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Characterization of Ginkgo biloba Leaf Flavonoids as Neuroexocytosis Regulators.

ABSTRACT: Ginkgo biloba leaf (GBL) is known as a potential source of bioactive flavonoids, such as quercetin, arresting the neuronal soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE)-zippering. Here, the GBL flavonoids were isolated in two different manners and then examined for their bioactivity, physicochemical stability, and biocompatibility. The majority of flavonoids in the non-hydrolyzed and acidolyzed isolates, termed non-hydrolyzed isolate (NI) and acidolyzed isolate (AI) hereafter, were rich in flavonol glycosides and aglycones, respectively. Glycosidic/aglyconic quercetin and kaempferol were abundant in both NI and AI, whereas a little of apigenin, luteolin, and isorhamnetin were found in AI. NI was more thermostable in all pH ranges than quercetin, kaempferol, and AI. NI and AI both inhibited neurotransmitter release from differentiated neuronal PC-12 cells. NI and AI showed 1/2-1/3 lower EC50/CC50 values than quercetin and kaempferol. The NI and AI exhibited no toxicity assessed by the tests on chorioallantoic membranes of hen's eggs, removing toxicological concerns of irritation potential. Moreover, GBL isolates, particularly AI, showed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in the use below the CC50 levels. Taken together, these results suggest that GBL isolates that are rich in antioxidant flavonoids are effective anti-neuroexocytotic agents with high stability and low toxicity.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC7221681 | BioStudies | 2020-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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