Dynamic changes in circulating T follicular helper cell composition predict neutralising antibody responses after yellow fever vaccination.
ABSTRACT: Objectives:T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are the principal T helper cell subset that provides help to B cells for potent antibody responses against various pathogens. In this study, we took advantage of the live-attenuated yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccine strain, YF-17D, as a model system for studying human antiviral immune responses in vivo following exposure to an acute primary virus challenge under safe and highly controlled conditions, to comprehensively analyse the dynamics of circulating Tfh (cTfh) cells. Methods:We tracked and analysed the response of cTfh and other T and B cell subsets in peripheral blood of healthy volunteers by flow cytometry over the course of 4 weeks after YF-17D vaccination. Results:Using surface staining of cell activation markers to track YFV-specific T cells, we found increasing cTfh cell frequencies starting at day 3 and peaking around 2 weeks after YF-17D vaccination. This kinetic was confirmed in a subgroup of donors using MHC multimer staining for four known MHC class II epitopes of YF-17D. The subset composition of cTfh cells changed dynamically during the course of the immune response and was dominated by the cTfh1-polarised subpopulation. Importantly, frequencies of cTfh1 cells correlated with the strength of the neutralising antibody response, whereas frequencies of cTfh17 cells were inversely correlated. Conclusion:In summary, we describe detailed cTfh kinetics during YF-17D vaccination. Our results suggest that cTfh expansion and polarisation can serve as a prognostic marker for vaccine success. These insights may be leveraged in the future to improve current vaccine design and strategies.
Project description:Yellow fever virus (YFV)-17D is an empirically developed, highly effective live-attenuated vaccine that has been administered to human beings for almost a century. YFV-17D has stood as a paradigm for a successful viral vaccine, and has been exploited as a potential virus vector for the development of recombinant vaccines against other diseases. In this study, a DNA-launched YFV-17D construct (pBeloBAC-FLYF) was explored as a new modality to the standard vaccine to combine the commendable features of both DNA vaccine and live-attenuated viral vaccine. The DNA-launched YFV-17D construct was characterized extensively both in cell culture and in mice. High titres of YFV-17D were generated upon transfection of the DNA into cells, whereas a mutant with deletion in the capsid-coding region (pBeloBAC-YF/?C) was restricted to a single round of infection, with no release of progeny virus. Homologous prime-boost immunization of AAD mice with both pBeloBAC-FLYF and pBeloBAC-YF/?C elicited specific dose-dependent cellular immune response against YFV-17D. Vaccination of A129 mice with pBeloBAC-FLYF resulted in the induction of YFV-specific neutralizing antibodies in all vaccinated subjects. These promising results underlined the potential of the DNA-launched YFV both as an alternative to standard YFV-17D vaccination and as a vaccine platform for the development of DNA-based recombinant YFV vaccines.
Project description:Mass vaccination with the live attenuated vaccine YF-17D is the current way to prevent infection with Yellow fever virus (YFV). However, 0.000012-0.00002% of vaccinated patients develop post-vaccination neurological syndrome (YEL-AND). Understanding the factors responsible for neuroinvasion, neurotropism, and neurovirulence of the vaccine is critical for improving its biosafety. The YF-FNV vaccine strain, known to be associated with a higher frequency of YEL-AND (0.3-0.4%) than YF-17D, is an excellent model to study vaccine neuroinvasiveness. We determined that neuroinvasiveness of YF-FNV occured both via infection and passage through human brain endothelial cells. Plaque purification and next generation sequencing (NGS) identified several neuroinvasive variants. Their neuroinvasiveness was not higher than that of YF-FNV. However, rebuilding the YF-FNV population diversity from a set of isolated YF-FNV-N variants restored the original neuroinvasive phenotype of YF-FNV. Therefore, we conclude that viral population diversity is a critical factor for YFV vaccine neuroinvasiveness.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>An estimated 5-10 % of healthy vaccinees lack adequate antibody response following receipt of a standard three-dose hepatitis B vaccination regimen. The cellular mechanisms responsible for poor immunological responses to hepatitis B vaccine have not been fully elucidated to date.<h4>Methods</h4>There were 61 low responders and 56 hyper responders involved in our study. Peripheral blood samples were mainly collected at D7, D14 and D28 after revaccinated with a further dose of 20 µg of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine.<h4>Results</h4>We found low responders to the hepatitis B vaccine presented lower frequencies of circulating follicular helper T (cTfh) cells, plasmablasts and a profound skewing away from cTfh2 and cTfh17 cells both toward cTfh1 cells. Importantly, the skewing of Tfh cell subsets correlated with IL-21 and protective antibody titers. Based on the key role of microRNAs involved in Tfh cell differentiation, we revealed miR-19b-1 and miR-92a-1 correlated with the cTfh cell subsets distribution and antibody production.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our findings highlighted a decrease in cTfh cells and specific subset skewing contribute to reduced antibody responses in low responders.
Project description:The highly efficacious live-attenuated 17D yellow fever (YF) vaccine is occasionally associated with rare life-threatening adverse events. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), a non-replicating poxvirus, has been used as a vaccine platform to safely deliver various antigens. A MVA-based YF vaccine (MVA-BN-YF) was tested with and without a non-mineral oil adjuvant in a hamster model of lethal YF disease and protective efficacy of this vaccine was compared with the 17D vaccine. The vaccine candidate MVA-BN-YF generated a protective response in hamsters infected with YFV that was comparable to protection by the live 17D vaccine. Similar levels of neutralizing antibody were observed in animals vaccinated with either vaccine alone or vaccine with adjuvant. Significant improvement in survival, weight change, and serum alanine aminotransferase levels were observed in vaccinated hamsters when administered 42 and 14?days prior to challenge with Jimenez YF virus (YFV). Neutralizing antibodies induced by MVA-BN-YF were transferred to naïve hamsters prior to virus challenge. Passive administration of neutralizing antibody 24?h prior to virus infection resulted in significantly improved survival and weight change. A trend toward reduced liver enzyme levels was also observed. MVA-BN-YF, therefore, represents a safe alternative to vaccination with live-attenuated YFV.
Project description:The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas, followed by the yellow fever virus (YFV) outbreaks in Angola and Brazil highlight the urgent need for safe and efficient vaccines against the ZIKV as well as much greater production capacity for the YFV-17D vaccine. Given that the ZIKV and the YFV are largely prevalent in the same geographical areas, vaccines that would provide dual protection against both pathogens may obviously offer a significant benefit. We have recently engineered a chimeric vaccine candidate (YF-ZIKprM/E) by swapping the sequences encoding the YFV-17D surface glycoproteins prM/E by the corresponding sequences of the ZIKV. A single vaccine dose of YF-ZIKprM/E conferred complete protection against a lethal challenge with wild-type ZIKV strains. Surprisingly, this vaccine candidate also efficiently protected against lethal YFV challenge in various mouse models. We demonstrate that CD8<sup>+</sup> but not CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells, nor ZIKV neutralizing antibodies are required to confer protection against YFV. The chimeric YF-ZIKprM/E vaccine may thus be considered as a dual vaccine candidate efficiently protecting mice against both the ZIKV and the YFV, and this following a single dose immunization. Our finding may be particularly important in the rational design of vaccination strategies against flaviviruses, in particular in areas where YFV and ZIKV co-circulate.
Project description:T follicular helper (Tfh)-like cells with potent B-cell helping ability are mobilized into human circulation after parenteral vaccination and are generally held to reflect ongoing germinal center reactions. However, whether mucosal vaccination induces systemic Tfh responses and how such responses may relate to IgA production are unknown. We investigated the frequencies, phenotype and function of circulating Tfh-like CD4+CXCR5+ T cells (cTfh) in adults receiving an oral inactivated enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli vaccine. Subjects were classified as vaccine responders or weak/non-responders based on their intestine-derived antibody-secreting cell (ASC) IgA responses to major vaccine antigens. Oral immunization induced significantly increased proportions of cTfh cells expressing the cTfh activation marker inducible costimulator (ICOS) in ASC responders, but not in weak/non-responders. Vaccination also enhanced the expression of IL-21, Th17 markers and integrin ?7 by activated cTfh cells, supporting functionality and gut homing potential. cTfh cells promoted total and vaccine specific IgA production from cocultured B cells. Magnitudes of cTfh responses assessed within a week after primary vaccinations correlated with memory intestine-derived vaccine specific IgA responses 1-2 years later. We conclude that activated ICOS+ Tfh-like cells are mobilized into blood after oral vaccination and may be used as biomarkers of vaccine specific mucosal memory in humans.
Project description:Multiple perturbations of the immune response affecting a range of cells have been reported in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected individuals and associated to clinical manifestations of chronic Chagas disease. There is a paucity of knowledge about the role of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells in this infection. Here, we sought to characterize circulating Tfh (cTfh) cells in chronic Chagas disease patients and to identify potential associations with disease severity in humans. cTfh cells were characterized by flow cytometry in freshly isolated PBMCs from 7 T. cruzi-infected asymptomatic patients (ASYMP), 5 patients with chronic chagasic dilated cardiomyopathy (CCC) and 8 healthy controls, using antibodies against chemokine receptors CXCR5, CXCR3, CCR6, and CCR7. Our results showed significant expansion of CD4+CD45RO+CXCR5+CCR6+ cells in ASYMP and CCC patients, along with a contraction of CD4+CD45RO+CXCR5+CXCR3-CCR6- (cTfh2) cells. ASYMP patients further exhibited decreased CD4+CD45RO+CXCR5+CXCR3+CCR6- (cTfh1) cells and expanded CD4+CD45RO+CXCR5+CXCR3-CCR6+ (cTfh17) cells while CCC patients exhibited significantly increased frequencies of CD4+CD45RO+CXCR5+CCR7+ cells. Linear regression analysis revealed a positive trend of CD4+CD45RO+CXCR5+CXCR3+CCR6+ (cTfh1/17) cells and negative trends of cTfh1 and cTfh2 cells as disease was more severe. There was no correlation between the frequencies of cTfh cells and circulating CD19+IgD-IgG+ cells or serum levels of T. cruzi-specific IgG. These results demonstrate that the cTfh compartment of humans chronically infected with T. cruzi comprises expanded CCR6-expressing cells and reduced cTfh2 cells. The association of discrete phenotypic changes in cTfh subsets with different clinical forms suggests the potential contribution of T follicular helper cells to Chagas heart disease progression.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Defining the parameters that modulate vaccine responses in African populations will be imperative to design effective vaccines for protection against HIV, malaria, tuberculosis, and dengue virus infections. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of the patient-specific immune microenvironment to the response to the licensed yellow fever vaccine 17D (YF-17D) in an African cohort.<h4>Methods</h4>We compared responses to YF-17D in 50 volunteers in Entebbe, Uganda, and 50 volunteers in Lausanne, Switzerland. We measured the CD8+ T cell and B cell responses induced by YF-17D and correlated them with immune parameters analyzed by flow cytometry prior to vaccination.<h4>Results</h4>We showed that YF-17D-induced CD8+ T cell and B cell responses were substantially lower in immunized individuals from Entebbe compared with immunized individuals from Lausanne. The impaired vaccine response in the Entebbe cohort associated with reduced YF-17D replication. Prior to vaccination, we observed higher frequencies of exhausted and activated NK cells, differentiated T and B cell subsets and proinflammatory monocytes, suggesting an activated immune microenvironment in the Entebbe volunteers. Interestingly, activation of CD8+ T cells and B cells as well as proinflammatory monocytes at baseline negatively correlated with YF-17D-neutralizing antibody titers after vaccination. Additionally, memory T and B cell responses in preimmunized volunteers exhibited reduced persistence in the Entebbe cohort but were boosted by a second vaccination.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Together, these results demonstrate that an activated immune microenvironment prior to vaccination impedes efficacy of the YF-17D vaccine in an African cohort and suggest that vaccine regimens may need to be boosted in African populations to achieve efficient immunity.<h4>Trial registration</h4>Registration is not required for observational studies.<h4>Funding</h4>This study was funded by Canada's Global Health Research Initiative, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and United States Agency for International Development.
Project description:A single dose of the replication-competent, live-attenuated yellow fever virus (YFV) 17D vaccine provides lifelong immunity against human YFV infection. The magnitude, kinetics, and specificity of B cell responses to YFV 17D are relatively less understood than T cell responses. In this clinical study, we focused on early immune events critical for the development of humoral immunity to YFV 17D vaccination in 24 study subjects. More specifically, we studied the dynamics of several immune cell populations over time and the development of neutralizing Abs. At 7 d following vaccination, YFV RNA in serum as well as several antiviral proteins were detected as a sign of YFV 17D replication. Activation of Th1-polarized circulating T follicular helper cells followed germinal center activity, the latter assessed by the surrogate marker CXCL13 in serum. This coincided with a plasmablast expansion peaking at day 14 before returning to baseline levels at day 28. FluoroSpot-based analysis confirmed that plasmablasts were specific to the YFV-E protein. The frequencies of plasmablasts correlated with the magnitude of neutralizing Ab titers measured at day 90, suggesting that this transient B cell subset could be used as an early marker of induction of protective immunity. Additionally, YFV-specific memory B cells were readily detectable at 28 and 90 d following vaccination, and all study subjects tested developed protective neutralizing Ab titers. Taken together, these studies provide insights into key immune events leading to human B cell immunity following vaccination with the YFV 17D vaccine.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Currently existing yellow fever (YF) vaccines are based on the live attenuated yellow fever virus 17D strain (YFV-17D). Although, a good safety profile was historically attributed to the 17D vaccine, serious adverse events have been reported, making the development of a safer, more modern vaccine desirable. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A gene encoding the precursor of the membrane and envelope (prME) protein of the YFV-17D strain was inserted into the non-replicating modified vaccinia virus Ankara and into the D4R-defective vaccinia virus. Candidate vaccines based on the recombinant vaccinia viruses were assessed for immunogenicity and protection in a mouse model and compared to the commercial YFV-17D vaccine. The recombinant live vaccines induced γ-interferon-secreting CD4- and functionally active CD8-T cells, and conferred full protection against lethal challenge already after a single low immunization dose of 10(5) TCID(50). Surprisingly, pre-existing immunity against wild-type vaccinia virus did not negatively influence protection. Unlike the classical 17D vaccine, the vaccinia virus-based vaccines did not cause mortality following intracerebral administration in mice, demonstrating better safety profiles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The non-replicating recombinant YF candidate live vaccines induced a broad immune response after single dose administration, were effective even in the presence of a pre-existing immunity against vaccinia virus and demonstrated an excellent safety profile in mice.