An extensive field study reveals the circulation of new genetic variants of subtype 1a of bovine viral diarrhea virus in Uruguay.
ABSTRACT: Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a major pathogen worldwide, causing significant economic losses to the livestock sector. In Uruguay, BVDV seroprevalence at the farm level is >80%. In this work, 2546 serum, blood or tissue samples collected from animals suspected of being affected by BVD between 2015 and 2017 were analyzed by reverse transcription PCR and sequencing. Analysis of the BVDV genomic regions 5'UTR/Npro, Npro and E2 revealed that BVDV-1a, 1i and 2b circulate in the country, with BVDV-1a being the most prevalent subtype. Population dynamics studies revealed that BVDV-1a has been circulating in our herds since ~1990. This subtype began to spread and evolve, accumulating point mutations at a rate of 3.48 × 10-3 substitutions/site/year, acquiring specific genetic characteristics that gave rise to two local genetic lineages of BVDV-1a. These lineages are divergent from those circulating worldwide, as well as the vaccine strain currently used in Uruguay. The most notable differences between field and vaccine strains were found in the E2 glycoprotein, suggesting that the amino acid substitutions could result in failure of cross-protection/neutralization after vaccination. This is the first study that compares Uruguayan BVDV field and vaccine strains with other BVDV strains from throughout the world. The results obtained in this study will be very useful for developing a suitable immunization program for BVDV in Uruguay by identifying local field strains as candidates for vaccine development.
Project description:Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus which infects cattle populations worldwide and is recognised as a significant source of economic loss through its impact on health and productivity. Studies investigating the molecular epidemiology of BVDV can give invaluable information about the diversity of viral strains present in a population and this, in turn, can inform control programs, drive vaccine development and determine likely infection sources. The current study investigated 104 viral isolates from forty farms across the UK. Through phylogenetic and nucleotide sequence analysis of the 5'UTR and Npro regions of the isolates investigated, it was determined that BVDV 1a was the predominant sub-genotype. However, BVDV 1b, 1e and 1i were also identified and, for the first time in the UK, BVDV 1d. Through analysis of animal movement data alongside the phylogenetic analysis of these BVD isolates, it was possible to link animal movements to the viral isolates present on several premises and, for the first time, begin to elucidate the routes of viral transmission. With further work, this type of analysis would enable accurate determination and quantification of the true biosecurity risk factors associated with BVDV transmission.
Project description:Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) is an important pathogen that plays a significant role in initiating Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex (BRDC) in cattle. The disease causes multi-billion dollar losses globally due to high calf mortality and increased morbidity leading to heavy use of antibiotics. Current commercial vaccines provide limited cross-protection with several drawbacks such as safety, immunosuppression, potential reversion to virulence, and induction of neonatal pancytopenia. This study evaluates two prototype vaccines containing multiple rationally designed recombinant mosaic BVDV antigens for their potential to confer cross-protection against diverse BVDV strains. Genes encoding three novel mosaic antigens, designated E2<sup>123</sup>, NS2-3<sup>1</sup>, and NS2-3<sup>2</sup>, were designed <i>in silico</i> and expressed in mammalian cells for the formulation of a prototype protein-based vaccine. The mosaic antigens contain highly conserved protective epitopes from BVDV-1a, -1b, and -2, and included unique neutralizing epitopes from disparate strains to broaden coverage. We tested immunogenicity and protective efficacy of Expi293<sup>TM</sup>-expressed mosaic antigens (293F-E2<sup>123</sup>, 293F-NS2-3<sup>1</sup>, and 293F-NS2-3<sup>2</sup>), and baculovirus-expressed E2<sup>123</sup> (Bac-E2<sup>123</sup>) mosaic antigen in calves. The Expi293<sup>TM</sup>-expressed antigen cocktail induced robust BVDV-specific cross-reactive IFN-? responses, broadly neutralizing antibodies, and following challenge with a BVDV-1b strain, the calves had significantly (<i>p</i> < 0.05) reduced viremia and clinical BVD disease compared to the calves vaccinated with a commercial killed vaccine. The Bac-E2<sup>123</sup> antigen was not as effective as the Expi293<sup>TM</sup>-expressed antigen cocktail, but it protected calves from BVD disease better than the commercial killed vaccine. The findings support feasibility for development of a broadly protective subunit BVDV vaccine for safe and effective management of BRD.
Project description:In our previous study, we genetically analyzed bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDVs) isolated from 2000 to 2006 in Japan and reported that subgenotype 1b viruses were predominant. In the present study, 766 BVDVs isolated from 2006 to 2014 in Hokkaido, Japan, were genetically analyzed to understand recent epidemics. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequences of the 5'-untranslated region of viral genome revealed that 766 isolates were classified as genotype 1 (BVDV-1; 544 isolates) and genotype 2 (BVDV-2; 222). BVDV-1 isolates were further divided into BVDV-1a (93), 1b (371) and 1c (80) subgenotypes, and all BVDV-2 isolates were grouped into BVDV-2a subgenotype (222). Further comparative analysis was performed with BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a viruses isolated from 2001 to 2014. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequences of the viral glycoprotein E2 gene, a major target of neutralizing antibodies, revealed that BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a isolates were further classified into several clusters. Cross-neutralization tests showed that BVDV-1b isolates were antigenically different from BVDV-1a isolates, and almost BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a isolates were antigenically similar among each subgenotype and each E2 cluster. Taken together, BVDV-1b viruses are still predominant, and BVDV-2a viruses have increased recently in Hokkaido, Japan. Field isolates of BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a show genetic diversity on the E2 gene with antigenic conservation among each subgenotype during the last 14 years.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus causes significant economic losses in cattle. BVDV has high genomic diversity, with two species, BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, and at least twenty-one subgenotypes for BVDV-1 and four subgenotypes for BVDV-2. Vaccines are important tools to reduce the economic losses caused by this virus. However, vaccine strains must correspond to the antigenic profile of the viruses present in the region where the vaccine is applied. A restricted phylogenetic study with 14 viruses isolated from cattle between 1993 and 2001 showed that the genetic profile of BVDV in Chile consisted of viruses of both species and sub-genotypes 1a, 1b, 1c (currently 1j) and 2a. To determine more accurately the genetic profile of BVDV in Chile, in this study a larger number of viruses obtained from bovines between 2003 and 2007 were typed. RESULTS:The study was performed using partial sequences from the 5' noncoding region (5'UTR) and E2 coding region of the viral genome of thirty-five Chilean viruses isolated from geographic regions that have 84.6% of the Chilean cattle. All tested viruses belonged to species BVDV-1. Eighteen viruses belonged to BVDV-1j subgenotype (51.4%), twelve belonged to BVDV-1b (34.3%) and five belonged to BVDV-1a (14.3%). The Chilean BVDV-1j viruses showed low genetic diversity, both among themselves and with the BVDV-1j present in other regions of the world. This could be explained by a relatively recent introduction of this viral subgenotype in cattle, which agrees with its low geographical distribution worldwide. Otherwise, Chilean BVDV-1b viruses grouped into a single cluster, different even than the viruses present in Argentina and Brazil, countries geographically close to Chile, a process of local evolution that could generate antigenic differences between the Chilean viruses and the viruses used as vaccine strains. CONCLUSIONS:The high presence of viruses of the BVDV-1j subgenotype, which show major antigenic differences with BVDV-1a and BVDV-1b subgenotypes used in the commercial vaccines, suggest that BVDV-1j viruses could be an emergent subgenotype of BVDV in cattle in South America and suggest evaluating an update of the vaccines used in Chile.
Project description:Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, Pestivirus) causes significant economic losses to the livestock industry worldwide. Although serological surveys show that BVDV exposure is widespread in cattle in Uruguay, BVDV-associated diseases are greatly underreported. The aim of this work is to describe the epidemiological, clinical, pathological, and virological findings from spontaneous outbreaks of BVDV-associated diseases in cattle in Uruguay. Diagnostic investigations were performed during 6 spontaneous disease outbreaks on beef and dairy cattle farms in the departments of Colonia, Rio Negro, and Soriano between November 2016 and April 2018. Carcasses of 8 naturally deceased cattle from these outbreaks were necropsied and subjected to histological examination and immunohistochemistry to detect BVDV antigen in the tissues. Reverse transcription real-time PCR and genomic sequencing were also performed to identify BVDV at the species and subtype levels. Other ancillary diagnostic tests, including bacterial cultures, were performed on a case-by-case basis to rule in/out differential diagnoses based on initial clinicopathological presumptive diagnoses. BVDV-associated conditions that were diagnosed in the 8 cases included mucosal disease, transient postnatal BVDV infections associated with digestive/septicemic salmonellosis by Salmonella serovar typhimurium, Histophilus somni bronchopneumonia, urinary tract coinfections with Escherichia coli and Streptococcus sp., enteric coinfection with coccidia, and transplacental fetal infections and abortions with Neospora caninum coinfection. BVDV-1a and BVDV-2b were each identified in four of the eight cases. We conclude that BVDV-1a and BVDV-2b contribute significantly to disease and mortality in cattle in Uruguay. Future research should estimate the economic impact of BVDV in the Uruguayan livestock sector.
Project description:Unique to pestiviruses, the N-terminal protein encoded by the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) genome is a cysteine protease (Npro) responsible for a self-cleavage that releases the N terminus of the core protein (C). This unique protease is dispensable for viral replication, and its coding region can be replaced by a ubiquitin gene directly fused in frame to the core. To develop an antiviral assay that allows the assessment of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protease inhibitors, a chimeric BVDV in which the coding region of Npro was replaced by that of an NS4A cofactor-tethered HCV NS3 protease domain was generated. This cofactor-tethered HCV protease domain was linked in frame to the core protein of BVDV through an HCV NS5A-NS5B junction site and mimicked the proteolytic function of Npro in the release of BVDV core for capsid assembly. A similar chimeric construct was built with an inactive HCV NS3 protease to serve as a control. Genomic RNA transcripts derived from both chimeric clones, P(H/B) (wild-type HCV NS3 protease) and P(H/B(S139A)) (mutant HCV NS3 protease) were then transfected into bovine cells (MDBK). Only the RNA transcripts from the P(H/B) clone yielded viable viruses, whereas the mutant clone, P(H/B(S139A)), failed to produce any signs of infection, suggesting that the unprocessed fusion protein rendered the BVDV core protein defective in capsid assembly. Like the wild-type BVDV (NADL), the chimeric virus was cytopathic and formed plaques on the cell monolayer. Sequence and biochemical analyses confirmed the identity of the chimeric virus and further revealed variant viruses due to growth adaptation. Growth analysis revealed comparable replication kinetics between the wild-type and the chimeric BVDVs. Finally, to assess the genetic stability of the chimeric virus, an Npro-null BVDV (BVDV-Npro in which the entire Npro coding region was deleted) was produced. Although cytopathic, BVDV-Npro was highly defective in viral replication and growth, a finding consistent with the observed stability of the chimeric virus after serial passages.
Project description:The innate immune response is a vital part of the body's antiviral defense system. The innate immune response is initiated by various receptor interactions, including danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). The S100A9 is a member of the DAMPs protein family and, is released by activated phagocytic cells such as neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages or endothelial cells, and S100A9 induces its effect through TLR4/MyD88 pathway. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the major devastating disease in the cattle industry worldwide. It shows its effect through immunosuppression and develops persistent infection in calves born from infected cows. The current study revealed that BVDV potentially induced immunosuppression by the interaction of BVDV Npro protein with cellular S100A9 protein. The Inhibition of S100A9 protein expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) enhanced the virus replication in infected cells. Overexpression of bovine S100A9 enhanced the ncpBVDV2a 1373 mediated Type-I interferon production. A co-immunoprecipitation experiment demonstrated a strong interaction between ncp BVDV2a 1373 Npro protein and cellular S100A9 protein. This suggested that BVDV Npro reduced the S100A9 protein availability/activity in infected cells, resulting in reduced Type-I interferon production. A further study of S100A9-BVDV interaction will be need for better understanding of BVDV pathophysiology.
Project description:Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV), currently classified as pestivirus K, causes congenital tremor (CT) type A-II in piglets. Eighteen APPV strains were identified from 2297 South Korean wild boars captured in 2019. Phylogenetic analysis of the structural protein E2 and nonstructural proteins NS3 and Npro classified the APPV viruses, including reference strains, into Clades I, II and III. Clade I was divided into four subclades; however, the strains belonging to the four subclades differed slightly, depending on the tree analysis, the NS3, E2, and Npro genes. The maximum-likelihood method was assigned to South Korean wild boar APPV strains to various subclades within the three trees: subclades I.1 and I.2 in the E2 tree, subclade I.1 in the Npro tree, and subclades I.1 and I.4 in the NS3 ML tree. In conclusion, APPV among South Korean wild boars belonging to Clade I may be circulating at a higher level than among the South Korean domestic pig populations.
Project description:Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2 are members of the Pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. This genus also includes the HoBi-like virus, tentatively classified as BVDV type 3. BVDV-1 is widely distributed in Italy despite the extensive use of BVDV-1-based vaccines, while BVDV-2 and HoBi-like Pestivirus have been detected occasionally. Monitoring the occurrence of sporadic or atypical pestiviruses is a useful approach to evaluate the need for additional vaccine strains that can be used in BVDV control programs.In this study we developed a multiwell antibody ELISA based on the recombinant E2 protein of the three bovine pestiviruses. We evaluated the assay's applicability for surveillance purposes using pooled milk samples, each prepared from a maximum of 35 lactating cows and collected from 176 dairy herds. As expected, the majority of the pooled samples reacted to a greater extent against the BVDV-1 E2 antigen. All three milk pools from a single farm reacted to the BVDV-2 antigen, however. Further analysis using spot tests, antigen detection, and sequence analysis of the 5'-UTR region confirmed the presence of five persistently infected calves carrying a BVDV-2a strain.This study highlights for the first time that sporadic circulation of BVDV-2 can be predicted by immunoenzymatic methods in the absence of specific vaccination.
Project description:Diarrhea is one of the most important bovine diseases. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are the major causes of diarrhea in calves and cattle. ETEC expressing K99 (F5) fimbriae and heat-stable type Ia (STa) toxin are the leading bacteria causing calf diarrhea, and BVDV causes diarrhea and other clinical illnesses in cattle of all ages. It is reported that maternal immunization with K99 fimbrial antigens provides passive protection to calves against K99 fimbrial ETEC and that BVDV major structural protein E2 elicits antibodies neutralizing against BVDV viral infection. Vaccines inducing anti-K99 and anti-STa immunity would protect calves more effectively against ETEC diarrhea, and those also inducing anti-E2 neutralizing antibodies would protect calves and cattle against diarrhea caused by both ETEC and BVDV. In this study, we used the ETEC K99 major subunit FanC as a backbone, genetically embedded the STa toxoid STaP12F and the most-antigenic B-cell epitope and T-cell epitope predicted from the BVDV E2 glycoprotein into FanC for the multivalent antigen FanC-STa-E2, and examined immunogenicity of this multivalent antigen to assess vaccine potential against bovine diarrhea. Mice intraperitoneally (i.p.) immunized with this multivalent antigen developed anti-K99, anti-STa, and anti-BVDV antibodies. Moreover, elicited antibodies showed neutralization activities, as they inhibited adherence of K99 fimbrial E. coli, neutralized STa toxin, and prevented homologous BVDV viral infection in vitro. Results from this study suggest that this multiepitope fusion antigen can potentially be developed as a vaccine for broad protection against bovine diarrhea and that the multiepitope fusion strategy may be generally applied for multivalent vaccine development against heterogeneous pathogens.