- to high-risk PCa, who had undergone BS, mostly with supplementary SPECT/low-dose CT, and 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT within less than 3 months without therapy initiation between the two investigations. BS was evaluated according to clinical routine and reported as no bone metastases (M0), bone metastases (M1), or equivocal (Me). The 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT was blindly evaluated by three specialists as M0, M1, or Me at the patient level. Sensitivity analyses were conducted using a "best valuable comparator" using all available imaging and clinical follow-up as a reference. RESULTS:In total, 112 patients were included; 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT showed a sensitivity of 1.00, specificity of 0.93-0.96, positive predictive value of 0.74-0.81, and negative predictive value of 1.00. 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT revealed bone metastases in 8 of 81 patients with M0 disease according to BS. 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT confirmed the presence of bone metastases in all patients (n = 9) with M1 disease according to BS. In patients with Me by BS, 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT provided a definite result in 20 of 22 patients. 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT resulted in a false-positive answer in four patients with solitary rib lesions. CONCLUSION:68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT revealed bone metastases in 10% of patients without bone metastases on BS and in 36% patients with indeterminate BS. However, solitary PSMA-avid lesions in the ribs should be interpreted cautiously as they may represent false-positive findings.
Project description:The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of [18F]FDG-PET/MRI with PET/CT for the detection of liver metastases.32 patients with solid malignancies underwent [18F]FDG-PET/CT and subsequent PET/MRI of the liver. Two readers assessed both datasets regarding lesion characterization (benign, indeterminate, malignant), conspicuity and diagnostic confidence. An imaging follow-up (mean interval: 185±92 days) and/-or histopathological specimen served as standards of reference. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for both modalities. Accuracy was determined by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Values of conspicuity and diagnostic confidence were compared using Wilcoxon-signed-rank test.The standard of reference revealed 113 liver lesions in 26 patients (malignant: n = 45; benign: n = 68). For PET/MRI a higher accuracy (PET/CT: 82.4%; PET/MRI: 96.1%; p<0.001) as well as sensitivity (67.8% vs. 92.2%, p<0.01) and NPV (82.0% vs. 95.1%, p<0.05) were observed. PET/MRI offered higher lesion conspicuity (PET/CT: 2.0±1.1 [median: 2; range 0-3]; PET/MRI: 2.8±0.5 [median: 3; range 0-3]; p<0.001) and diagnostic confidence (PET/CT: 2.0±0.8 [median: 2; range: 1-3]; PET/MRI 2.6±0.6 [median: 3; range: 1-3]; p<0.001). Furthermore, PET/MRI enabled the detection of additional PET-negative metastases (reader 1: 10; reader 2: 12).PET/MRI offers higher diagnostic accuracy compared to PET/CT for the detection of liver metastases.
Project description:The detection of occult bone metastases is a key factor in determining the management of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), especially when curative surgery is considered. This prospective study assessed the sensitivity of (18)F-labelled sodium fluoride in conjunction with positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-NaF PET/CT) for detecting RCC bone metastases, compared with conventional imaging by bone scintigraphy or CT.An adaptive two-stage trial design was utilized, which was stopped after the first stage due to statistical efficacy. Ten patients with stage IV RCC and bone metastases were imaged with (18)F-NaF PET/CT and (99m)Tc-labelled methylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP) bone scintigraphy including pelvic single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Images were reported independently by experienced radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians using a 5-point scoring system.Seventy-seven lesions were diagnosed as malignant: 100% were identified by (18)F-NaF PET/CT, 46% by CT and 29% by bone scintigraphy/SPECT. Standard-of-care imaging with CT and bone scintigraphy identified 65% of the metastases reported by (18)F-NaF PET/CT. On an individual patient basis, (18)F-NaF PET/CT detected more RCC metastases than (99m)Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy/SPECT or CT alone (P = 0.007). The metabolic volumes, mean and maximum standardized uptake values (SUV mean and SUV max) of the malignant lesions were significantly greater than those of the benign lesions (P < 0.001).(18)F-NaF PET/CT is significantly more sensitive at detecting RCC skeletal metastases than conventional bone scintigraphy or CT. The detection of occult bone metastases could greatly alter patient management, particularly in the context when standard-of-care imaging is negative for skeletal metastases.
Project description:The use of SPECT/CT in bone scans has been widespread in recent years, but there are no specific guidelines concerning the optimal acquisition protocol. Two strategies have been proposed: targeted SPECT/CT for equivocal lesions detected on planar images or systematic whole-body SPECT/CT. Our aim was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of the two approaches.212 consecutive patients with a history of cancer were referred for bone scans to detect bone metastases. Two experienced readers randomly evaluated for each patient either planar images with one-field SPECT/CT targeted on equivocal focal uptakes (targeted SPECT/CT) or a whole-body (two-field) SPECT/CT acquisition from the base of the skull to the proximal femurs (whole-body SPECT/CT). The exams were categorized as "nonmetastatic," "equivocal," or "metastatic" on both protocols. The presence or absence of any extra-axial skeletal lesions was also assessed. The sensitivity and specificity of both strategies were measured using the results of subsequent imaging follow-up as the reference standard.Whole-body SPECT/CT had a significantly higher sensitivity than targeted SPECT/CT to detect bone metastases (p = 0.0297) and to detect extra-axial metastases (p = 0.0266). There was no significant difference in specificity among the two approaches.Whole-body SPECT/CT is the optimal modality of choice for metastatic workup, including detection of extra-axial lesions, with improved sensitivity and similar specificity compared to targeted SPECT/CT.
Project description:Background:Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is the main component of bone mineral. The utility of using HAP-water decomposition technique with fast kilovoltage (KV)-switching dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) to detect abnormal edema in vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) has not been widely reported. Methods:A total of 31 consecutive patients with 80 VCFs who underwent DECT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine were retrospectively enrolled in our study between October 2018 and January 2019. VCFs in MR examinations served as the standard of reference. Two radiologists blindly and independently evaluated color-coded overlay virtual nonhydroxyapatite (VNHAP) images for the presence of abnormal edema. The inter-reader agreement, specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, and predictive values of VNHAP images for edema detection were calculated. The diagnostic accuracy of two readers was compared using McNemar's test. Two additional radiologists performed a quantitative analysis on VNHAP images, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was conducted, and the threshold was calculated. Results:MRI depicted 45 edematous and 35 nonedematous VCFs. For visual analysis, the VNHAP technique showed a sensitivity of 93.3%, a specificity of 97.1%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 97.7%, a negative predictive value (NPV) of 91.9%, and an accuracy of 95.0%. The inter-reader agreement was almost perfect (k=0.90). The diagnostic accuracy of the two readers showed no significant differences in the assessment of VNHAP images (P=1.00). Significant differences in CT numbers between vertebrae with and without bone marrow edema were found by quantitative analysis (P<0.01). The area under the curve (AUC) of the VNHAP images was estimated to be 0.917. The threshold of 1,003.2 mg/cm3 yielded a sensitivity of 88.9% and a specificity of 82.9% for the differentiation of fresh and old VCFs. Conclusions:Fast KV-switching DECT HAP-water decomposition technique had excellent diagnostic performance for identifying acute and chronic VCFs in visual and quantitative analyses.