Prevalence and sociodemographic determinants of dyspepsia in the general population of Rwanda.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Dyspepsia accounts for a significant burden of worldwide disease, but there is a relative paucity of data from the sub-Saharan African setting. We undertook to describe the burden, risk factors and severity of dyspepsia across Rwanda. METHODS:We performed a population-based clustered cross-sectional survey between November 2015 and January 2016, nationwide in Rwanda, using the Short Form Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire to describe the presence and severity of dyspepsia, and the Short Form Nepean Dyspepsia Index to describe the concomitant quality of life effects. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to correlate measured sociodemographic factors with dyspepsia. RESULTS:The prevalence of clinically significant dyspepsia in the general Rwandan population was 14.2% (283/2000). The univariate factors that significantly predicted severity were gender, profession, socioeconomic status, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, aspirin and alcohol use, with gender, current smoking, aspirin use both in the past and currently, and alcohol use in the past remaining significant on multivariate modelling. Dyspeptics had a significantly lower gastrointestinal-related quality of life, though the sociodemographic factors measured did not modify the observed quality of life. CONCLUSION:Dyspepsia is prevalent in the Rwandan setting and is associated with a significant burden on quality of life. More work is required to determine the pathological entities involved, and the optimal approach to mitigating this burden.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Numerous studies examining the prevalence and natural history of dyspepsia in the general population have been conducted. However, few have reported the effect of quality of life on the development of dyspepsia. A 10-year longitudinal follow-up study examining the effect of quality of life on subsequent dyspepsia was performed. METHODS: Individuals originally enrolled in a population-screening programme for Helicobacter pylori were contacted through a validated postal dyspepsia questionnaire. Baseline demographic data, quality of life at original study entry, and dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptom data were already on file. Consent to examine primary-care records was sought, and data regarding non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and aspirin use were obtained from these. RESULTS: Of 8407 individuals originally involved, 3912 (46.5%) provided symptom data at baseline and 10-year follow-up. Of 2550 (65%) individuals asymptomatic at study entry, 717 (28%) developed new-onset dyspepsia at 10 years, an incidence of 2.8% per year. After multivariate logistic regression, lower quality of life at study entry (OR 2.63; 99% CI 1.86 to 3.71), higher body mass index (OR per unit 1.05; 99% CI 1.02 to 1.08), presence of IBS at study entry (OR 3.1; 99% CI 1.51 to 6.37) and use of NSAIDs and/or aspirin (OR 1.32; 99% CI 0.99 to 1.75) were significant risk factors for new-onset dyspepsia. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of new-onset dyspepsia was almost 3% per year. Low quality of life at baseline exerted a strong effect on the likelihood of developing dyspepsia at 10 years.
Project description:Background:Knowledge of and coping with diabetes is still poor in some communities in Rwanda. While smartphone applications (or apps) have demonstrated improving diabetes self-care, there is no current study on the use of smartphones in the self-management of diabetes in Rwanda. Methods:The main objective of this study was to assess the needs and expectations of Rwandan diabetic patients for mobile-health-supported diabetes self-management in order to develop a patient-centred smartphone application (Kir'App). Results:Convenience sampling was used to recruit study participants at the Rwanda Diabetes Association. Twenty-one patients participated in semi-structured, in-depth, face-to-face interviews. Thematic analysis was performed using Mayring's method of qualitative content analysis. Conclusions:The study included 21 participants with either type 1 (female = 5, male = 6) or type 2 (female = 6, male = 4) diabetes. Participants' age ranged from 18 to 69?years with a mean age of 35 and 29?years, respectively. Eight main themes were identified. These were (a) diabetes education and desired information provision; (b) lack of diabetes knowledge and awareness; (c) need for information in crisis situations; (d) required monitoring and reminder functions; (e) information on nutrition and alcohol consumption; (f) information on physical activity; (g) coping with burden of disease, through social support and network; (h) app features. This study provides recommendations that will be used to design the features of the first Rwandan diabetes self-management smartphone application (Kir'App). The future impact of the application on the Rwandan diabetic patients' self-management capacity and quality of life will be evaluated afterwards.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Perinatal depression and anxiety are increasingly recognized as important public health issues in low and middle-income countries such as Rwanda and may have negative consequences for both mothers and their infants. Maternal mental health may be particularly challenged in Rwanda because of the prevalence of risk factors such as poverty, low education levels, negative life events and marital problems. However, there are limited data about perinatal depression and anxiety symptoms in Rwanda. This study thus aimed to explore the prevalence of symptoms of perinatal depression and anxiety in Rwanda, and factors associated with them. METHODS:A sample of 165 women in the perinatal period (second and third trimester of pregnancy, up to 1 year postnatal) were interviewed individually over 1 month in October 2013. Women were interviewed at 5 of 14 health centres in the Eastern Province or the affiliated district hospital. Participants answered socio-demographic questions and scales measuring symptoms of perinatal depression (EPDS: Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) and anxiety (SAS: Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale). RESULTS:Among women in the antenatal period (N?=?85), 37.6% had symptoms indicating possible depression (EPDS ?10) and 28.2% had symptoms associated with clinical levels of anxiety (SAS?>?45). Among women within the postnatal period (N?=?77), 63.6% had symptoms of possible depression, whereas 48,1% had symptoms of probable anxiety. Logistic regression showed that symptoms of postnatal depression were higher for respondents who had four or more living children relative to those having their first child (Odds Ratio: 0.07, C.I. = 0.01-0.42), and for those with a poor relationship with their partner (Odds Ratio: .09, C.I. =0.03-0.25). Any lifetime exposure to stressful events was the only predictor of symptoms of postnatal anxiety (Odds Ratio?=?0.20, C.I. = 0.09-0.44). CONCLUSIONS:Symptoms of postnatal depression and anxiety were prevalent in this Rwandan sample and most strongly predicted by interpersonal and social factors, suggesting that social interventions may be a successful strategy to protect against maternal mental health problems in the Rwandan context.
Project description:Introduction:Most drugs, fluids and ventilator settings depend on the weight of a paediatric patient. However, knowledge of the weight is often unavailable as the urgency of the situation may impede measurement. The most common methods for paediatric weight estimation are based on height or age. This study aimed to compare the accuracy of various weight estimation methods and to derive a dedicated age-based tool within a Rwandan setting. Methods:This was a retrospective study using age, weight and height data from randomly selected charts of Rwandan children, aged between one and ten years, who attended the paediatric emergency centre, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Kigali, Rwanda. Weights were estimated using four versions of the Broselow Tape and several age-based formulae. Linear regression was used to derive a new age-based weight estimation formula, the Rwanda Rule. Weight estimations were then compared with actual weight using Bland-Altman analysis, and the proportions of estimates within 10 and 20% of actual weight. Results:There were 327 children included in the study. The derived Rwanda Rule was: weight (kg)?=?[1.7?×?age (years)]?+?8. This formula and the original Advanced Paediatric Life Support formula (weight?=?[2?×?age]?+?8) performed similarly. Both were better than other age-based formulae (69% of estimates within 20% of actual weight). All editions of the Broselow Tape performed better than age-based rules. The 1998 version performed best with 84.8% of estimates within 20% of actual weight. Discussion:This study is the first to compare paediatric weight estimation methods in Rwanda. Locally, and until we have evidence from further research that other methods are superior, we would advise use of the 1998 Broselow Tape in children aged one to ten years old. Where the Broselow Tape is not available, the original Advanced Paediatric Life Support formula should be used.
Project description:Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) assessment is important for patients with functional dyspepsia. However, no studies have assessed factors associated with HRQoL reduction in such patients in an Asian population. This study aimed to determine the contribution of clinical, psychosocial, and demographic factors to HRQoL in affected patients in Indonesia.In a cross-sectional study, we recruited 124 patients in a tertiary hospital with functional dyspepsia according to Rome III criteria. HRQoL was measured using the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 (SF-36) physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) and compared with 2009 United States population norms. The factors investigated were age, gender, symptom severity, education level, employment status, anxiety, depression, and ethnicity. Factors associated with reduced HRQoL were identified using linear regression analysis.All domains of HRQoL except vitality were impaired in patients with functional dyspepsia. The mean PCS was 42.3 (SD?=?8.4); and the mean MCS was 47.8 (SD?=?10). Increasing age (p?=?0.002), female gender (p?=?0.006), low-to-mid education level (p?=?0.015) and greater symptom severity (p?<?0.001) were significantly associated with impaired PCS (R2?=?0.36). Female gender (p?=?0.047), greater symptom severity (p?=?0.002), anxiety (p?=?0.001), and depression (p?=?0.002 were all significantly associated with an impaired MCS (R2?=?0.41). There were no significant associations between HRQoL and with ethnic group (Javanese/non-Javanese) or employment status.There was significant HRQoL impairment in these patients with functional dyspepsia in Indonesia. Anxiety, depression, increasing age, female gender, greater symptom severity, and low-to-mid education level were significant factors associated with low HRQoL. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03321383 . Registered 18 October 2017 retrospectively registered.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Most patients diagnosed with diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) present with poorly controlled blood glucose, which is associated with increased risks of complications and greater financial burden on both the patients and health systems. Insulin-dependent patients with diabetes in SSA lack appropriate home-based monitoring technology to inform themselves and clinicians of the daily fluctuations in blood glucose. Without sufficient home-based data, insulin adjustments are not data driven and adopting individual behavioural change for glucose control in SSA does not have a systematic path towards improvement. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This study explores the feasibility and impact of implementing self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in patients with type 2 diabetes in rural Rwandan districts. This is an open randomised controlled trial comprising of two arms: (1) Intervention group-participants will receive a glucose metre, blood test strips, logbook, waste management box and training on how to conduct SMBG in additional to usual care and (2) Control group-participants will receive usual care, comprising of clinical consultations and routine monthly follow-up. We will conduct qualitative interviews at enrolment and at the end of the study to assess knowledge of diabetes. At the end of the study period, we will interview clinicians and participants to assess the perceived usefulness, facilitators and barriers of SMBG. The primary outcomes are change in haemoglobin A1c, fidelity to SMBG protocol by patients, appropriateness and adverse effects resulting from SMBG. Secondary outcomes include reliability and acceptability of SMBG and change in the quality of life of the participants. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:This study has been approved by the Rwanda National Ethics Committee (Kigali, Rwanda No.102/RNEC/2018). We will disseminate the findings of this study through presentations within our study settings, scientific conferences and publication in a peer-reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:PACTR201905538846394; pre-results.
Project description:Better understanding of atopic dermatitis' effect on quality of life could enhance current management and therapeutic strategies. Studies investigating factors related to the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of children with atopic dermatitis and their caregivers are limited. This cross-sectional study included 559 children (<16 years) with atopic dermatitis and their caregivers. Disease severity was associated with infants' HRQOL (moderate: IRR: 1.42, 95% CI 1.20-1.67; severe: IRR: 1.72, 95% CI 1.32-2.24). Age and disease severity were associated with children's HRQOL (age: IRR: 0.99, 95% CI 0.98-1.00; moderate: IRR: 1.08, 95% CI 1.02-1.14). Quality of life subdomains itching/scratching, emotional distress and sleep disturbance were most reported and increased with higher disease severity. Both caregivers' mental and physical health were negatively affected by children's HRQOL (physical: IRR: 0.99, 95% CI 0.99-1.00; mental: IRR: 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99). Sociodemographic characteristics (gender, ethnicity, educational attainment of carers, number of children) did not demonstrate significance in children's HRQOL model. In conclusion, current atopic dermatitis diagnostics and treatment have to be extended to the factors influencing both children' as their caregivers' quality of life and adapting management accordingly. Itching/scratching, emotional distress and sleep disturbance deserve attention. Sociodemographic characteristics in children's HRQOL models also merit attention in further research.
Project description:Chronic subjective tinnitus is a frequent condition that affects the subject's quality of life. The lack of objective measures of tinnitus necessitates the use of self-reporting and often time-consuming questionnaires for evaluating tinnitus severity. The Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure (PRISM) is a two dimensional pictorial method to assess the burden of suffering. Patients illustrate their burden of suffering by the distance from a "self" to an illness circle, whereby a shorter distance indicates a higher burden of suffering. The aim of this prospective observational study was to validate the burden of suffering measured with PRISM in tinnitus patients by comparing it with different standardized questionnaires currently used in tinnitus evaluation.A total of 188 patients filled out an online-based survey including sociodemographic variables and the following questionnaires: Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ), WHO Quality of Life-Questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The subtle differences in the burden of suffering were accessed by using PRISM as an iPad version. Based on PRISM performance patients could easily be assigned in three groups, these being mildly, moderately, or severely affected akin to the standard questionnaires.The burden of suffering measured with PRISM correlated with the tinnitus severity (THI and TQ), depressive symptoms (BDI), and health related quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) (all p ? 0.001). In the three PRISM groups tinnitus severity (THI and TQ), and depressive symptoms (BDI) differed significantly (all p ? 0.01).PRISM is an easily understood and time saving method for the assessment of burden of suffering in tinnitus patients. In daily clinical practice PRISM can help to identify patients with decompensated tinnitus that require more intensive treatment.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:High-quality evidence of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness is rarely available and relevant for health policy decisions in low-resource settings. In such situations, innovative approaches are needed to generate locally relevant evidence. This study aims to inform decision-making on antenatal care (ANC) recommendations in Rwanda by estimating the incremental cost-effectiveness of the recent (2016) WHO antenatal care recommendations compared to current practice in Rwanda. METHODS:Two health outcome scenarios (optimistic, pessimistic) in terms of expected maternal and perinatal mortality reduction were constructed using expert elicitation with gynaecologists/obstetricians currently practicing in Rwanda. Three costing scenarios were constructed from the societal perspective over a 1-year period. The two main inputs to the cost analyses were a Monte Carlo simulation of the distribution of ANC attendance for a hypothetical cohort of 373,679 women and unit cost estimation of the new recommendations using data from a recent primary costing study of current ANC practice in Rwanda. Results were reported in 2015 USD and compared with the 2015 Rwandan per-capita gross domestic product (US$ 697). RESULTS:Incremental health gains were estimated as 162,509 life-years saved (LYS) in the optimistic scenario and 65,366 LYS in the pessimistic scenario. Incremental cost ranged between $5.8 and $11 million (an increase of 42% and 79%, respectively, compared to current practice) across the costing scenarios. In the optimistic outcome scenario, incremental cost per LYS ranged between $36 (for low ANC attendance) and $67 (high ANC attendance), while in the pessimistic outcome scenario, it ranged between $90 (low ANC attendance) and $168 (high ANC attendance) per LYS. Incremental cost effectiveness was below the GDP-based thresholds in all six scenarios. DISCUSSION:Implementing the new WHO ANC recommendations in Rwanda would likely be very cost-effective; however, the additional resource requirements are substantial. This study demonstrates how expert elicitation combined with other data can provide an affordable source of locally relevant evidence for health policy decisions in low-resource settings.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Poor-quality care contributes to a significant portion of neonatal deaths globally. The All Babies Count (ABC) initiative was an 18-month district-wide approach designed to improve clinical and system performance across 2 rural Rwandan districts. METHODS:This pre-post intervention study measured change in maternal and newborn health (MNH) quality of care and neonatal mortality. Data from the facility and community health management information system and newly introduced indicators were extracted from facility registers. Medians and interquartile ranges were calculated for the health facility to assess changes over time, and a mixed-effects logistic regression model was created for neonatal mortality. A difference-in-differences analysis was conducted to compare the change in district neonatal mortality with the rest of rural Rwanda. RESULTS:Improvements were seen in multiple measures of facility readiness and MNH quality of care, including antenatal care coverage, preterm labor management, and postnatal care quality. District hospital case fatality decreased, with a statistically significant reduction in district neonatal mortality (odds ratio [OR]=0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.36, 0.83) and among preterm/low birth weight neonates (OR=0.47; 95% CI=0.25, 0.90). Neonatal mortality was reduced from 30.1 to 19.6 deaths/1,000 live births in the intervention districts and remained relatively stable in the rest of rural Rwanda (difference in differences -12.9). CONCLUSION:The ABC initiative contributed to improved MNH quality of care and outcomes in rural Rwanda. A combined clinical and health system improvement approach could be an effective strategy to improve quality and reduce neonatal mortality.